CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Photodynamic therapy

Evaluation of Targeted Curcumin (CUR) loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for in vitro Photodynamic Therapy on Human Glioblastoma Cell Line.

Abstract Title: Evaluation of Targeted Curcumin (CUR) loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for in vitro Photodynamic Therapy on Human Glioblastoma Cell Line. Abstract Source: Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018 Jun 30. Epub 2018 Jun 30. PMID: 29969678 Abstract Author(s): Zahra Jamali, Mehdi Khoobi, Sedigheh Marjaneh Hejazi, Neda Eivazi, Saeideh Abdolahpour, Fatemeh Imanparast, Hemen Moradi-Sardareh, Maliheh Paknejad Article Affiliation: Zahra Jamali Abstract: In this study, antibody-conjugated biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles were developed to enhance the photodaynamic efficiency of curcumin (CUR) on glioblastoma tumor cells. Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) were synthesized and stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) was used to provide carboxyl groups on the surface of NPs. The CUR or FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) was encapsulated in PLGA NPs using the nanoprecipitation method. The carboxylic groups on the surface of the PLGA NPs were covalently conjugated to the amino groups of a monoclonal antibody against EGFRvIII (A-EGFRvIII-f). The prepared NPs were fully characterized by Zetasizer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and then entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading efficiency (DLE), CUR release, cell internalization, intrinsic cytotoxicity, and phototoxicity were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of monoclonal antibody (MAb) on the tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFRvIII after photodynamic therapy (PDT) was assessed. The immunoreactivity of the antibody in MAb-PLGA NPs was preserved during the process of conjugation. The selective cellular internalization of MAb-PLGA NPs (FITC or CUR loaded) into the DKMG/EGFRvIII cells (EGFRvIII overexpressed human glioblastoma cell line) in comparison with DK-MG(human glioblastoma cell line with low level of EGFRvIII) was also confirmed. MAb-CUR-PLGA NPs were able to show more effective photodynamic toxicity (56% vs. 24%) on the DKMG/EGFRvIII cells compared to CUR-PLGA NPs. These results suggest that the anti-EGFRvIII MAb-CUR-PLGA NPs have potential of targeted drug delivery system for PDT in the overexpressed EGFRvIII tumor cells. Article Published Date : Jun 29, 2018

N-acetylcysteine Protects Against Chorioretinal Damage Induced by Photodynamic Therapy for Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model.

Abstract Title: N-acetylcysteine Protects Against Chorioretinal Damage Induced by Photodynamic Therapy for Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model. Abstract Source: Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18. PMID: 29679669 Abstract Author(s): Tae Wan Kim, Jun Woong Moon, Hyeong Gon Yu Article Affiliation: Tae Wan Kim Abstract: METHODS:RESULTS:CONCLUSIONS: Article Published Date : Apr 17, 2018

Time-dependent antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy with TONS 504 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Abstract Title: Time-dependent antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy with TONS 504 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Abstract Source: Lasers Med Sci. 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27. PMID: 29589177 Abstract Author(s): Kentaro Sueoka, Taiichiro Chikama, Miftahul Akhyar Latief, Ji-Ae Ko, Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Akira Obana Article Affiliation: Kentaro Sueoka Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a major cause of infectious keratitis, which itself is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We have now evaluated the time-dependent effectiveness of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with the chlorin derivative TONS 504 and a light-emitting diode (LED) on P. aeruginosa in vitro. PACT with TONS 504 (10 mg/L) and irradiation (30 J/m) by an LED device that delivers light centered on a wavelength of 660 nm was applied to 1 × 10colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa in liquid medium. The bacteria were then cultured at 37 °C for various times before assay of viability by determination of colony formation on agar plates. The effect of a second irradiation at 3 h after the initial LED exposure was also examined. Bacterial growth was markedly inhibited between 3 and 9 h after PACT with TONS 504, with the maximal effect being apparent at 3 h. Furthermore, a second exposure to LED irradiation at 3 h after the first treatment enhanced the inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. PACT with TONS 504 thus inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa in a time-dependent manner, and an additional irradiation exposure applied 3 h after the first LED treatment greatly increased the effectiveness of PACT. This antibacterial system thus warrants further evaluation with regard to its potential effectiveness for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Article Published Date : Mar 26, 2018

Contribution of photodynamic therapy in wound healing: A systematic review.

