Hypoxia-specific therapeutic agents delivery nanotheranostics: A sequential strategy for ultrasound mediated on-demand tritherapies and imaging of cancer.
J Control Release. 2018 Feb 20;:
Authors: Feng Q, Li Y, Yang X, Zhang W, Hao Y, Zhang H, Hou L, Zhang Z
The hypoxic microenvironment induced by sonodynamic therapy (SDT) via sonochemical oxygen consumption usually triggered tumor resistance to SDT, impeding therapeutic efficacy. In this sense, it was highly desired to tackle the hypoxia-related negative issues. Here we provide the therapeutic agents delivery system, TPZ/HMTNPs-SNO, which was constructed by loading tirapazamine (TPZ) into hollow mesoporous titanium dioxide nanoparticles (HMTNPs) with modification of S-nitrosothiol (R-SNO). Upon encountering ultrasound waves, the HMTNPs as sonosensitizers would generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for SDT. In a sequential manner, the followed SDT-induced hypoxia further activated the "hypoxic cytotoxin", TPZ, for hypoxia-specific killing effect. Meanwhile, the generated ROS could sensitize -SNO groups for on-demand nitric oxide (NO) release in an "anticancer therapeutic window", resulting in the NO sensitized SDT effect. This study confirmed that the TPZ/HMTNPs-SNO with multi-mechanisms exploited the merits of synergistic combination of the three therapeutic modes, consequently potentiating the anticancer efficacy of SDT. Moreover, the echogenic property of NO made the nanoplatform as an ultrasound contrast agent to enhance ultrasound imaging. In this sense, we developed a sequential strategy for ultrasound mediated all-in-one nanotheranostic platform of TPZ/HMTNPs-SNO, which highlighted new possibilities of advancing cancer theranostics in biomedical fields.
PMID: 29474964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Demographic and clinical features do not affect the outcome of combined endovenous therapy to treat leg swelling.
Vascular. 2018 Jan 01;:1708538118760742
Authors: Alsheekh A, Hingorani A, Aurshina A, Kibrik P, Marks N, Ostrozhynskyy Y, Ascher E
Background There have been well-documented implications of race/ethnicity on the outcome of various vascular diseases, yet there are limited data on risk factors and outcome of lower limb swelling. While many patients improve with endovenous therapy (thermal ablation or iliac vein stenting), some patients' symptoms persist. The goal of this study was to identify clinical factors including race/ethnicity related to persistent leg swelling after treatment with both iliac vein stenting and thermal ablation. Methods From February 2012 to February 2014, this observational study analyzed data for 173 patients with chronic venous insufficiency who underwent both iliac vein stent placement as well as thermal ablation (radiofrequency ablation or endovenous laser ablation). All procedures of the thermal ablations and the iliac vein stenting were staged. Iliac vein stenosis was identified using intravascular ultrasound of the iliofemoral venous segment showing >50% cross-sectional area or diameter reduction. The patients were queried to the resolution of their leg swelling after both procedures were performed. The resolution of swelling was correlated with age, gender, presenting sign according to CEAP classification, race/ethnicity and degree of iliac vein stenosis. Patients were categorized by Caucasians ( n = 97), African Americans ( n = 27), or Hispanics ( n = 49). Statistical analysis performed using Chi-square and Student's t test. Results Of the total 173 patients who underwent both endovenous closure and iliac vein stent placements, 117 (67.6%) patients were women. The average age was 67 (±13 SD) years. The average pain score was 2.9(±3.1 SD). The average degree of iliac vein stenosis was 66.5(±13.3 SD). About 56.1% were Caucasians, 15.6% were African Americans, and 28.3% were Hispanics. The number of patients with iliac vein stent thrombosis was 2. One hundred fifty-two (87.9%) patients stated that they had improvement in swelling after combined procedures, 100 (65.8%) patients were women. The average age was 67.3 (±13 SD) years. The average pain score was 2.9 (±3.1 SD). The average degree of iliac vein stenosis was 67.3% (±12.8 SD). About 56.6% were Caucasians, 15.1% were African Americans, and 28.3% were Hispanics. The number of patients with iliac vein stent thrombosis was 1. Twenty-one (12.1%) patients stated they had no improvement after both procedures. Correlating these group factors with the group of patients who improved their swelling after the combined procedures we found the following: 17 (81%) of these patients were females ( P=0.16). The average age was 68.4 (±17 SD) years ( P=0.72 SD). The average pain score was 3.2 (±3.7 SD) ( P=0.68). The average degree of iliac vein stenosis was 60.2% (±15.9 SD) ( P=0.02). Around 52.4% were Caucasians, 19% were African Americans, and 28.6% were Hispanics ( P=0.88). The number of patients with iliac vein stent thrombosis was 1 ( P = 0.1). Conclusion These data suggest that the clinical factors including race are not clinically significant factors in the response to swelling after combined iliac stent and endovenous ablation procedures. Interestingly, a higher degree of iliac vein stenosis was associated with improved resolution of swelling.
