CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Exercise Aerobic

Effect of Meridian Acupressure on Aerobic Performance of Healthy Young Population: A Randomized Controlled Study.

Abstract Title: Effect of Meridian Acupressure on Aerobic Performance of Healthy Young Population: A Randomized Controlled Study. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20. PMID: 29461858 Abstract Author(s): Shahin Ahmedov, Baris Filiz Article Affiliation: Shahin Ahmedov Abstract: OBJECTIVES: An enhancement of aerobic capacity has always been in the scope of various exercise programs. Apart from traditional, like endurance training, methods to improve aerobic performance, there is growing interest to alternative bodywork techniques, like massage, yoga, and acupuncture. This study aimed to investigate the acupressure effect on maximal aerobic capacity (VOmax) in healthy young adult males. DESIGN: Forty young healthy participants were randomly divided into intervention (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The inferred VOmax level in groups was assessed by the 6-min Harvard step test twice: at baseline and after acupressure session. INTERVENTION: Three-minute finger-tip point massage of Neiguan, Juque, and Xinshu acupoints covered by 1 cmsticky capsaicin-dressed heat plasters was applied in the intervention group, whereas in the control group, placebo acupressure was utilized. RESULTS: The inferred VOmax in the intervention group increased from baseline 2.38 ± 0.48 L/min to 2.57 ± 0.6 L/min (p < 0.003), whereas inferred VOmax of the control group remained unchanged (2.46 ± 0.5 L/min at baseline and 2.47 ± 0.4 L/min after placebo acupressure, p > 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study demonstrated that finger-tip acupressure increases aerobic performance of young healthy males on more than 10%. Acupressure probably decreased anxiety level, which allowed better utilization of available energy sources. Article Published Date : Feb 19, 2018

Psychobiological Responses to Aerobic Exercise in Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Abstract Title: Psychobiological Responses to Aerobic Exercise in Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Abstract Source: J Trauma Stress. 2018 Feb ;31(1):134-145. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 29388710 Abstract Author(s): Kevin M Crombie, Angelique G Brellenthin, Cecilia J Hillard, Kelli F Koltyn Article Affiliation: Kevin M Crombie Abstract: Previous reports have shown improvements in mood and increases in endocannabinoids in healthy adults following a session of aerobic exercise, but it is unclear whether adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience similar responses. The purpose of this study was to examine psychobiological responses (plasma endocannabinoids [eCBs], mood, and pain) to aerobic exercise in a sample of adults with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants engaged in an aerobic exercise session in which they ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (70 to 75% maximum heart rate [MHR]). Results indicated improvements in mood states and reductions in pain for both groups following exercise, ds = 0.19 to 1.53. Circulating concentrations of N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) significantly increased (ps = .000 to .050) following the aerobic exercise session for both groups. There were no significant time, group, or interaction effects (ps = .062 to .846) for palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG). Although eCBs increased significantly for both groups, within-group effect size calculations indicated the healthy controls experienced a greater magnitude of change for AEA when compared with adults with PTSD, d = 1.21 and d = 0.45, respectively; as well as for 2-AG, d = 0.43 and d = 0.21, respectively. The findings from this study indicated that adults with and without PTSD reported significant mood improvements following 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. In addition, the endocannabinoid system was activated in adults with and without PTSD, although effect sizes suggest that adults with PTSD may have a blunted endocannabinoid response to exercise. Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2018

Aerobic Exercise Sustains Performance of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease.

Abstract Title: Aerobic Exercise Sustains Performance of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease. Abstract Source: J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28. PMID: 29286983 Abstract Author(s): Eric D Vidoni, Jaime Perales, Mohammed Alshehri, Abdul-Mannaan Giles, Catherine F Siengsukon, Jeffrey M Burns Article Affiliation: Eric D Vidoni Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) experience progressive loss of independence-performing activities of daily living. Identifying interventions to support independence and reduce the economic and psychosocial burden of caregiving for individuals with AD is imperative. The purpose of this analysis was to examine functional disability and caregiver time in individuals with early-stage AD. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 26 weeks of aerobic exercise (AEx) versus stretching and toning (ST). We measured functional dependence using the Disability Assessment for Dementia, informal caregiver time required using the Resources Utilization in Dementia Lite, and cognition using a standard cognitive battery. RESULTS: We saw a stable function in the AEx group compared with a significant decline in the ST group (4%; F = 4.2, P = .04). This was especially evident in more complex, instrumental activities of daily living, with individuals in the AEx group increasing 1% compared with an 8% loss in the ST group over 26 weeks (F = 8.3, P = .006). Change in memory was a significant predictor of declining instrumental activities of daily living performance (r = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.08∞, P = .01). Informal caregiver time was not different between the AEx and ST groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis extends recent work by revealing specific benefits for instrumental activities of daily living for individuals in the early stages of AD and supports the value of exercise for individuals with cognitive impairment. Article Published Date : Dec 27, 2017

Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial. Abstract Source: BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Sep 2 ;17(1):322. Epub 2017 Sep 2. PMID: 28865430 Abstract Author(s): Therese Eskilsson, Lisbeth Slunga Järvholm, Hanna Malmberg Gavelin, Anna Stigsdotter Neely, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk Article Affiliation: Therese Eskilsson Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program. METHODS: In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity. RESULTS: In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2017

Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

Abstract Title: Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men. Abstract Source: Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1. PMID: 28864849 Abstract Author(s): Erik D Hanson, Eli Danson, Catriona V Nguyen-Robertson, Jackson J Fyfe, Nigel K Stepto, David B Bartlett, Samy Sakkal Article Affiliation: Erik D Hanson Abstract: PURPOSE: Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. METHODS: Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO2peak, or exercise duration. CONCLUSIONS: Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2017

Does aerobic exercise reduce postpartum depressive symptoms? a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Abstract Title: Does aerobic exercise reduce postpartum depressive symptoms? a systematic review and meta-analysis. Abstract Source: Br J Gen Pract. 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30. PMID: 28855163 Abstract Author(s): Ruth Victoria Pritchett, Amanda J Daley, Kate Jolly Article Affiliation: Ruth Victoria Pritchett Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is currently no specific guidance on the role of exercise in managing postpartum depression in the UK and US, and international guidance is inconsistent. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of aerobic exercise on postpartum depressive symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis. There was no restriction to study site or setting. METHOD: The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, Clinical Trials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched. Titles and abstracts, then full-text articles, were screened against inclusion criteria: RCTs measuring depressive symptoms in mothers≤1 year postpartum; and interventions designed to increase aerobic exercise compared with usual care or other comparators. Included studies were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted. Pre-planned subgroup analyses explored heterogeneity. RESULTS: Thirteen RCTs were included, with 1734 eligible participants. Exercise significantly reduced depressive symptoms when all trials were combined (standardised mean difference -0.44; 95% confidence interval = -0.75 to -0.12). Exploration of heterogeneity did not find significant differences in effect size between women with possible depression and in general postpartum populations; exercise only and exercise with co-interventions; and group exercise and exercise counselling. CONCLUSION: This systematic review provides support for the effectiveness of exercise in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms. Group exercise, participant-chosen exercise, and exercise with co-interventions all may be effective interventions. These results should be interpreted with caution because of substantial heterogeneity and risk of bias. Article Published Date : Aug 29, 2017

Aerobic Training Effect on Arterial Stiffness in Metabolic Syndrome.

Abstract Title: Aerobic Training Effect on Arterial Stiffness in Metabolic Syndrome. Abstract Source: Am J Med. 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29. PMID: 28864036 Abstract Author(s): Ieva Slivovskaja, Ligita Ryliskyte, Pranas Serpytis, Rokas Navickas, Jolita Badarienė, Jelena Celutkiene, Roma Puronaite, Kristina Ryliskiene, Alma Cypiene, Egidija Rinkuniene, Vaida Sileikiene, Birute Petrauskiene, Alvydas Juocevicius, Aleksandras Laucevicius Article Affiliation: Ieva Slivovskaja Abstract: BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome, physical inactivity and central obesity contribute to early vascular aging, which leads to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The study aimed to assess the effect of heart rate (HR) targeted aerobic exercise training on the indices of early vascular aging, in particular, arterial stiffness, and on anthropometric and clinical profile of metabolic syndrome subjects. METHODS: 126 metabolic syndrome subjects were randomly selected. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (BP), blood sample, arterial wall functional and structural parameters were obtained before and after the 8 week (84 pts) supervised training program. The age and gender matched control group (42 patients) followed the same protocol, except for the HR targeted training program. RESULTS: In the study group, HR targeted training was associated with decreased aortic pulse wave velocity (8.47± 1.40 vs. 8.01 ± 1.06 m/s p=0.005), HR (p<0.001), systolic (p<0.015) and diastolic (p<0.004) BP, waist circumference (p<0.004), total and low density lipid cholesterol (respectively, 6.42± 1.41 vs. 5.89 ± 1.32, p=0.003 and 4.2 ± 1.18 vs. 3.8 ± 1.21, p = 0.002), and an increase in aerobic capacity (p<0.001). In the control group there was no statistically significant changes of arterial stiffness parameters. Multivariate analysis revealed that reduction of arterial stiffness was BP-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with metabolic syndrome, HR targeted exercise training is associated with BP dependent decrease in aortic stiffness and improvement of metabolic and fitness parameters. Article Published Date : Aug 28, 2017

Transient endothelial dysfunction induced by sugar-sweetened beverage consumption may be attenuated by a single bout of aerobic exercise.