Abstract Title: Contribution of photodynamic therapy in wound healing: A systematic review. Abstract Source: Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018 Mar ;21:294-305. Epub 2017 Dec 28. PMID: 29289704 Abstract Author(s): Vanessa Nesi-Reis, Daniele Stéfanie Sara Lopes Lera-Nonose, Jully Oyama, Marielle Priscila Paula Silva-Lalucci, Izabel Galhardo Demarchi, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni Article Affiliation: Vanessa Nesi-Reis Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We researched articles that used photodynamic therapy (PDT) for skin wound healing in humans. METHODS: The systematic review was conducted through scientific articles that investigated the action of PDT on wound healing in humans, published from July 2005 to March 2017, in the data bases PubMed and LILACS. RESULTS: The main types of wound described in selected articles in this review were chronic ulcer and non-melanoma skin cancer. For accomplishing the PDT, second generation of photosensitizing agents with laser or light emitting diode were used. The studies demonstrated that PDT contribute in several ways to the wound healing process: leading to cellular death; reducing or increasing inflammation; stimulating fibroblasts proliferation and, consequently, of collagen and elastin; raising transforming growth factor beta and metalloproteinases. Based on this, PDT provided good results in wound healing process, acting in several steps and accelerating tissue repair. CONCLUSIONS: PDT improved healing in many wound models in humans, revealing itself as a promising therapeutic modality for stimulating wound healing and remodelling. Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2018

Photodynamic therapy mediated by acai oil (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in nanoemulsion: A potential treatment for melanoma.

Abstract Title: Photodynamic therapy mediated by acai oil (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in nanoemulsion: A potential treatment for melanoma. Abstract Source: J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017 Jan ;166:301-310. Epub 2016 Dec 9. PMID: 28024281 Abstract Author(s): Victoria Monge-Fuentes, Luis Alexandre Muehlmann, João Paulo Figueiró Longo, Jaqueline Rodrigues Silva, Maria Luiza Fascineli, Paulo de Souza, Fernando Faria, Igor Anatolievich Degterev, Anselmo Rodriguez, Fabiana Pirani Carneiro, Carolina Madeira Lucci, Patricia Escobar, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista Amorim, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo Article Affiliation: Victoria Monge-Fuentes Abstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer, responsible for>80% of deaths. Standard treatments for late-stage melanoma usually present poor results, leading to life-threatening side effects and low overall survival. Thus, it is necessary to rethink treatment strategies and design new tools for the treatment of this disease. On that ground, we hereby report the use of acai oil in nanoemulsion (NanoA) as a novel photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) used to treat melanoma in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. NIH/3T3 normal cells and B16F10 melanoma cell lines were treated with PDT and presented 85% cell death for melanoma cells, while maintaining high viability in normal cells. Flow cytometry indicated that cell death occurred by late apoptosis/necrosis. Tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice treated five times with PDT using acai oil in nanoemulsion showed tumor volume reduction of 82% in comparison to control/tumor group. Necrotic tissue per tumor area reached its highest value in PDT-treated mice, supporting PDT efficacy. Overall, acai oil in nanoemulsion was an effective photosensitizer, representing a promising source of new photosensitizing molecules for PDT treatment of melanoma, a tumor with an inherent tendency to be refractory for this type of therapy. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Photobiomodulation reduces abdominal adipose tissue inflammatory infiltrate of diet-induced obese and hyperglycemic mice.

