Therapeutic Actions Fasting/Caloric Restriction

NCBI pubmed

Culture-facilitated Comparative Genomics of the Facultative Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa.

Related Articles Culture-facilitated Comparative Genomics of the Facultative Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Genome Biol Evol. 2018 Feb 14;: Authors: Chevignon G, Boyd BM, Brandt JW, Oliver KM, Strand MR Abstract Many insects host facultative, bacterial symbionts that confer conditional fitness benefits to their hosts. Hamiltonella defensa is a common facultative symbiont of aphids that provides protection against parasitoid wasps. Protection levels vary among strains of H. defensa that are also differentially infected by bacteriophages named APSEs. However, little is known about trait variation among strains because only one isolate has been fully sequenced. Generating complete genomes for facultative symbionts is hindered by relatively large genome sizes but low abundances in hosts like aphids that are very small. Here, we took advantage of methods for culturing H. defensa outside of aphids to generate complete genomes and transcriptome data for four strains of H. defensa from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Chosen strains also spanned the breadth of the H. defensa phylogeny and differed in strength of protection conferred against parasitoids. Results indicated that strains shared most genes with roles in nutrient acquisition, metabolism and essential housekeeping functions. In contrast, the inventory of mobile genetic elements varied substantially, which generated strain specific differences in gene content and genome architecture. In some cases, specific traits correlated with differences in protection against parasitoids, but in others high variation between strains obscured identification of traits with likely roles in defense. Transcriptome data generated continuous distributions to genome assemblies with some genes that were highly expressed and others that were not. Single molecule real-time sequencing further identified differences in DNA methylation patterns and restriction modification systems that provide defense against phage infection. PMID: 29452355 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prevalence, risk factors and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in sick pigs and stray cats in Jiangsu Province, eastern China.

Related Articles Prevalence, risk factors and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in sick pigs and stray cats in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Feb 13;: Authors: Hou ZF, Su SJ, Liu DD, Wang LL, Jia CL, Zhao ZX, Ma YF, Li QQ, Xu JJ, Tao JP Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan with a worldwide distribution. The parasites in edible tissues of pigs and oocysts from cats are the major sources of T. gondii infection in humans. However, there are no data from sick pigs in veterinary clinics or from stray cats in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. In total, biological samples from 141 sick pigs and 64 stray cats were collected from this region. The rate of T. gondii infection in sick pigs was 46.81% using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray cats was 34.38% by PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). T. gondii was significantly more prevalent in lungs and heart than in liver and spleen (P < 0.05). Age and geographic region were considered to be the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in these pigs. The DNA samples from 17 sick pigs and seven stray cats, were successfully genotyped by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with 10 genetic markers [SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2, alt. SAG2), SAG3, GRA6, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, BTUB, L358 and Apico]. Six distinct genotypes were found, which were designated ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #9 (Chinese I), #10 (Type I), #213, and #89, and New 1 and New 2. Chinese I is the most prevalent T. gondii genotype in this region. The two new genotypes (designated New 1 and New 2) are reported and the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #89 is found for the first time in China. Such information will be useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of porcine toxoplasmosis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. PMID: 29452292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cardiac and placental mitochondrial characterization in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