Abstract Title: Transient endothelial dysfunction induced by sugar-sweetened beverage consumption may be attenuated by a single bout of aerobic exercise. Abstract Source: Microvasc Res. 2017 Jul 31 ;115:8-11. Epub 2017 Jul 31. PMID: 28772105 Abstract Author(s): Pia Varsamis, Guillaume Walther, Bianca Share, Frances Taylor, Simon Stewart, Christian Lorenzen, Jordan Loader Article Affiliation: Pia Varsamis Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether aerobic exercise would attenuate microvascular endothelial dysfunction induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. METHODS: Eleven healthy males participated in this randomized, single-blind crossover study. Cutaneous microvascular endothelial function was assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with post-occlusive reactive hyperemia before and after a) consumption of water; b) consumption of a commercial SSB; c) 30min of aerobic exercise followed by water consumption; and d) 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by SSB consumption. Blood glucose and arterial pressure responses were also monitored. Volumes of water and SSB consumed (637.39±29.15 mL) were individualized for each participant, ensuring SSB consumption delivered 1 g of sucrose per kg of body weight. Exercise was performed at 75% of the maximal oxygen uptake heart rate. RESULTS: Compared to water consumption, the commercial SSB elevated blood glucose concentrations in both sedentary (4.69±0.11 vs. 7.47±0.28 mmol/L, P<0.05) and exercised states (4.95±0.13 vs. 7.93±0.15 mmol/L, P<0.05). However, the decrease in microvascular endothelial function observed following sedentary SSB consumption, expressed as the percentage increase from baseline (208.60±22.40 vs. 179.83±15.80%, P=0.01) and the change in peak hyperemic blood flux from basal to post-intervention assessments (-0.04±0.03 vs. -0.12±0.02 ΔCVC, P=0.01), was attenuated following 30min of aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that a single bout of aerobic exercise may prevent transient SSB-mediated microvascular endothelial dysfunction. Article Published Date : Jul 30, 2017

Effect of yoga and aerobics exercise on sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of yoga and aerobics exercise on sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Abstract Source: Sleep Sci. 2017 Apr-Jun;10(2):68-72. PMID: 28966742 Abstract Author(s): Mohsen Ebrahimi, Tayebe Nazari Guilan-Nejad, Abbas Foroughi Pordanjani Article Affiliation: Mohsen Ebrahimi Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was investigating the effect of 12 weeks of yoga and aerobic exercise (running on a treadmill) on the sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 39 diabetic women were selected from Semnan city with the mean age of 46.85±3.35 years, weight of 69.79±17.18 kg, height of 155.03±5.00, BMI of 29.64±5.00 kg/m(2) who had a background of diabetes for 6.46±2.69 years. They were then randomly divided into yoga exercise (n=15), aerobic exercise (n=13), and control group (n=11). The exercise program was performed for 12 weeks, three sessions per each week. In order to measure the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. The data were analyzed by non-parametric wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis Test at significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: Overall score of sleep quality improved after six (p=0.001) and 12 (p=0.001) weeks of yoga exercise. Also, significant effect was observed after 6 weeks of aerobic exercise (p=0.039). However, the positive effect was diminished to under significant levels after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise (p=0.154). Kruskal-Wallis Test showed significant differences between yoga and aerobic groups after 12 weeks of exercise (p=0.002). No significant differences were observed in control groups in all situation. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that yoga exercise is more effective in improving the sleep quality in comparison with the same course of aerobic exercise in women suffering from diabetes Type 2. Thus, yoga exercise can be suggested to these patients. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2017

Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Inflammatory Markers Among Postmenopausal Women.