Abstract Title: Photobiomodulation reduces abdominal adipose tissue inflammatory infiltrate of diet-induced obese and hyperglycemic mice. Abstract Source: J Biophotonics. 2016 Sep 16. Epub 2016 Sep 16. PMID: 27635634 Abstract Author(s): Tania Mateus Yoshimura, Caetano Padial Sabino, Martha Simões Ribeiro Article Affiliation: Tania Mateus Yoshimura Abstract: Systemic inflammation is closely related to the development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, since the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways leads to inhibition of insulin signaling. Although photobiomodulation (PBM) has proven beneficial effects on the treatment of inflammatory disorders, the phototherapeutic approach to manage the chronic inflammatory component of obesity and hyperglycemia had never been explored. In this work, obese and hyperglycemic mice are treated with PBM, and their body mass, glycemia and inflammatory infiltrate of abdominal adipose tissue are evaluated. During four weeks, irradiated animals are exposed to six irradiation sessions using an 843 nm LED (5.7 J cm(-2) at 19 mW cm(-2) per session). Non-irradiated control animals display inflammatory areas almost five times greater than the treated group (p < 0.001). This result on inflammatory infiltrate may have caused impacts on the significant lower blood glucose level from irradiated animals (p = 0.04), twenty-four hours after the last irradiation session. PBM on obese and hyperglycemic mice reduced five times the areas of inflammatory infiltrate within abdominal adipose tissue (a, b), whereas dense inflammatory regions were a common finding amidst non-irradiated animals (c). The asterisks on (c) correspond to the inflammatory infiltrate permeating adipocytes. Article Published Date : Sep 15, 2016

C-reactive protein serum level in patients with psoriasis before and after treatment with narrow-band ultraviolet B. 📎

Abstract Title: C-reactive protein serum level in patients with psoriasis before and after treatment with narrow-band ultraviolet B. Abstract Source: An Bras Dermatol. 2016 Sep-Oct;91(5):580-583. PMID: 27828628 Abstract Author(s): Mahmoud Farshchian, Akram Ansar, Mohammadreza Sobhan, Valiollah Hoseinpoor Article Affiliation: Mahmoud Farshchian Abstract: Background:: C-reactive protein is an inflammatory biomarker and its level increases in the serum of psoriatic patients. Its level is also associated with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score. Objective:: The aim of this study was to assess the decrement of serum C-reactive protein level with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy. Methods:: C-reactive protein serum levels in psoriasis patients were measured before and after treatment with NB-UVB and the data were analyzed in relation to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score improvement. Results:: Baseline C-reactive protein levels among psoriatic patients were higher than normal. These levels decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.001). At the beginning of the study, patients with higher levels of C-reactive protein also had more extensive and severe skin involvement. The highest decrease in C-reactive protein was observed in patients who responded better to the treatment and achieved a higher Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 75%. There was an association between baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores and C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion:: Patients with moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis had active systemic inflammation, which was demonstrated by increased levels of C-reactive protein. Furthermore, skin disease severity was correlated with C-reactive protein levels. Phototherapy healed the psoriatic skin lesions and reduced inflammation, while decreasing C-reactive protein levels. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2016

Low-level Light Therapy for Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Review of Clinical Experiences.

Abstract Title: Low-level Light Therapy for Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Review of Clinical Experiences. Abstract Source: J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Jul 1 ;15(7):843-8. PMID: 27391634 Abstract Author(s): Catherine N Tchanque-Fossuo, Derek Ho, Sara E Dahle, Eugene Koo, R Rivkah Isseroff, Jared Jagdeo Article Affiliation: Catherine N Tchanque-Fossuo Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) represent a significant complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). DFU affect one in four patients with DM and treatments of DFU are limited and challenging. The management of DFU remains a significant healthcare and socioeconomic burden ($245 billion). There is a wide range of advanced therapies for DFU, but these are costly and have demonstrated only minimal efficacy in limited published studies. An emerging treatment modality to improve DFU and optimize wound healing is the use of low-level light therapy (LLLT). LLLT involves the use of light in the form of low-level or low-power laser or light emitting diodes to alter biochemical pathways, which may result in changes to cell shape, cell migration, and cell signaling. OBJECTIVE: To review published clinical experiences (case series and case reports) using LLLT for treatment of DFU, and provide evidence-based recommendations and future directions on the potential of LLLT as a therapeutic modality for DFU. METHODS AND MATERIALS: On January 16, 2016 we searched the published literature using databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science with key terms:"diabetic foot"AND ("low level laser therapy"OR"low level light therapy"OR"LLLT"OR"light emitting diode"OR"phototherapy"OR"laser"). RESULTS: After screening of titles, abstracts and/or full-text, 7 original articles were suitable in our review. Our review contains 5 case series and 2 case reports that evaluated LLLT for treatment of DFU, and all reviewed studies have shown positive improvement of DFU using LLLT with no adverse events, albeit with limitations that may be minimized with future RCTs. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT is an emerging and promising treatment modality to current alternatives that are costly and have shown limited success. Based upon the published evidence, we envision additional research may allow for stronger recommendation with LLLT for treatment of DFU.J Drugs Dermatol.2016;15(7):843-848. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2016