Related Articles Cardiac and placental mitochondrial characterization in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Feb 13;: Authors: Guitart-Mampel M, Gonzalez-Tendero A, Niñerola S, Morén C, Catalán-Garcia M, González-Casacuberta I, Juárez-Flores DL, Ugarteburu O, Matalonga L, Cascajo MV, Tort F, Cortés A, Tobias E, Milisenda JC, Grau JM, Crispi F, Gratacós E, Garrabou G, Cardellach F Abstract BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with cardiovascular remodeling persisting into adulthood. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, essential for embryonic development and cardiovascular function, are regulated by nuclear effectors as sirtuins. A rabbit model of IUGR and cardiovascular remodeling was generated, in which heart mitochondrial alterations were observed by microscopic and transcriptomic analysis. We aimed to evaluate if such alterations are translated at a functional mitochondrial level to establish the etiopathology and potential therapeutic targets for this obstetric complication. METHODS: Hearts and placentas from 16 IUGR-offspring and 14 controls were included to characterize mitochondrial function. RESULTS: Enzymatic activities of complexes II, IV and II + III in IUGR-hearts (-11.96 ± 3.16%; -15.58 ± 5.32%; -14.73 ± 4.37%; p < 0.05) and II and II + III in IUGR-placentas (-17.22 ± 3.46%; p < 0.005 and -29.64 ± 4.43%; p < 0.001) significantly decreased. This was accompanied by a not significant reduction in CI-stimulated oxygen consumption and significantly decreased complex II SDHB subunit expression in placenta (-44.12 ± 5.88%; p < 0.001). Levels of mitochondrial content, Coenzyme Q and cellular ATP were conserved. Lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in IUGR-hearts (-39.02 ± 4.35%; p < 0.001), but not significantly increased in IUGR-placentas. Sirtuin3 protein expression significantly increased in IUGR-hearts (84.21 ± 31.58%; p < 0.05) despite conserved anti-oxidant SOD2 protein expression and activity in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR is associated with cardiac and placental mitochondrial CII dysfunction. Up-regulated expression of Sirtuin3 may explain attenuation of cardiac oxidative damage and preserved ATP levels under CII deficiency. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: These findings may allow the design of dietary interventions to modulate Sirtuin3 expression and consequent regulation of mitochondrial imbalance associated with IUGR and derived cardiovascular remodeling. PMID: 29452236 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

High frequency of metronidazole and clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies.

Related Articles High frequency of metronidazole and clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies. Br J Biomed Sci. 2018 Feb 16;:1-5 Authors: Pourakbari B, Mahmoudi S, Parhiz J, Sadeghi RH, Monajemzadeh M, Mamishi S Abstract BACKGROUND: Clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance of Helicobacter pylori is increasing worldwide and has resulted in a loss in the effectiveness of therapeutic regimens. We aimed to evaluate common mutations of resistance genes to clarithromycin (A2143G, A2142G and A2142C) and metronidazole (rdxA and frxA) in H. pylori strains in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies. METHODS: A total of 110 tissue blocks from children suspected of H. pylori infection were included. After DNA extraction, UreC PCR was performed. Specific primers and restriction enzymes by PCR-RFLP were used for analysis of A2143G and A2142G mutations. To detect A2142C and assess frequent mutations of metronidazole resistance, specific primers and PCR method were used. RESULTS: One hundred cases of H. pylori (91%) were by PCR. Of 34 (34%) clarithromycin-resistant isolates 17 (50%), 10 (29%) and 7 (21%) had A2143G, A2142G, A2142C, respectively. Resistance rate to metronidazole was 60% (N = 60). In sequencing rdxA and frxA in the mutated strains, missense mutations were most frequent (60 and 57%, respectively), and there were differences in frameshift and non-sense mutations (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Resistance rate to clarithromycin was high and the highest percentage of mutation was of A2143G. PCR-RFLP was used directly with formalin-fixed gastric biopsies, thus, avoiding the requirement for time-consuming culture-based methods. The isolates that developed resistance were mainly associated with mutations of both rdxA and frxA genes. PMID: 29452048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prehospital Cervical Spine Motion: Immobilization Versus Spine Motion Restriction.

Related Articles Prehospital Cervical Spine Motion: Immobilization Versus Spine Motion Restriction. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2018 Feb 16;:1-7 Authors: Swartz EE, Tucker WS, Nowak M, Roberto J, Hollingworth A, Decoster LC, Trimarco TW, Mihalik JP Abstract OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of two different spinal immobilization techniques on cervical spine movement in a simulated prehospital ground transport setting. METHODS: A counterbalanced crossover design was used to evaluate two different spinal immobilization techniques in a standardized environment. Twenty healthy male volunteers (age = 20.9 ± 2.2 yr) underwent ambulance transport from a simulated scene to a simulated emergency department setting in two separate conditions: utilizing traditional spinal immobilization (TSI) and spinal motion restriction (SMR). During both transport scenarios, participants underwent the same simulated scenario. The main outcome measures were cervical spine motion (cumulative integrated motion and peak range of motion), vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation), and self-reported pain. Vital signs and pain were collected at six consistent points throughout each scenario. RESULTS: Participants experienced greater transverse plane cumulative integrated motion during TSI compared to SMR (F1,57 = 4.05; P = 0.049), and greater transverse peak range of motion during participant loading/unloading in TSI condition compared to SMR (F1,57 = 17.32; P < 0.001). Pain was reported by 40% of our participants during TSI compared to 25% of participants during SMR (χ2 = 1.29; P = 0.453). CONCLUSIONS: Spinal motion restriction controlled cervical motion at least as well as traditional spinal immobilization in a simulated prehospital ground transport setting. Given these results, along with well-documented potential complications of TSI in the literature, SMR is supported as an alternative to TSI. Future research should involve a true patient population. PMID: 29452031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Comparative genomic analysis of the multispecies probiotic-marketed product VSL#3.