Abstract Title: Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Inflammatory Markers Among Postmenopausal Women. Abstract Source: J Phys Act Health. 2017 Mar 2:1-22. Epub 2017 Mar 2. PMID: 28253046 Abstract Author(s): Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas, Mariana Rotta Bonfim, Bruna Camilo Turi, Nair Cristina Margarida Brondino, Henrique Luiz Monteiro Article Affiliation: Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas Abstract: BACKGROUND: Declines in ovarian function in postmenopausal women may contribute to increase inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that exercise interventions are important to manage inflammatory conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise intervention on inflammatory markers among obese and postmenopausal women. METHODS: 70 women composed the sample (Exercise group [EG; n=35] and non-exercise group [nEG; n=35]). IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were the inflammatory markers analyzed. Exercise program was 20 weeks long and consisted of aerobic and neuromuscular training. Data about chronic diseases, medication use, dietary intake, body composition and biochemical variables were collected. RESULTS: EG showed significant reductions in body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage, as well as increased lean body mass. EG showed significant reductions in TNF-α and significant interaction between group and intervention time. Reductions in IL-10 were identified only in nEG. Substantial effect of exercise intervention was observed with increased ratio of IL-10/IL-6 and IL-10/TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training was effective in reducing inflammation. Thus, implementation and maintenance of similar exercise programs can contribute to reduce chronic inflammation among obese postmenopausal women. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2017

Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2017 ;12(2):e0170547. Epub 2017 Feb 10. PMID: 28187125 Abstract Author(s): Jill K Morris, Eric D Vidoni, David K Johnson, Angela Van Sciver, Jonathan D Mahnken, Robyn A Honea, Heather M Wilkins, William M Brooks, Sandra A Billinger, Russell H Swerdlow, Jeffrey M Burns Article Affiliation: Jill K Morris Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD. A total of 76 well-characterized older adults with probable AD (mean age 72.9 [7.7]) were enrolled and 68 participants completed the study. Exercise was conducted with supervision and monitoring by trained exercise specialists. Neuropsychological tests and surveys were conducted at baseline,13, and 26 weeks to assess memory and executive function composite scores, functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia), and depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Cardiorespiratory fitness testing and brain MRI was performed at baseline and 26 weeks. Aerobic exercise was associated with a modest gain in functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia) compared to individuals in the ST group (X2 = 8.2, p = 0.02). There was no clear effect of intervention on other primary outcome measures of Memory, Executive Function, or depressive symptoms. However, secondary analyses revealed that change in cardiorespiratory fitness was positively correlated with change in memory performance and bilateral hippocampal volume. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise in early AD is associated with benefits in functional ability. Exercise-related gains in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with improved memory performance and reduced hippocampal atrophy, suggesting cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be important in driving brain benefits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01128361. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Effect of exercise on the quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

Abstract Title: Effect of exercise on the quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Abstract Source: . PMID: 27990609 Abstract Author(s):   Abstract: PURPOSE: Diabetic patients tend to have a poor quality of life. A sedentary lifestyle is considered to be a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes and an independent predictor of poor quality of life. Exercise is a key treatment for people living with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effect of exercise on the quality of life of people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and three Chinese databases were searched for studies published until January 2016. The review included all clinical trials that evaluated the effect of exercise on quality of life compared with that of usual care for people with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of all the included studies, by using the Downs and Black Quality Index (QI). RESULTS: Thirty studies met inclusion criteria, with 2785 participants. We divided the exercise into four modes: aerobic, resistance, a combination of aerobic and resistance and yoga. Aerobic exercise showed a significant effect between groups. Resistance and combined exercise showed mixed results. Yoga also showed good intervention effects on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of aerobic exercise on the quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes was safe and effective. Then, most of the studies on aerobic exercise were of good methodological quality. The effects of resistance exercise and combined exercise on the quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes were mixed, and the effect of yoga on quality of life still need more research. Article Published Date : Jan 18, 2038

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) Seed Consumption And Aerobic Training Improves Biomarkers Associated with Atherosclerosis in Women with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). 📎

Abstract Title: Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) Seed Consumption And Aerobic Training Improves Biomarkers Associated with Atherosclerosis in Women with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Abstract Source: Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 5 ;6:37819. Epub 2016 Dec 5. PMID: 27917862 Abstract Author(s): Firouzeh Dehghan, Rahman Soori, Khadijeh Gholami, Mitra Abolmaesoomi, Ashril Yusof, Sekaran Muniandy, Sara Heidarzadeh, Parvin Farzanegi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani Article Affiliation: Firouzeh Dehghan Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers to purslane seed consumption and aerobic training in women with T2D. 196 women with T2D were assigned into; (1) placebo (PL), (2) aerobic training+placebo (AT + PL), 3) purslane seeds (PS), aerobic training+purslane seeds (AT + PS). The training program and purslane seeds consumption (2.5 g lunch and 5 g dinner) were carried out for 16 weeks. The components of purslane seed were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Blood samples were withdrawnvia venipuncture to examine blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), creatinine, urea, uric acid, NF-κB, GLP1, GLP1R, TIMP-1, MMP2, MMP9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS expressions. Blood glucose, LDL, cholesterol, TG, creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels in the (P), (AT), and (AT + PS) groups were significantly decreased compared to the pre-experimental levels or the placebo group, while HDL, significantly increased. Furthermore, the protein and mRNA levels of NF-κB, TIMP-1, MMP2&9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS in the (P), (AT), (AT + PS) significantly decreased compared to pre-experimental or the placebo group, while level of GLP1 and GLP1-R increased drastically. Findings suggest that purslane seed consumption alongside exercising could improve atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers through synergistically mechanisms in T2D. Article Published Date : Dec 04, 2016