PMID: 29473448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Ureteroscopy in pregnant women with complicated colic pain: Is there any risk of premature labor?
Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2017 Dec 31;89(4):287-292
Authors: Butticè S, Laganà AS, Vitale SG, Netsch C, Tanidir Y, Cantiello F, Dragos L, Talso M, Emiliani E, Pappalardo R, Sener TE
OBJECTIVE: Clinical presentation of ureteral stones during pregnancy is generally with renal colic pain. The aim of this study is to present our experience in the management of renal colic during pregnancy in emergency settings.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 208 pregnant patients who presented to emergency department with renal colic pain and underwent ureteroscopy (URS) due to failed conservative therapy were enrolled in the study. Urinary tract stones were diagnosed either with ultrasound (US) examination or during URS. Laser lithotripsy and double J (DJ) stent placement were routinely done in all patients with ureteral stones. The incidence of infective complications and premature uterine contractions (PUC) due to URS were compared.
RESULTS: No stone was identified in 36.1% (n = 75) of patients with using US and diagnostic URS. Of the remaining 133 patients, 30 (22.6%) had no stone at US but stones were diagnosed during diagnostic URS. The type of anesthesia had no significant effect on PUC. An increased risk of sepsis and PUC was found in patients with fever at the initial presentation. Interestingly, PUC was more frequent in patients with lower serum magnesium levels. There was a significant correlation with time delay until the intervention and the risk of urosepsis and PUC, individually.
CONCLUSIONS: Ureteroscopy is a safe option for evaluation of pregnant patients with unresolved renal colic. According to the current findings, timing of the operation is the most important factor affecting the septic risks and abortion threat. Surgical intervention with URS must be planned as soon as possible.
PMID: 29473378 [PubMed - in process]
Can re-cTURBT be useful in pT1HG disease as a risk indicator of recurrence and progression? A single centre experience.
Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2017 Dec 31;89(4):272-276
Authors: Giulianelli R, Gentile BC, Mirabile G, Albanesi L, Tariciotti P, Rizzo G, Buscarini M, Vermiglio M
INTRODUCTION: Understaging after initial transurethral resection is common in patients with high-risk non muscle infiltrating bladder cancer (NMIBC) and can delay accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment. The rate of upstaging from T1 to T2 disease after repeated transurethral resection ranges from 0 to 28%, although the rate of upstaging may be even higher up to 49% when muscularis propria is absent in the first specimen. A restaging classic transurethral resection of bladder tumour (re-cTURBT) is the better predictor of early stage progression. According to some reports, the rate of positivity for tumor in re-cTURBT performed within eight weeks after initial cTURBT was as high as 18-77%, and in about 40% of the patients a change in tumor stage was reported. We aimed to investigate, in high risk group, the presence of residual tumor following white light classical transurethral resection of bladder tumor (WLre-cTURBT) and the different recurrence and progression rate between patients with persistent or negative (pT0) oncological disease after WLre-cTURBT.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 285 patients presenting with primitive bladder cancer underwent to WLcTURBT from January 2011 to December 2015; out of them 92 (32.28%) were T1HG. In according to EAU guidelines 2011, after 4-6 weeks all HG bladder cancer patients underwent a WL recTURBT . All patients were submitted to a subsequent followup including cystoscopy every 3 months with multiple biopsies, randomly and in the previous zone of resection; urinary citology on 3 specimens and kidney/bladder ultrasound every 6 months. The average follow-up was 48 months.