Related Articles Comparative genomic analysis of the multispecies probiotic-marketed product VSL#3. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0192452 Authors: Douillard FP, Mora D, Eijlander RT, Wels M, de Vos WM Abstract Several probiotic-marketed formulations available for the consumers contain live lactic acid bacteria and/or bifidobacteria. The multispecies product commercialized as VSL#3 has been used for treating various gastro-intestinal disorders. However, like many other products, the bacterial strains present in VSL#3 have only been characterized to a limited extent and their efficacy as well as their predicted mode of action remain unclear, preventing further applications or comparative studies. In this work, the genomes of all eight bacterial strains present in VSL#3 were sequenced and characterized, to advance insights into the possible mode of action of this product and also to serve as a basis for future work and trials. Phylogenetic and genomic data analysis allowed us to identify the 7 species present in the VSL#3 product as specified by the manufacturer. The 8 strains present belong to the species Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium breve and B. animalis subsp. lactis (two distinct strains). Comparative genomics revealed that the draft genomes of the S. thermophilus and L. helveticus strains were predicted to encode most of the defence systems such as restriction modification and CRISPR-Cas systems. Genes associated with a variety of potential probiotic functions were also identified. Thus, in the three Bifidobacterium spp., gene clusters were predicted to encode tight adherence pili, known to promote bacteria-host interaction and intestinal barrier integrity, and to impact host cell development. Various repertoires of putative signalling proteins were predicted to be encoded by the genomes of the Lactobacillus spp., i.e. surface layer proteins, LPXTG-containing proteins, or sortase-dependent pili that may interact with the intestinal mucosa and dendritic cells. Taken altogether, the individual genomic characterization of the strains present in the VSL#3 product confirmed the product specifications, determined its coding capacity as well as identified potential probiotic functions. PMID: 29451876 [PubMed - in process]

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Key One-Carbon Metabolism Genes and Their Association with Blood Folate and Homocysteine Levels in a Chinese Population in Yunnan.

Related Articles Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Key One-Carbon Metabolism Genes and Their Association with Blood Folate and Homocysteine Levels in a Chinese Population in Yunnan. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2018 Feb 16;: Authors: Ni J, Liu Y, Zhou T, Wu X, Wang X Abstract OBJECTIVE: One-carbon metabolism (OCM) is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within OCM genes may affect folic acid (FA) metabolism, disrupt homocysteine (Hcy) homeostasis, and increase the risk of disease. This study investigated the relationship between SNPs in key OCM genes and their association with blood FA and Hcy levels in a healthy population in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Six SNPs within five key OCM genes (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MS A2756G, MTRR A66G, CBS T833C, and SHMT C1420T) were genotyped in 300 healthy volunteers (148 males and 152 females) using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Blood folate [serum FA (SFA) and red blood cell folate (RBC FA)] and Hcy levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassays and enzymatic assays. RESULTS: Subjects with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had significantly higher Hcy levels and RBC FA concentrations compared with those harboring the MTHFR 677CC/CT genotypes (p < 0.01). Both Hcy and blood FA concentrations were also increased in subjects with MS 2756AA, as well as those within CBS 833TT, when compared with those with MS 2756AG/GG (p < 0.05) and CBS 833TC/CC (p < 0.05) genotypes, respectively. Subjects harboring the combined genotype of MTHFR 677TT and MS 2756AA had a higher Hcy concentration than those carrying other MTHFR and MS combinations (p = 0.002). Similarly, subjects harboring the combination of CBS 833TT with MTHFR 677TT had higher Hcy concentrations than those harboring other CBS and MTHFR combinations (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The genotypes involving the MTHFR C677T, MS A2756G, and CBS T833C polymorphisms, including combinations of these genotypes, were the most important factors associated with blood FA and Hcy levels of the investigated SNPs in the OCM genes. PMID: 29451408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antibodies to human neutrophil antigen HNA-3b implicated in cases of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia.

