Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.
Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 May ;6(5):290-3. Epub 2010 Mar 30. PMID: 20351697
Cees de Graaf, Frans J Kok
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands.
This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.
Article Published Date : May 01, 2010
Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria).
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 ;6:17. Epub 2010 Jun 21. PMID: 20565945
Christoph Schunko, Christian R Vogl
BACKGROUND: Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations.
METHODS: Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here.
RESULTS: Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam).
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The classification following gathering and use variables can be used to better understand how people classify the elements of their environment. The findings of this study add to discussions about food heritage, popularized by organizations like Slow Food, and bear significant potential for organic farmers.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
Rites of passage in Italy.
Gastronomica (Berkeley Calif). 2010 ;10(1):32-7. PMID: 21495289
Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change?
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
Low protein to carbohydrate ratio diet delays onset of Parkinsonism like phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster parkin null mutants.
Mech Ageing Dev. 2016 Dec;160:19-27
Authors: Bajracharya R, Ballard JW
Dietary management plays a key role in the treatment of many diseases. However, no prospective studies have critically investigated the potential for dietary modification to delay the onset, or slow the progression, of Parkinson's Disease (PD). To study whether manipulating the Protein to Carbohydrate (P:C) ratio in the diet could affect the progression of PD, we compared Drosophila melanogaster parkin null mutants and their experimental controls fed with diets differing in their P:C ratio. We considered lifespan and feeding behaviors as well as motor and cellular functions on the 1:2 and 1:16 P:C diets. We observe that parkin mutants have a longer lifespan when fed the 1:16 P:C compared to those fed the 1:2 P:C diet. Parkin mutants fed the 1:16 P:C diet have delayed climbing deficit, increased resistance to starvation. Mutant flies fed the 1:16 P:C diet also have improved mitochondrial functions as evidenced by increased respiratory control ratio and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species production and superoxide activity especially in old parkin mutants. Combined, these results suggest that dietary management has potential to delay the progression of PD.
PMID: 27720857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]