RESULTS: Following WLre-cTURBT we observed a persistent disease in 18 (15.2%) patients: 14 (77.7%) with a HG-NMIBC and 4 (22.2%) with a high grade (HG) muscle invasive bladder cancer (pT2HG). After follow up of all 92 patients according to the guidelines EAU, we observed recurrence in 36/92 (39.1%) and progression in 14/92 (15.2%). Of 14 NMIBC with persistent disease, 10 patients (71.4%) showed recurrence: 4 patients (40%) were pT1HG with concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), 3 patients (30%) multifocal pTaHG, 2 (20%) patients CIS and one patient (10%) a muscle invasive neoplasm (pT2HG). Instead of the group of 48 patients pT0 following WL recTURBT, we observed recurrence in 26 patients (54.1%) and in two patients (4.1%) progressions, who presented after 3 months in association with CIS. The remaining 22 patients (45.9%) with initial pT1HG are still progression free. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important variable of early progression were persistent neoplasm and histopathological findings at WLre-cTURBt (p = 0.01), followed by the Summary No conflict of interest declared. INTRODUCTION Bladder cancer is a common genito-urinary malignancy, with transitional cell carcinoma comprising nearly 90% of all primary bladder tumours. At the first diagnosis 70% to 80% of urothelial tumours are confined to the epithelium, the remainder is characterized by muscle invasion. A significant number of patients with high risk non-muscle invasive bladder tumours (HG-NMIBT) treated with white light classic transurethral resection of bladder tumours (WLcTURBT) and intravesical BCG will progress to invasive disease (1-3). Progression to muscle invasion (pT2) mandates immediate radical cystectomy (4). WLcTURBT is the standard initial therapy for NMIBT, but the high percentage of recurrence after surgery is still an unresolved problem (5). High grade pT1 bladder neoplasm (pT1HG) really represents a therapeutic challenge due to the high risk of progression (about 15-30%) to muscle-invasive disease, usually within 5 years (6). However, no consensus exists regarding the treatment of patients with recurrent bladder tumours that invade the lamina propria (pT1) (7-9). Recent studies suggested that the first cTURBT may be incomplete in a significant number of cases (10). Understaging at the time of the initial transurethral resection is common for patients with high-risk NMIBC and can delay accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment. It is therefore recommended for patients with high-risk disease and in those with large or multiple tumors or when the initial transurethral resection is incomplete, to repeat WLre-cTURBT within 2-6 DOI: 10.4081/aiua.2017.4.272 result of the first cystoscopy (p = 0.002) and presence of CIS (p = 0.02).
DISCUSSION: Following WLre-cTURBt in HG-NMIBC patients we identified in 15% of cases a persistent disease with a 4.3% of MIBC. In the high risk persistent bladder neoplasms group we observed recurrent and progression rate higher than in T0 bladder tumours group (Δ = + 17.3% and = Δ + 62.5%, p < 0.05.
PMID: 29473376 [PubMed - in process]
Late-Onset Puberty Induction by Transdermal Estrogen in Turner Syndrome Girls-A Longitudinal Study.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018;9:23
Authors: Gawlik AM, Hankus M, Szeliga K, Antosz A, Gawlik T, Soltysik K, Drosdzol-Cop A, Wilk K, Kudela G, Koszutski T, Malecka-Tendera E
Objective: Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for Turner syndrome (TS) is a widely discussed topic; however, the optimal model of ERT for patients with delayed diagnosis and/or initiation of therapy is still unclear, mainly due to insufficient data. We present the results of a prospective observational single-center study in which the efficacy of late-onset puberty induction by one-regimen transdermal ERT in TS girls was evaluated.
Methods: The analysis encompassed 49 TS girls (63.3% with 45,X) with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in whom unified transdermal ERT protocol was used for puberty induction (first two months 12.5 μg/24 h, thereafter 25.0 μg/24 h until breakthrough bleeding). Clinical visits for examination and therapy modification took place every 3-6 months. Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound examinations were performed at least twice: at the beginning and at the end of follow-up.