Related Articles Antibodies to human neutrophil antigen HNA-3b implicated in cases of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia. Transfusion. 2018 Feb 16;: Authors: Lopes LB, Abbas SA, Moritz E, Martins JO, Chiba AK, Langhi DM, Bordin JO Abstract BACKGROUND: Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia results from maternal alloimmunization to human neutrophil antigens. The alloantibodies involved in neonatal alloimmune neutropenia are against human neutrophil antigens HNA-1a, HNA-1b, HNA-1c, HNA-1d, HNA-2, HNA-3a, HNA-4a, HNA-4b, and HNA-5a; however, to date, antibodies specific to HNA-3b have not been reported. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples from 10,000 unselected neonates were analyzed, resulting in the selection of 88 neutropenic newborns (neutrophil count <1.5 × 109 /L) from 83 mothers (three pairs of twins and one triplet). HNA-3 genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to identify the cases of maternal-fetal HNA-3 incompatibility. Serologic studies for detecting maternal HNA-3 alloantibodies were performed with the granulocyte agglutination test, the white blood cell immunofluorescence test, and a LABScreen Multi-HNA Kit. RESULTS: Genotyping studies identified 13 of 88 (14.8%) instances of maternal-fetal HNA-3 incompatibility, with all mothers typed as HNA-3a/a and neonates typed as HNA-3a/b. Serologic studies revealed that five of 13 (38.5%) mothers carried anti-HNA-3b plus human leukocyte antigen antibodies and that three of 13 (23.1%) mothers had anti-HNA-3b without human leukocyte antigen antibodies. CONCLUSION: Here, we report the first three cases of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia associated with HNA-3b antibodies resulting in a neonatal alloimmune neutropenia incidence of one in 3333 live births. PMID: 29451309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics as a therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease.

Related Articles Modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics as a therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease. Neural Regen Res. 2018 Jan;13(1):19-25 Authors: Onyango IG Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasingly pressing worldwide public-health, social, political and economic concern. Despite significant investment in multiple traditional therapeutic strategies that have achieved success in preclinical models addressing the pathological hallmarks of the disease, these efforts have not translated into any effective disease-modifying therapies. This could be because interventions are being tested too late in the disease process. While existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, they do not fully address the molecular abnormalities that occur in AD neurons. The pathophysiology of AD is complex; mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits and brain hypometabolism coupled with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress are antecedent and potentially play a causal role in the disease pathogenesis. Dysfunctional mitochondria accumulate from the combination of impaired mitophagy, which can also induce injurious inflammatory responses, and inadequate neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis. Altering the metabolic capacity of the brain by modulating/potentiating its mitochondrial bioenergetics may be a strategy for disease prevention and treatment. We present insights into the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD brain as well as an overview of emerging treatments with the potential to prevent, delay or reverse the neurodegenerative process by targeting mitochondria. PMID: 29451200 [PubMed]

Early and long period follow-up results of low glycemic index diet for migraine prophylaxis.

Related Articles Early and long period follow-up results of low glycemic index diet for migraine prophylaxis. Agri. 2018 Jan;30(1):8-11 Authors: Evcili G, Utku U, Öğün MN, Özdemir G Abstract OBJECTIVES: The role of dietary restriction in the management of patients with migraine is still a controversial topic in the headache field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dietary restriction on migraine attacks. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with migraine without aura according to the International Classification of Headaches were enrolled. Our study included 350 migraine patients evaluated at the neurology headache outpatient clinic. They were randomly divided into two groups: diet group as the study group and medication group as the control group. We told migraine patients to make lifestyle changes, especially those with low glycemic index in the diet group. On the other hand, propranolol, amitriptyline, flunarizine, and topiramate were used for the prophylaxis in the medication group. The frequency and severity of attacks [using the visual analog scale (VAS)] were recorded before starting dietary restriction and 1 and 3 months after the dietary restriction. RESULTS: There were 350 participants in this study. After 3 months, a total of 147 patients (male/female: 17/130, mean age: 34.7±5.9) were evaluated in the diet group. The control group consisted of 147 age- and sex-matched, randomly selected patients with migraine without aura. In the first month after dietary restriction, monthly attack frequency significantly decreased in both groups but not the VAS score. The mean scores of VAS significantly decreased later in the diet group compared with those in the medication group (after 3 months). CONCLUSION: The results of the study revealed that low glycemic index diet intake can be an effective and reliable method to reduce migraine attacks. PMID: 29450870 [PubMed - in process]

