Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Socialization

Social isolation affects the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice. 📎

Abstract Title: Social isolation affects the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice. Abstract Source: Endocrinology. 2007 Oct;148(10):4658-66. Epub 2007 Jul 19. PMID: 17640995 Abstract Author(s): Katsunori Nonogaki, Kana Nozue, Yoshitomo Oka Abstract: Social isolation is associated with increased risks of mortality and morbidity. In this study, we show that chronic individual housing accelerated body weight gain and adiposity in KK mice but not C57BL6J mice, and fully developed diabetes in KKA(y) mice. Individually housed KK and KKA(y) mice increased body weight gain over the initial 2 wk without increased daily average food consumption compared with group-housed animals. The individually housed KK and KKA(y) mice then gradually increased food consumption for the next 1 wk. The chronic social isolation-induced obesity (SIO) was associated with hyperleptinemia and lower plasma corticosterone and active ghrelin levels but not hyperinsulinemia. Elevated plasma leptin in the SIO suppressed expression of 5-HT2C receptor in white adipose tissue. The SIO was also associated with decreased expression of beta3-adrenergic receptors in white adipose tissue and hypothalamic leptin receptor, which might be secondary to the enhanced adiposity. Interestingly, social isolation acutely reduced food consumption and body weight gain compared with group-housed obese db/db mice with leptin receptor deficiency. Social isolation-induced hyperglycemia in KKA(y) mice was associated with increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenetic genes independent of insulin. These findings suggest that social isolation promotes obesity due to primary decreased energy expenditure and secondary increased food consumption, which are independent of the disturbed leptin signaling, in KK mice, and develops into insulin-independent diabetes associated with increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenetic genes in KKA(y) mice. Thus, social isolation can be included in the environmental factors that contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2007
Therapeutic Actions Socialization

NCBI pubmed

Do you remember being told what happened to grandma? The role of early socialization on later coping with death.

Related Articles Do you remember being told what happened to grandma? The role of early socialization on later coping with death. Death Stud. 2018 Dec 12;:1-11 Authors: Martinčeková L, Jiang MJ, Adams JD, Menendez D, Hernandez IG, Barber G, Rosengren KS Abstract Using a mixed-methods approach, we examined how participants' memories of socialization regarding death might influence their self-reported coping with losses in childhood and adulthood. We recruited 318 adults to complete an online survey. Path analyses indicated that participants who remembered their parents shielding them less from issues related to death reported better coping as children and adults. Qualitative responses suggested participants wanted to receive more information about death from their parents as they went through the grieving process. We highlight the potential benefits of socializing children about death, and how it may aid in their coping with death-related events. PMID: 30541397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mathematical skills in children with pilocytic astrocytoma.

Related Articles Mathematical skills in children with pilocytic astrocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2018 Dec 06;: Authors: Benavides-Varela S, Lorusso R, Baro V, Denaro L, Estévez-Pérez N, Lucangeli D, D'Avella D, Semenza C Abstract BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with circumscribed cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) tumors generally perform within the normal range on neuropsychological tests after a complete tumor resection. The outcome in academically relevant abilities such as mathematics, which in adults involve some cerebellar functions, is however much less understood. The aim of this study is to retrospectively investigate the neuroplasticity of mathematical skills and associated cognitive functions following cerebellar resection of PA in pediatric patients. METHODS: Twenty-two children (mean age = 11.2 + 1.8), including 11 PA patients (females = 6) and 11 healthy controls (females = 6), were administered a battery of mathematical (MaT) and neuropsychological tests. Single-case statistical analyses were carried out (Crawford's t) as well as between-group comparisons (Wilcoxon test). Spearman correlations between MaT and neuropsychological tests were calculated. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of the patients showed difficulties in some mathematical tasks, 50% of them within a broader cognitive deficit. Verbal working memory was associated with MaT performance both in patients and controls while, crucially, visuospatial memory, and visual-motor integration were associated with MaT in patients only. Among patients, MaT correlated negatively with tumor size and positively with the interval surgery test. CONCLUSIONS: The results evince an overall recovery of mathematical abilities despite PA in the majority of patients. This functional reestablishment is supported by visuospatial and visuomotor integration functions that contribute to set up emerging mathematical skills in these patients. Higher levels of compensation are found in more developed tumors as compared to smaller ones. PMID: 30523458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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