Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Socialization

Social isolation affects the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice. 📎

Abstract Title: Social isolation affects the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice. Abstract Source: Endocrinology. 2007 Oct;148(10):4658-66. Epub 2007 Jul 19. PMID: 17640995 Abstract Author(s): Katsunori Nonogaki, Kana Nozue, Yoshitomo Oka Abstract: Social isolation is associated with increased risks of mortality and morbidity. In this study, we show that chronic individual housing accelerated body weight gain and adiposity in KK mice but not C57BL6J mice, and fully developed diabetes in KKA(y) mice. Individually housed KK and KKA(y) mice increased body weight gain over the initial 2 wk without increased daily average food consumption compared with group-housed animals. The individually housed KK and KKA(y) mice then gradually increased food consumption for the next 1 wk. The chronic social isolation-induced obesity (SIO) was associated with hyperleptinemia and lower plasma corticosterone and active ghrelin levels but not hyperinsulinemia. Elevated plasma leptin in the SIO suppressed expression of 5-HT2C receptor in white adipose tissue. The SIO was also associated with decreased expression of beta3-adrenergic receptors in white adipose tissue and hypothalamic leptin receptor, which might be secondary to the enhanced adiposity. Interestingly, social isolation acutely reduced food consumption and body weight gain compared with group-housed obese db/db mice with leptin receptor deficiency. Social isolation-induced hyperglycemia in KKA(y) mice was associated with increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenetic genes independent of insulin. These findings suggest that social isolation promotes obesity due to primary decreased energy expenditure and secondary increased food consumption, which are independent of the disturbed leptin signaling, in KK mice, and develops into insulin-independent diabetes associated with increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenetic genes in KKA(y) mice. Thus, social isolation can be included in the environmental factors that contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2007
Therapeutic Actions Socialization

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"We've all had patients who've died …": Narratives of emotion and ideals of competence among junior doctors.

Related Articles "We've all had patients who've died …": Narratives of emotion and ideals of competence among junior doctors. Soc Sci Med. 2018 Aug 30;215:152-159 Authors: Crowe S, Brugha R Abstract Although there is reasonably rich literature on socialisation in medical schools, few studies have investigated emotional socialisation among qualified doctors; specifically how specialist training reproduces the norms, values, and assumptions of medical culture. This article explores expressions and management of emotion in doctors' narratives of work and training for insights into how socialisation continues after graduation. The study employed qualitative methods - in-depth interviews - with fifty doctors at early and advanced stages of specialist training in teaching hospitals in Ireland. The study found that performance of competence, particularly for doctors at earlier training stages, required them to hide signs of struggle and uncertainty. Competence was associated with being emotionally tough, which involved hiding emotional vulnerability; however, some challenged the assumption that doctors should be able to transcend emotionally painful events. Tensions between this expression of competence and making time for self-care meant that the latter was often neglected. Some participants highlighted how they enjoyed more personal interactions with patients, which was juxtaposed with the expectation of being detached and an associated potential to objectify patients. This theme resonates with recent debates on "appropriate" expressions of empathy and its implications for patient-doctor relationships. The article discusses how ideas underpinning the image of medical invincibility should be questioned as part of efforts to reform medical culture and in the training of specialists in emotional wellbeing and self-care. PMID: 30241086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Does exposure to reduced pH and diclofenac induce oxidative stress in marine bivalves? A comparative study with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

Related Articles Does exposure to reduced pH and diclofenac induce oxidative stress in marine bivalves? A comparative study with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Environ Pollut. 2018 Sep;240:925-937 Authors: Munari M, Matozzo V, Gagné F, Chemello G, Riedl V, Finos L, Pastore P, Badocco D, Marin MG Abstract CO2-driven acidification and emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, pose new threats for the maintenance of natural populations of marine organisms by interfering with their normal biochemical pathways and defences. The combined effects of seawater acidification, as predicted in climate change scenarios, and an emerging contaminant (the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID, diclofenac) on oxidative stress-related parameters were investigated in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. A flow-through system was used to carry out a three-week exposure experiment with the bivalves. First, the animals were exposed to only three pH values for 7 days. The pH was manipulated by dissolving CO2 in the seawater to obtain two reduced pH treatments (pH -0.4 units and pH -0.7 units), which were compared with seawater at the natural pH level (8.1). Thereafter, the bivalves were concomitantly exposed to the three experimental pH values and environmentally relevant concentrations of diclofenac (0.00, 0.05 and 0.50 μg/L) for an additional 14 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and cyclooxygenase, and lipid peroxidation and DNA strand-break formation were measured in both the gills and digestive gland after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure to each experimental condition. The results show that the biochemical parameters measured in both the mussels and clams were more influenced by the reduced pH than by the contaminant or the pH*contaminant interaction, although the biomarker variation patterns differed depending on the species and tissues analysed. Generally, due to increases in its antioxidant defence, M. galloprovincialis was more resistant than R. philippinarum to both diclofenac exposure and reduced pH. Conversely, reduced pH induced a significant decrease in COX activity in both the gills and digestive gland of clams, possibly resulting in the increased DNA damage observed in the digestive gland tissue. PMID: 29949844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]