Hypokalemia associated with pseudo-Cushing's syndrome and magnesium deficiency induced by chronic alcohol abuse.

Related Articles Hypokalemia associated with pseudo-Cushing's syndrome and magnesium deficiency induced by chronic alcohol abuse. CEN Case Rep. 2018 Feb 15;: Authors: Kurajoh M, Ohsugi K, Kakutani-Hatayama M, Shoji T, Koyama H Abstract Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia are frequently observed in patients with chronic alcoholism. However, the involvement of deranged cortisol regulation in patients with those conditions has not been reported. A 63-year-old Japanese male with chronic alcoholism was referred to the Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism for examination and treatment of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Laboratory findings showed hypokalemia (2.3 mmol/l), as well as a high level of urinary excretion of potassium and hypomagnesemia (1.2 mg/dl), whereas urinary excretion of magnesium was undetectable. Potassium infusion treatment recovered that level in serum to 4.1 mmol/l, though it decreased to 2.2 mmol/l following discontinuation. A dexamethasone suppression test and urinary cortisol level showed corticotropin-dependent hypercortisolemia. However, gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed no evidence of pituitary adenoma. The patient recovered from hypokalemia following an administration of magnesium in addition to potassium, which was accompanied by potassium over-excretion improvement. After being discharged, serum potassium level was maintained within a normal range with only magnesium infusion treatment. Furthermore, alcohol intake was reduced from 160 to 20 g/day and an endocrinological re-examination after that restriction showed normal cortisol regulation. The patient was diagnosed with pseudo-Cushing's syndrome induced by alcohol abuse. Serum potassium level was maintained within a normal range even after discontinuation of magnesium supplementation. Our findings in this case indicate that pseudo-Cushing's syndrome in conjunction with hypomagnesemia may be involved in development of hypokalemia in patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID: 29450857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Restriction of Passive Glenohumeral Abduction Combined With Normal Passive External Rotation Is a Diagnostic Feature of Calcific Tendinitis.

Related Articles Restriction of Passive Glenohumeral Abduction Combined With Normal Passive External Rotation Is a Diagnostic Feature of Calcific Tendinitis. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018 Feb;6(2):2325967117752907 Authors: Jungwirth-Weinberger A, Gerber C, Boyce G, Jentzsch T, Roner S, Meyer DC Abstract Background: Passive glenohumeral range of motion may be characteristically limited to specific shoulder pathologies. While pain associated with loss of range of passive external glenohumeral rotation is recognized as a salient feature in adhesive capsulitis, restriction of glenohumeral range of motion in calcific tendinitis of the supraspinatus tendon has never been studied. Hypothesis: On the basis of clinical observation, we hypothesized that calcific tendinitis of the supraspinatus tendon is associated with loss of passive glenohumeral abduction without loss of external rotation. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Ranges of passive glenohumeral rotation and abduction, which are measured with a standardized protocol in our institution, were retrospectively reviewed and compared for patients diagnosed with either adhesive capsulitis or calcific tendinitis of the supraspinatus tendon. A total of 57 patients met the inclusion criteria for the calcific tendinitis, and 77 met the inclusion criteria for the adhesive capsulitis group. Results: When compared with the contralateral, unaffected shoulder, glenohumeral abduction in the calcific tendinitis group was restricted by a median of 10° (interquartile range [IQR], -20° to -5°) as opposed to glenohumeral external rotation, which was not restricted at all (median, 0°; IQR, 0° to 0°). The adhesive capsulitis group showed a median restriction of glenohumeral abduction of 40° (IQR, -50° to -30°) and a median restriction of passive glenohumeral external rotation of 40° (IQR, -60° to -30°). Conclusion: Calcific tendinitis of the supraspinatus does not typically cause loss of external rotation but is frequently associated with mild isolated restriction of abduction. This finding can be used to clinically differentiate adhesive capsulitis from calcific tendinitis. PMID: 29450206 [PubMed]

Molecular characteristics and successful management of a respiratory syncytial virus outbreak among pediatric patients with hemato-oncological disease.