Results: The mean (SD) age at ERT induction was 15.1 (1.3) years. The duration of follow-up was 2.4 (1.1) years. Half of all the patients had at least B2 after 0.57 years, B3 after 1.1 years, B4 after 1.97 years, and menarche after 1.82 years from ERT initiation. With earlier initiation of ERT (≤14 years), B2 (p = 0.059) was achieved faster and B4 (p = 0.018) significantly slower than with the later start of ERT. Thirty-four (94.4%) patients had at least stage B3 at menarche. The karyotype, initial weight, and body mass index had no impact on puberty tempo during ERT. The uterine volume increased significantly during ERT in all the study group (p < 0.0001), and in half of the patients, the increase was at least 12.4-fold. It did not correlate with the duration of treatment (p = 0.84) or the dose of estradiol per kilogram (p = 0.78), nor did it depend on karyotype (p = 0.71) or age at ERT initiation (p = 0.28). There were no differences in ΔhSDS during ERT (p = 0.63) between the two age groups (ERT ≤14 and >14 years).
Conclusion: The presented easy-to-use fixed-dose regimen for late-onset puberty induction allowed for a satisfactory rate of achieving subsequent puberty stages and did not influence the growth potential.
PMID: 29472893 [PubMed]
Post-surgical recurrence of HCC along resection margin treated by percutaneous US-guided ablation.
Minerva Chir. 2018 Feb 21;:
Authors: Calandri M, Gazzera C, Yevich S, Lapenna K, Marenco M, Veltri A, Paraluppi G, Fonio P
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous ablation for HCC hepatic recurrence along surgical resection margins to achieve complete cure or bridge for additional treatment. No current recommendations exist for these lesions.
METHODS: Retrospective review of post-surgical recurrent HCC located along surgical margins treated by percutaneous ultrasound-guided ablation from 2006-2014. Ablation was performed by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), selected for recurrence in proximity to extrahepatic organs.
RESULTS: In total, nine patients (49-82yo, mean 73.8±8.3) were treated for 13 recurrent HCC nodules (9-35 mm, mean 21.5±8.1) located along resection margins by RFA (11 nodules) and PEI (2 nodules). Mean time between surgery and percutaneous ablation was 64 months (range 10-149). At a mean follow-up of 17 months (± 9), complete ablation was achieved in 9 nodules (69.2%, 8 after RF, 1 after PEI) and partial ablation was achieved in 4 nodules (3 after RFA, 1 after PEI). Complications were limited to minor abdominal pain in 2 patients requiring medical therapy (15.3%). Of the 4 partially ablated nodules, subsequent therapy achieved complete response in 3 nodules (1 patient with TACE, 1 patient with stereotactic radiotherapy, and one with liver transplantation), while the last nodule progressed despite subsequent TACE.
CONCLUSIONS: HCC recurrence along the surgical margin can be safely and effectively treated by percutaneous therapy, despite the misconception of the surgical margin as a hostile location. Percutaneous treatment may bridge the patient for additional therapy.
PMID: 29471619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Collagen External Scaffolds Mitigate Intimal Hyperplasia and Improve Remodeling of Vein Grafts in a Rabbit Arteriovenous Graft Model.
Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7473437
Authors: Li H, Chai S, Dai L, Gu C
Objectives. The aim of this study was to test the effects of collagen external scaffold (CES) in intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts and explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods. Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into no-graft group, graft group, and CES group. The rabbit arteriovenous graft model was established. In CES group, the vein graft was wrapped around with CES. The hemodynamic parameters of vein grafts were measured intraoperatively and 4 weeks after operation by ultrasonic examination. Histological characteristics of vein grafts were also evaluated 4 weeks later. The mRNA and protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), active cleaved-caspase-3 (ClvCasp-3), and smooth muscle 22 alpha (SM22α) were measured 4 weeks later by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Results. CES significantly improved the hemodynamic stability of vein grafts, with higher blood velocity and blood flow. Similarly, CES also markedly mitigated intimal hyperplasia and inhibited dilatation of vein grafts. In CES group, the upexpression of PCNA and ClvCasp-3 and the downexpression of SM22α were inhibited. Conclusion. CES exerts beneficial effects in mitigating intimal hyperplasia and improving remodeling of autogenous vein grafts, which may be associated with reducing the proliferation and apoptosis and preserving the phenotype of VSMCs.