Photodynamic Therapy Potentiates the Effects of Curcumin on Pediatric Epithelial Liver Tumor Cells.

Abstract Title: Photodynamic Therapy Potentiates the Effects of Curcumin on Pediatric Epithelial Liver Tumor Cells. Abstract Source: Anticancer Res. 2016 Jul ;36(7):3363-72. PMID: 27354595 Abstract Author(s): Verena Ellerkamp, Nicola Bortel, Evi Schmid, Bettina Kirchner, Sorin Armeanu-Ebinger, Jörg Fuchs Article Affiliation: Verena Ellerkamp Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: Curcumin (CUM) is a promising agent in complementary oncology. The present study analyzed the photoactive properties of curcumin on pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatoblastoma cell lines (HuH6, HepT1) and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2, HC-AFW1) were treated with curcumin and exposed to blue light (phototherapy, 480 nm, 300 W). Cell viability (MTT tests), cellular oxidative stress (production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and cellular uptake/degradation of curcumin were analyzed. RESULTS: Significant loss of viability resulted from 24-48 h incubation with curcumin. With photodynamic therapy (PDT), even short time incubation (1 h) with curcumin resulted in significantly lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) (p<0.001, two-way ANOVA). Significant ROS production was observed with PDT and curcumin. CONCLUSION: Phototherapy strongly enhances the anticancer properties of curcumin in pediatric solid liver tumors in vitro. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2016

Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model. 📎

Abstract Title: Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model. Abstract Source: J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016 Apr 1 ;159:161-168. Epub 2016 Apr 1. PMID: 27074245 Abstract Author(s): Fernanda Freire, Cleber Ferraresi, Antonio Olavo C Jorge, Michael R Hamblin Article Affiliation: Fernanda Freire Abstract: Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2016

Aloe-emodin-mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagy and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cell line MG‑63 through the ROS/JNK signaling pathway. 📎

Abstract Title: Aloe-emodin-mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagy and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cell line MG‑63 through the ROS/JNK signaling pathway. Abstract Source: Oncol Rep. 2016 Mar 24. Epub 2016 Mar 24. PMID: 27035222 Abstract Author(s): Pinghua Tu, Qiu Huang, Yunsheng Ou, Xing Du, Kaiting Li, Yong Tao, Hang Yin Article Affiliation: Pinghua Tu Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the effect and mechanisms of aloe‑emodin (AE)-mediated photodynamic therapy (AE-PDT) on the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. After treatment with AE-PDT, the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was tested for levels of viability, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis and changes in cell morphology with the CellCounting Kit-8 (CCK‑8), monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of proteins including LC-3, cleaved caspase-3, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, p-JNK, t-JNK and β-actin was examined with western blotting. AE-PDT significantly inhibited the viability of the MG-63 cells in an AE-concentration- and PDT energy density-dependent manner. Autophagy and apoptosis of MG-63 cells was substantially promoted in the AE-PDT group compared to the control group, the AE alone group and the light emitting diode (LED) alone group. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (5 mM) and chloroquine (CQ) (15 µM) significantly promoted the apoptosis rate and improved the sensitivity of the MG-63 cells to AE-PDT. AE-PDT was found to induce the expression of ROS and p-JNK. ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM), was able to hinder the autophagy,apoptosis and phosphorylation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor (SP600125, 10 µM) significantly inhibited the autophagy and apoptosis, and attenuated the sensitivity of MG63 cells to AE-PDT. In conclusion, AE-PDT induced the autophagy and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 through the activation of the ROS-JNK signaling pathway. Autophagy may play a protective role during the early stage following treatment of AE-PDT. Article Published Date : Mar 23, 2016