Related Articles Molecular characteristics and successful management of a respiratory syncytial virus outbreak among pediatric patients with hemato-oncological disease. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2018;7:21 Authors: Baier C, Haid S, Beilken A, Behnert A, Wetzke M, Brown RJP, Schmitt C, Ebadi E, Hansen G, Schulz TF, Pietschmann T, Bange FC Abstract Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infection in adults and children. Especially immunocompromised patients are at high risk for a severe course of infection, and mortality is increased. Moreover RSV can spread in healthcare settings and can cause outbreaks. Herein we demonstrate the successful control and characteristics of a RSV outbreak that included 8 patients in our Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Methods: We performed an epidemiologic investigation and a molecular analysis of the outbreak strains. Moreover we present the outbreak control bundle and our concept for RSV screening in the winter season. Results: RSV A and B strains caused the outbreak. RSV B strains affected 3 patients, 2 of whom were co-infected with RSV A. Exactly this RSV A strain was detected in another 5 patients. Our multimodal infection control bundle including prophylactic RSV screening was able to rapidly stop the outbreak. Conclusion: An infection control bundle in RSV outbreaks should address all potential transmission pathways. In pediatric settings the restriction of social activities might have a temporal negative impact on quality of life but helps to limit transmission opportunities. Molecular analysis allows better understanding of RSV outbreaks and, if done in a timely manner, might be helpful for guidance of infection control measures. PMID: 29449938 [PubMed - in process]

Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana).

Related Articles Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana). Front Plant Sci. 2018;9:92 Authors: Shih KM, Chang CT, Chung JD, Chiang YC, Hwang SY Abstract Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, FST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals) of K. davidiana var. formosana. Principal component analysis (PCA), individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana, but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE). However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana, was also examined (72 individuals). This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of population attributes, such as diversity, connectivity, and adaptive divergence associated with large- and small-scale environmental heterogeneity in K. davidiana var. formosana. PMID: 29449860 [PubMed]

Influence of acute consumption of caffeine vs. placebo over Bia-derived measurements of body composition: a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.

Related Articles Influence of acute consumption of caffeine vs. placebo over Bia-derived measurements of body composition: a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:7 Authors: Williamson CM, Nickerson BS, Bechke EE, McLester CN, Kliszczewicz BM Abstract Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is often used to estimate total body water (TBW), intracellular body water (ICW), extracellular body water (ECW), and body fat percentage (BF%). A common restriction for BIA analysis is abstinence from caffeine 12-h prior to testing. However, research has yet to determine whether the consumption of caffeine influences BIA testing results. The purpose of this study was to determine if the consumption of caffeine influences BIA-derived BF% and body water values in habitual caffeine users. Methods: Twenty apparently healthy males (26.6 ± 4.1 years) identified as habitual caffeine consumers (≥ one 95 mg serving per day ≥ four days per week) participated in this study. Participants came to the lab on three occasions, the first visit serving as the control (CON) with no supplementation. The remaining two visits were performed in a randomized double-blind, cross-over fashion. Participants consumed 200 mg of dextrose (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) in capsule form. During each visit, seven multi-frequency BIA measurements were conducted before (PRE) and after (15-min, 30-min, 45-min, 60-min, 75-min, 90-min) consumption. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA revealed BF% for CAF was lower than the CON and PLA conditions at PRE and 15-min (p < 0.001, p = 0.004), but not statistically significant for the remaining time points (i.e., 30-, 45-, 60-, 75-, and 90-min). However, the effect size (ES) of the BF% differences were trivial. The CON, PLA, and CAF conditions had higher PRE ICW values than their associated post time points (i.e., 15-, 30-, 45-, 60-, 75-, and 90-min). Similar to BF%, ES of the mean differences for ICW were trivial. No other differences were observed. Conclusion: Caffeine consumption in habitual users produced trivial changes in TBW, ECW, ICW, or BF%. Therefore, the pre-testing guidelines for caffeine consumption may not be necessary in habitual caffeine consumers. PMID: 29449791 [PubMed - in process]

Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility of commonly clinically significant isolates before and after the interventions on surgical prophylactic antibiotics (SPAs) in Shanghai.

