Effect of Housing Type on 25 OH Vitamin D in Serum of Rhesus Monkeys.
P R Health Sci J. 2018 Jun;37(2):124-127
Authors: Preston AM, Rodríguez-Orengo J, González-Sepúlveda L, Ayala-Peña S, Maldonado-Maldonado E
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D status is primarily dependent upon sun exposure and dietary sources, however genetic, cultural, and environmental factors can have a modulating role in the measured amount. One under-reported factor is the effect of regular living quarters on the degree of sun exposure. Herein, we assess vitamin D status in the blood of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in high amounts of sunlight (corn-cribs), medium sunlight (corrals with shaded areas), and minimal sunlight (quarantine cages).
METHODS: Fifty-five male Rhesus monkeys, aged 1 to 31 years were housed in varying amounts of sun exposure at the Caribbean Primate Research Center. Serum was collected and analyzed for 25 OH Vitamin D which is the preferred metabolite for determination of Vitamin D using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
RESULTS: 25 OH Vitamin D levels in blood were significantly greater in corn-cribhoused monkeys than in corral or quarantine-housed animals (p > 0.01 and p > 0.001 respectively). Significant differences of serum levels were not found when ages of animals housed in the same environment were compared.
CONCLUSION: Monkeys housed in a tropical environment with the greatest amount of exposure to sunlight maintain the highest serum levels of 25 OH vitamin D independent of age. These findings emphasize the importance of documenting the environment in which subjects typically spend their time when Vitamin D results are interpreted.
PMID: 29905924 [PubMed - in process]
Physiological responses and toxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa in short-term exposure to solar UV radiation.
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2018 Jan 17;17(1):69-80
Authors: Hernando M, Minaglia MCC, Malanga G, Houghton C, Andrinolo D, Sedan D, Rosso L, Giannuzzi L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (hours) exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) on the physiology of Microcystis aeruginosa. Three solar radiation treatments were implemented: (i) PAR (PAR, 400-700 nm), (ii) TUVA (PAR + UVAR, 315-700 nm) and (iii) TUVR (PAR + UVAR + UVBR, 280-700 nm). Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to UVR were observed. Antioxidant enzymes were more active at high UVR doses. However, different responses were observed depending on the exposure to UVAR or UVBR and the dose level. No effects were observed on the biomass, ROS production or increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) compared to the control when UVR + PAR doses were lower than 9875 kJ m-2. For intermediate doses, UVR + PAR doses between 9875 and 10 275 kJ m-2, oxidative stress increased while resistance was imparted through SOD and CAT in the cells exposed to UVAR. Despite the increased antioxidant activity, biomass decrease and photosynthesis inhibition were observed, but no effects were observed with added exposure to UVBR. At the highest doses (UVR + PAR higher than 10 275 kJ m-2), the solar UVR caused decreased photosynthesis and biomass with only activation of CAT by UVBR and SOD and CAT by UVAR. In addition, for such doses, a significant decrease of microcystins (MCs, measured as MC-LR equivalents) was observed as a consequence of UVAR. This study facilitates our understanding of the SOD and CAT protection according to UVAR and UVBR doses and cellular damage and reinforces the importance of UVR as an environmental stressor. In addition, our results support the hypothesized antioxidant function of MCs.
PMID: 29188851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The impact of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation in combination with different temperatures in the early life stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2018 Jan 17;17(1):35-41
Authors: Icoglu Aksakal F, Ciltas A
Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is an environmental stressor with detrimental effects on many aquatic organisms including fish. In addition, UV-B exposure combined with other environmental factors could have even more negative effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-B radiation exposure on zebrafish embryos/larvae in terms of survival, developmental toxicity and the mRNA levels of the genes related to oxidative stress and innate immune response at different temperatures (24 °C, 28 °C and 30 °C). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 3.3 W m-2 UV-B radiation and/or 24 °C, 28 °C (for the control) and 30 °C temperatures between 4 and 96 h post-fertilization. The mortality, hatching rate, malformations and heartbeat rate were evaluated. The results demonstrated that UV-B exposure or different temperatures (24 °C and 30 °C) induced developmental toxicity, including delayed hatching, increased the occurrence of malformations, and reduced the heartbeat rate and survival. The combined exposure to UV-B and different temperatures (24 °C and 30 °C) resulted in greater adverse effects on embryonic development. Furthermore, RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1), catalase 1 (cat1), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), interleukin-1 beta (il-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfα) genes were significantly up-regulated in all of the treatment groups. These results revealed that the interaction between UV-B and temperature impaired the development of zebrafish embryos and disrupted their metabolism.
PMID: 29147715 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]