In-vitro study of photodynamic therapy of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

Abstract Title: [In-vitro study of photodynamic therapy of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis]. Abstract Source: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2016 Mar 7 ;51(3):164-8. PMID: 27033568 Abstract Author(s): K Q Zhao, C Yang, G Q Ding, C H Liu, Y Ma, X Y Chen, Y Wu, C Q Zheng Article Affiliation: K Q Zhao Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the photodynamic therapy (PDT) against multi-antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S.epidermidis) obtained from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS). METHODS: Forty-five CRS patients who had been given medical treatment but still needed endoscopic surgery were included in this study. The mucus from middle meatus was collected from these patients during surgery, followed by separation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis and drug sensitive test. The strains which could form biofilm were selected. Light emitting diode (LED) array with a major wavelength of (633±10)nm was used as light source and 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was used as photosensitizer in this PDT experiment. The safe range of LED dose and ALA concentration which were not toxic to bacteria by themselves were confirmed, and then did PDT experiment on S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The data of bacterial colony forming unit were transformed to lgCFU before statistical analysis.The Graph Pad Prism 5 software was used to analyzed the data. RESULTS: Thirteen S. aureus and 16 S. epidermidis were included in this experiment(from 45 patients), all of them were multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and four of S. aureus and five of S. epidermidis could form biofilm in each group. In planktonic S. aureus experiment, the mean lgCFU was 8.32±0.31 in control group whereas the experiment group was 6.47±0.67 (t=9.01, P<0.01), and in planktonic S. epidermidis experiment the final data was 8.34±0.20 (control group) and 6.97±0.59 (experiment group) (t=8.84, P<0.01). In biofilm S. aureus experiment, the mean lgCFU was 8.68±0.05 (control group), 6.90±0.96(experiment group)(t=3.68, P<0.05); and in biofilm S. epidermidis experiment the data was 8.67±0.05(control group), 7.29±0.61(experiment group, t=5.07, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that ALA-mediated PDT on multi-antibiotic-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis from CRS patients was effective in vitro. Additional work defining if the PDT treatment would damage the nasal mucosa and further checking the effectiveness of PDT in vivo is still needed. Article Published Date : Mar 06, 2016

Photodynamic Therapy - A Non-invasive Treatment Modality for Precancerous Lesions. Photodynamic Therapy - A Non-invasive Treatment Modality for Precancerous Lesions. Photodynamic Therapy - A Non-invasive Treatment Modality for Precancerous Lesions. 📎

Abstract Title: Photodynamic Therapy - A Non-invasive Treatment Modality for Precancerous Lesions. Abstract Source: J Lasers Med Sci. 2016 ;7(1):30-6. Epub 2016 Jan 7. PMID: 27330695 Abstract Author(s): Kotya Naik Maloth, Nagalaxmi Velpula, Srikanth Kodangal, Mithare Sangmesh, Kiran Vellamchetla, Sridevi Ugrappa, Nagajyothi Meka Article Affiliation: Kotya Naik Maloth Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Oral premalignant lesions are conditions having high potential tendency for transformation into malignancy. The use of a conservative and effective treatment modality is one of the best strategies for cancer prevention. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive method for topical and selective treatment of oral precancerous lesions. The present study was taken up to determine the efficacy of PDT in oral precancerous lesions. METHODS: The study consisted 13 patients with 24 oral leukoplakia (OL) lesions and 8 with 20 oral lichen planus (OLP) lesions, divided into control and study groups. These lesions were affecting various intraoral sites, the buccal mucosa being the most common site followed by tongue and gingiva. The treatment regimen of PDT included 98% 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) which is topical applied and irradiated with light emitting diode (LED) of 420 nm wavelengths at several sessions. RESULTS: In OL 16.6% of cases showed complete response, 66.6% partial response and 16.6% no response of the lesions to the treatment. In OLP 80% and 20% of the lesions showed partial and no response respectively. The differences with control groups for OL + OLP were found to be significant (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the present study, we can conclude that PDT appears to be a feasible alternative to conventional therapy for oral premalignant lesions. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