Related Articles Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility of commonly clinically significant isolates before and after the interventions on surgical prophylactic antibiotics (SPAs) in Shanghai. Braz J Microbiol. 2018 Feb 12;: Authors: Wang S, Han LZ, Ni YX, Zhang YB, Wang Q, Shi DK, Li WH, Wang YC, Mi CR Abstract Surveillances and interventions on antibiotics use have been suggested to improve serious drug-resistance worldwide. Since 2007, our hospital have proposed many measures for regulating surgical prophylactic antibiotics (carbapenems, third gen. cephalosporins, vancomycin, etc.) prescribing practices, like formulary restriction or replacement for surgical prophylactic antibiotics and timely feedback. To assess the impacts on drug-resistance after interventions, we enrolled infected patients in 2006 (pre-intervention period) and 2014 (post-intervention period) in a tertiary hospital in Shanghai. Proportions of targeted pathogens were analyzed: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE), imipenem-resistant Escherichia coli (IREC), imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (IRKP), imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) and imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) isolates. Rates of them were estimated and compared between Surgical Department, ICU and Internal Department during two periods. The total proportions of targeted isolates in Surgical Department (62.44%, 2006; 64.09%, 2014) were more than those in ICU (46.13%, 2006; 50.99%, 2014) and in Internal Department (44.54%, 2006; 51.20%, 2014). Only MRSA has decreased significantly (80.48%, 2006; 55.97%, 2014) (p<0.0001). The percentages of VRE and IREC in 3 departments were all <15%, and the slightest change were also both observed in Surgical Department (VRE: 0.76%, 2006; 2.03%, 2014) (IREC: 2.69%, 2006; 2.63%, 2014). The interventions on surgical prophylactic antibiotics can be effective for improving resistance; antimicrobial stewardship must be combined with infection control practices. PMID: 29449171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Driving with drug-resistant and controlled seizures from a patient's perspective: Assessment of attitudes and practices.

Related Articles Driving with drug-resistant and controlled seizures from a patient's perspective: Assessment of attitudes and practices. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Feb 12;: Authors: Arcot Jayagopal L, Samson KK, Taraschenko O Abstract BACKGROUND: Driving restrictions in epilepsy are intended to safeguard public and personal safety; however, these limitations inhibit socialization, restrict employment, and reduce self-esteem in patients with seizures. A large proportion of patients with seizures continue to drive, and factors leading to noncompliance with driving regulations are poorly understood. Thus, the patients' perspective on driving safety is not incorporated into the existing counseling tools on driving safety in epilepsy. The present study assessed social, economic, and psychological perceptions related to driving restrictions in patients with refractory and pharmacotherapy-controlled seizures at the single epilepsy center and identified impediments for safe driving. METHODS: Data were obtained from an anonymous survey completed by 25 adult patients in the presurgical group (PG) with refractory epilepsy and 46 patients in the ambulatory group (AG) with confirmed epilepsy which did not meet criteria for refractoriness. The questionnaire (administered via Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap)) addressed seizure and driving history, knowledge of driving restrictions, and social consequences of losing driving privileges. RESULTS: Eighty-seven percent of all responders experienced seizures with alteration of awareness; however, 34% of patients continued to drive during the time when they were legally restricted, and 6% had accidents related to seizures. All responders reported their seizure status accurately to the treating physician, and 93% understood state-based driving restrictions. The median time from the last seizure was shorter, and the duration of last driving restriction was longer in the PG compared with the AG (1 vs. 20weeks, and 12 vs. 24weeks, respectively). Despite that, the proportions of patients driving at the time of survey were not significantly different between the two groups. Nearly 80% of all patients stated that driving restrictions reduced their quality of life, and 70% believed that these restrictions carry a social stigma. Employment was chosen to be the most affected by driving restrictions from a list of four social domains by the majority of patients in both groups. Notably, the employment rate was 26% higher in the AG compared with the PG. The lack of public transportation was regarded as a hurdle by more than 60% of patients in each group with greater than two-thirds of patients relying on other drivers for transportation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patients with refractory and pharmacotherapy-controlled seizures are similarly likely to drive a vehicle, disregarding a practitioner's advice and state restrictions. The lack of public transportation is a shared constraint and likely leads to reduced compliance with driving regulations. Driving restrictions carry social stigma and limit the employment of patients with epilepsy, regardless of the refractory seizure status. PMID: 29449138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Acute effects of blood flow restriction on exercise-induced free radical production in young and healthy subjects.