PMID: 28503573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Is Routine Axillary Imaging Necessary in Clinically Node-Negative Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?
Ann Surg Oncol. 2017 Mar;24(3):645-651
Authors: Barrio AV, Mamtani A, Eaton A, Brennan S, Stempel M, Morrow M
BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend axillary imaging prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients who are clinically node negative (cN0) by physical examination. However, the benefit of this approach remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether abnormal axillary imaging pre-NAC predicts nodal metastases post-NAC (ypN+) in cN0 patients.
METHODS: cN0 patients undergoing NAC followed by axillary surgery were identified. Rates of ypN+ were compared among patients with abnormal pre-treatment axillary imaging vs. normal or no pre-treatment imaging using Fisher's exact test.
RESULTS: From May 2008 to March 2016, 402 eligible cN0 patients were identified. The median age of the patients was 49.5 years, and the median tumor size was 4 cm. Of these patients, 38% were estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), 30% were HER2+ , and 32% were triple negative. All had pre-NAC mammograms, 40% axillary ultrasound, 83% MRI, and 51% PET. Abnormal nodes on imaging were seen in 208 patients (52%); 128 had pre-NAC node biopsy, and 75 were positive. Overall, 28% of the patients (n = 111) were ypN+ post-NAC. Although the incidence of ypN+ was significantly higher in patients with abnormal nodes on pre-NAC imaging (p = 0.001), 54% did not require axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) post-NAC. Among the patients with normal nodes on pre-NAC imaging, 20% were ypN+ post-NAC.
CONCLUSIONS: Half of patients with abnormal nodes on pre-NAC imaging did not require ALND post-NAC, while 20% of those with normal pre-NAC nodes had disease post-NAC, indicating that in cN0 patients already selected for NAC, axillary imaging pre-NAC does not predict the need for axillary surgery post-NAC with sufficient accuracy to be clinically useful.
PMID: 28130619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Lung Ultrasound in the Management of Fluid Volume in Dialysis Patients: Potential Usefulness.
Semin Dial. 2017 Jan;30(1):6-9
Authors: Zoccali C
Volume overload is a hidden, pervasive complication in dialysis patients with dyspnea and pulmonary edema being its main clinical manifestations. Measuring lung water has clinical potential because it allows timely treatment of lung congestion at a preclinical stage. Chest ultrasound (US) is a novel, well-validated technique that allows reliable estimates of lung water in clinical practice. The application of this technique in dialysis patients has shown that an unsuspectedly high proportion of these patients have moderate to severe lung congestion which is usually asymptomatic. Furthermore, lung congestion in these patients is only loosely associated with fluid excess as measured by bioimpedance (BIA). Lung congestion is associated with a high death risk in dialysis patients and therefore represents a potential treatment target. The "Lung water by Ultra-Sound guided Treatment to prevent death and cardiovascular complications in high risk ESRD patients with cardiomyopathy" (LUST) study will provide important information about the clinical value of this technique in the care of hemodialysis patients at high cardiovascular risk.
PMID: 28043083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pre-operative Assessment for Arteriovenous Fistula Placement for Dialysis.
Semin Dial. 2017 Jan;30(1):58-62
Authors: Marques MG, Ponce P
Native AV fistulas are considered to be the best VA for most dialysis patients. A careful preoperative process of care is essential to maximize the proportion of fistulas that achieve adequacy for dialysis. An individualized and timely evaluation of patients starts early with the identification of risk factors, followed by a physical examination which should be complemented by ultrasound vascular mapping in most cases. Vascular mapping includes any technique that leads to information on patient's inflow and outflow anatomy (± hemodynamics) as they relate to arteriovenous access creation and may predict maturation. There is increasing evidence favoring the utilization of preoperative Doppler ultrasound which is recommended in all patients by NFK-KDOQI Guidelines. It allows noninvasive evaluation of both structural and functional aspects of vessels that play an important role in access maturation. Its major limitation is the relative inability to assess central vein patency. Although conventional venography is still the gold standard to evaluate central veins, it provides otherwise limited information and can incur serious adverse effects related to its invasive nature and contrast use. Alternatives to these two imaging techniques are rarely used, especially because of their higher costs and low availability.