An In Vitro Comparison of Antimicrobial Effects of Curcumin-Based Photodynamic Therapy and Chlorhexidine, on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. 📎

Abstract Title: An In Vitro Comparison of Antimicrobial Effects of Curcumin-Based Photodynamic Therapy and Chlorhexidine, on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Abstract Source: J Lasers Med Sci. 2016 ;7(1):21-5. Epub 2016 Jan 7. PMID: 27330693 Abstract Author(s): Shamsoulmolouk Najafi, Mina Khayamzadeh, Mojgan Paknejad, Golfam Poursepanj, Mohammad Javad Kharazi Fard, Abbas Bahador Article Affiliation: Shamsoulmolouk Najafi Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Considering the importance of prevention in periodontal diseases and the important role of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in induction and progression of these diseases, the aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), curcumin and light-emitting diode (LED) laser, on this bacterium. METHODS: Antimicrobial activity of curcumin (5 mg/ml), CHX (2%), LED (120 J/cm(2)) and LED + curcumin (120 J/cm(2) + 2.5 mg/ml) against A. actinomycetemcomitans were tested in vitro, using micro-broth dilution test. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD tests served for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Regarding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), CHX had a significantly lower MIC than curcumin (P<0.05). Sorted out by bacterial growth from lowest to highest, were CHX, LED + curcumin, curcumin, and LED groups. All the differences were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) except for the LED group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that curcumin is an effective substance in preventing the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans, whose impact is reinforced when used simultaneously with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

HMME combined with green light-emitting diode irradiation results in efficient apoptosis on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

Abstract Title: HMME combined with green light-emitting diode irradiation results in efficient apoptosis on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Abstract Source: Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Sep ;30(7):1941-8. Epub 2015 Jul 26. PMID: 26210547 Abstract Author(s): Xingqiang Lai, Fen Ning, Xiuwen Xia, Dujuan Wang, Lin Tang, Jiang Hu, Junchao Wu, Jianzhong Liu, Xiaoyuan Li Article Affiliation: Xingqiang Lai Abstract: Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) is a novel and promising porphyrin-related photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and potential mechanism of HMME-PDT under irradiation of green light-emitting diode (LED) with wavelength of 530 ± 20 nm in treating human tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells in vitro. The HMME concentrations were 1.25, 2.5, and 5 μg/ml while the energy densities were 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, and 3.0 J/cm(2). MTT assay demonstrated that HMME-PDT significantly inhibited the proliferation of Tca8113 cells, and the cytotoxicity was improved with increased HMME concentration and light intensity. The amount of cells decreased significantly and the morphology of cells changed drastically after HMME-PDT. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that HMME-PDT induced both apoptosis and necrosis, but apoptosis was the main form of cell death. Apoptotic morphology was confirmed by Hoechst 33342 staining. Laser scanning confocal microscopy observation showed that HMME was mainly localized in mitochondria. The production of intracellular reactive oxygen species increased remarkably after PDT treatment, and both sodium azide (the singlet oxygen quencher) and D-mannitol (the hydroxyl radical scavenger) could protect Tca8113 cells from death induced by HMME-PDT. Additionally, the activity of caspase-3 also increased markedly in treated groups, and the cell death could be rescued by a reversible inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO) of caspase-3. These results demonstrated that HMME combined with green LED significantly induced apoptosis of Tca8113 cells, suggesting that HMME-PDT using green LED might be a potential therapeutic strategy for human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2015
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Rod-like [email protected] Nanohybrids modified supermolecular photosensitizer for NIRF/MSOT/CT/MR Quadmodal Imaging Guided Photothermal/Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