Related Articles Acute effects of blood flow restriction on exercise-induced free radical production in young and healthy subjects. Free Radic Res. 2018 Feb 16;:1-171 Authors: Centner C, Zdzieblik D, Dressler P, Fink B, Gollhofer A, König D Abstract The main purpose of this study was to investigate the acute local and systemic effects of low-load resistance exercise (30% 1RM) with partial vascular occlusion on exercise-induced free radical production and to compare these effects with other established training methods. Fifteen young and healthy males (25 ± 3 years) performed the following four sessions in a counterbalanced order on separate days: low-load resistance exercise (LI: 30% 1RM), low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (LIBR: 30% 1RM), high-load resistance exercise (HI: 80% 1RM) and an additional session without exercise but blood flow restriction only (BR). Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes prior to and immediately after exercise sessions from the right index finger and first toe. To analyze concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used. Additionally, mitochondrial ROS production was measured by adding inhibitors of electron transport chain complex III. There was an increased systemic ROS generation after the LIBR session from 0.838 ± 0.096-0.901 ± 0.095 µmol/l/min. However, no local or systemic time × condition interaction was detected for ROS production. Regarding mitochondrial ROS production, results were not different between the conditions. Although the low-load resistance exercise session with partial vascular occlusion elicited systemic increases of ROS production, no significant changes were seen on a local level. We assume that this ROS concentration might not be high enough to induce cellular damage but is rather involved in muscle remodulation. However, this needs to be confirmed by future research. PMID: 29448855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Comparative assessment of efficiency of the low-calorie diets modified by proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails].

Related Articles [Comparative assessment of efficiency of the low-calorie diets modified by proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails]. Vopr Pitan. 2015;84(6):99-106 Authors: Chekhonina YG, Gapparova KM, Sharafetdinov KK, Grigoryan ON Abstract The aim of the work is comparative assessment of efficiency of a hypocaloric diet with inclusion of proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails at obesity. 90 patients with obesity of the II–III degree at the age of 18–65 years by the principle of casual selection were divided into three groups. Control group (30 patients) received a standard low-calorie diet with an energy value of 1600 kcal/day. The diet of the 1st group (30 patients) was modified by the inclusion of protein-vitamin-mineral cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat) twice a day, diet of the 2nd group (30 patients) – the inclusion of a protein cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat), while excluding from the diet equivalent caloric meals. The 1st group of patients had a decrease in fat mass by 4.2±0.7 kg (p<0.02), in active lean mass by 1.1±0.1 kg, in total fluid volume by 2.2±0.3 kg (p<0.02). The 2nd group of patients had a decrease in fat mass by 3.8±0.9 kg (p<0.01), in lean mass by 1.4±0.3 kg and in the total fluid volume by 3.1±0.9 l (p<0.02). In the control group attention should be paid to a decrease in lean mass by 1.9±0.6 kg, while fat mass decreased by 3.0±0.4 kg (p<0.02) and the total fluid volume by 3.1±0.9 l (p<0.02). Evaluation of the changes of serum biochemical parameters after treatment demonstrated that the 1st group of patients had significant favorable dynamics of reduction of serum level of total cholesterol, uric acid and glucose (17.7, 28.2 and 18.3%, respectively), which was more pronounced compared with the dynamics in the control group (the decrease by 15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively). In the 2nd group of patients the decrease rate of the observed parameters was less pronounced (15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively). More appreciable favorable dynamics of biochemical parameters and reduction in body weight in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the control group allow to reasonably apply the protein-vitamin cocktails in a diet therapy at obesity. PMID: 29378104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]