PMID: 27866375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Impact of combined lipid lowering and blood pressure control on coronary plaque: myocardial ischemia treated by percutaneous coronary intervention and plaque regression by lipid lowering and blood pressure controlling assessed by intravascular ultrasonography (MILLION) study.
Heart Vessels. 2017 May;32(5):539-548
Authors: Kawashiri MA, Sakata K, Hayashi K, Gamou T, Kanaya H, Miwa K, Ueda K, Higashikata T, Mizuno S, Michishita I, Namura M, Nitta Y, Katsuda S, Okeie K, Hirase H, Tada H, Uchiyama K, Konno T, Ino H, Nagase K, Yamagishi M, Behalf of the MILLION Study Group
The aim of the study was to elucidate the aggressive reduction of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP) reduced coronary atherosclerotic plaque volume compared with a standard treatment of LDL-C and BP in Japanese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study is a prospective, randomized, and open-labelled with a blind-endpoint evaluation study. A total of 97 patients (81 men, mean age 62.0 ± 9.6) with CAD undergoing intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized, and 68 patients had IVUS examinations at baseline and at 18-24 months follow-up. Patients were randomly assigned to standard or aggressive strategies targeting LDL-C and a BP of 100 mg/dL and 140/90 mmHg vs. 70 mg/dL and 120/70 mmHg, respectively. The primary endpoint was the percent change in coronary plaque volume. Both standard and aggressive strategies succeeded to achieve target levels of LDL-C and BP; 74.9 ± 14.7 vs. 63.7 ± 11.9 mg/dL (NS) and 124.1 ± 9.4/75.8 ± 7.7 vs. 113.6 ± 9.6/65.8 ± 9.4 mmHg (systolic BP; NS, diastolic BP; p < 0.05), respectively. Both groups showed a significant reduction in the coronary plaque volume of -9.4 ± 10.7% and -8.7 ± 8.6% (NS) in standard and aggressive therapies, respectively. Both standard and aggressive intervention significantly regressed coronary plaque volume by the same degree, suggesting the importance of simultaneous reductions of LDL-C and BP for prevention of CAD.
PMID: 27798731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Hemodialysis Time and Kt/V: Less May Be Better.
Semin Dial. 2017 Jan;30(1):10-14
Authors: Tattersall J
Current guidelines focus on conventional dialysis defined as 3-5 hours, three times per week, and suggest that longer or more frequent dialysis be considered. This paper presents the case for considering that shorter or less frequent dialysis should also be considered. More frequent and/or longer dialysis facilitates control of fluid overload, blood pressure, and phosphate levels. These benefits will require time to translate into probable hard outcome improvement. Patients are unlikely to participate in productive or pleasurable activities while undergoing dialysis in center or traveling to treatment. So any increase in dialysis time or frequency, during awake hours, will result in an immediate and quantifiable reduction in quality of life. Conventional measures of dialysis adequacy consider only urea clearance. This poorly reflects middle molecule clearance, renal function, and management of fluid and phosphate overload, all of which have a greater impact on outcome than urea clearance. Fluid, phosphate, and uremic toxin overload may be better and less invasively controlled by continuous means such as dietary modification, binders, and preserving renal function. Bioimpedance, blood volume monitoring, and lung ultrasound provide means for improved control of fluid homeostasis. The probability of renal function recovery or preservation is increased by avoiding dehydration. An ideal strategy would be to preserve renal function and employ as little dialysis as possible (if it cannot be avoided altogether). Fluid overload, blood pressure, uremic toxin, and phosphate levels would be monitored and controlled using any means available, preferably by less invasive means than dialysis. Kt/V is useful in controlling the prescribed dose of dialysis, but the achievement of a universal target should not be an end in itself.
PMID: 27766679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]