Rod-like [email protected] Nanohybrids modified supermolecular photosensitizer for NIRF/MSOT/CT/MR Quadmodal Imaging Guided Photothermal/Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Yang S, You Q, Yang L, Li P, Lu Q, Wang S, Tan F, Ji Y, Li N Abstract Recently, rod-like nanomaterials with specific aspect ratio (AR) for efficient cellular uptake have received enormous attention. For functional nanomaterials, such as photothermal agents, large surface areas for their rod-shape exterior that increase the amount of light absorbed would lead to the higher absorption coefficient as well as drug loading property. In this project, we coated rod-like mesoporous silica with gold nanoshell ([email protected] hybrid), modifying with ultrasmall gadolinium (Gd) chelated supramolecular photosensitizers TPPS4 ([email protected](Gd)), which could be applied to near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) / multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) / computed tomography (CT) / magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and imaging guided remotely controlled PTT/PDT combined antitumor therapy. Gold nanoshell, as a perfect PTT agent, was used to assemble the rod-like mesoporous silica nanoparticles with larger superficial area and higher drug loading, thus obtaining [email protected] hybrid. HS-β-CD, which was used as the host, was adsorbed on gold nanoshell ([email protected]β-CD) to link TPPS4(Gd) through host-guest reaction, thus forming CD-TPPS4 supramolecular PSs (supraPSs). Compared with conventional PSs, supraPSs had the host screens, which could reduce the self-aggregation of the TPPS4, and consequently generate 1O2 with high-efficiency. The quad-modal imaging in vivo of [email protected](Gd) nanoparticles revealed that an intensive tumor uptake effect after injection. In vivo antitumor efficacy further testified that the synergistic therapy, which was more efficient than any other mono-therapy, exhibited an excellent tumor inhibition therapeutic effect. As a result, it's encouraged to further explore multifunctional theranostic nanoparticles based of gold shells for cancer combination therapy. PMID: 30668088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The role of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

The role of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Dig Endosc. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Wu H, Minamide T, Yano T Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment of choice for cancer, induce photochemical reaction, thereby eradicating tumor cells. This is achieved through the administration of a photosensitizer drug, which is activated with a laser after localization to the tumor mass, and is an approved curative endoscopic ablative treatment for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Japan. PDT has been approved for dysplastic Barrett 's esophagus and as a palliative treatment for patients with symptomatic obstructive esophageal cancer in US. However, its adverse events and complicated procedure and the development of alternative endoscopic procedures such as endoscopic submucosal dissection, radio frequency ablation and cryotherapy, have largely limited the practice of PDT in esophageal cancer worldwide. Recently, owing to the invention of second-generation PDT using talaporfin sodium and diode laser, PDT can be performed with less phototoxicity and therefore has regained popularity in the treatment of ESCC. As a salvage treatment for patients with local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CRT), PDT has shown promising complete response with less phototoxicity and shorter sun shade period. And, the efficacy and safety of PDT in patients with local failure of ESCC after CRT were shown in several clinical trials. The direction of the study-interest of the next generation PDT is the safety and potential expansion of the indications for its application in the future. This review covers the PDT for the treatment of ESCC and dysplastic Barrett 's esophagus, with special focus on the role of PDT in practice for esophageal cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30667112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Endoscopic Palliation for Biliary and Pancreatic Malignancies: Recent Advances.

Related Articles Endoscopic Palliation for Biliary and Pancreatic Malignancies: Recent Advances. Clin Endosc. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Nabi Z, Reddy DN Abstract Malignancies of the pancreatobiliary system are usually unresectable at the time of diagnosis. As a consequence, a majority of these cases are candidates for palliative care. With advances in chemotherapeutic agents and multidisciplinary care, the survival rate in pancreatobiliary malignancies has improved. Therefore, there is a need to provide an effective and long-lasting palliative care for these patients. Endoscopic palliation is preferred to surgery as the former is associated with equal efficacy and reduced morbidity. The main role of endoscopic palliation in the vast majority of pancreatobiliary malignancies includes biliary and enteral stenting for malignant obstructive jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction, respectively. Recent advances in endoscopic palliation appear promising in imparting long-lasting relief of symptoms. Use of radiofrequency ablation and photodynamic therapy in malignant biliary obstruction has been shown to improve the survival rates as well as the patency of biliary stents. The emergence of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) as a therapeutic tool has enhanced the capability of minimally invasive palliation in pancreatobiliary cancers. EUS is a valuable alternative to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the palliation of obstructive jaundice. More recently, EUS is emerging as an effective primary modality for biliary and gastric bypass. PMID: 30665289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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