Managing knee osteoarthritis with yoga or aerobic/strengthening exercise programs in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Managing knee osteoarthritis with yoga or aerobic/strengthening exercise programs in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Abstract Source: Rheumatol Int. 2016 Dec 2. Epub 2016 Dec 2. PMID: 27913870 Abstract Author(s): Corjena Cheung, Jean F Wyman, Ulf Bronas, Teresa McCarthy, Kyle Rudser, Michelle A Mathiason Article Affiliation: Corjena Cheung Abstract: Although exercise is often recommended for managing osteoarthritis (OA), limited evidence-based exercise options are available for older adults with OA. This study compared the effects of Hatha yoga (HY) and aerobic/strengthening exercises (ASE) on knee OA. Randomized controlled trial with three arms design was used: HY, ASE, and education control. Both HY and ASE groups involved 8 weekly 45-min group classes with 2-4 days/week home practice sessions. Control group received OA education brochures and weekly phone calls from study staff. Standardized instruments were used to measure OA symptoms, physical function, mood, spiritual health, fear of falling, and quality of life at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. HY/ASE adherences were assessed weekly using class attendance records and home practice video recordings. Primary analysis of the difference in the change from baseline was based on intent-to-treat and adjusted for baseline values. Eight-three adults with symptomatic knee OA completed the study (84% female;mean age 71.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI 29.0 ± 7.0 kg/m(2)). Retention rate was 82%. Compared to the ASE group at 8 weeks, participants in the HY group had a significant improvement from baseline in perception of OA symptoms (-9.6 [95% CI -15.3, -4]; p = .001), anxiety (-1.4 [95% CI -2.7, -0]; p = .04), and fear of falling (-4.6 [-7.5, -1.7]; p = .002). There were no differences in class/home practice adherence between HY and ASE. Three non-serious adverse events were reported from the ASE group. Both HY and ASE improved symptoms and function but HY may have superior benefits for older adults with knee OA. Trial registration The full trial protocol is available at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02525341). Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2016

Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

Abstract Title: Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Abstract Source: Neuroimage. 2016 May 1 ;131:226-38. Epub 2015 Oct 1. PMID: 26433119 Abstract Author(s): Theresa Köbe, A Veronica Witte, Ariane Schnelle, Anne Lesemann, Sonja Fabian, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Agnes Flöel Article Affiliation: Theresa Köbe Abstract: Previous studies in older adults suggested beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation, aerobic exercise, or cognitive stimulation on brain structure and function. However, combined effects of these interventions in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are unknown. Using a randomized interventional design, we evaluated the effect of combined omega-3 FA supplementation, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation (target intervention) versus omega-3 FA supplementation and non-aerobic exercise (control intervention) on cognitive function and gray matter volume in patients with MCI. Moreover, we analyzed potential vascular, metabolic or inflammatory mechanisms underlying these effects. Twenty-two MCI patients (8 females; 60-80years) successfully completed six months of omega-3 FA intake, aerobic cycling training and cognitive stimulation (n=13) or omega-3 FA intake and non-aerobic stretching and toning (n=9). Before and after the interventions, cognitive performance, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 3T (n=20), intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery and serum markers of glucose control, lipid and B-vitamin metabolism, and inflammation were assessed. Intervention-related changes in gray matter volume of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain regions, i.e., frontal, parietal, temporal and cingulate cortex were examined using voxel-based morphometry of high resolution T1-weighted images. After the intervention period, significant differences emerged in brain structure between groups: Gray matter volume decreased in the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex of patients in the control intervention, while gray matter volume in these areas was preserved or even increased after the target intervention. Decreases in homocysteine levels in the target intervention group were associated with increases in gray matter volume in the middle frontal cortex (p=0.010). No significant differences in cognitive performance or other vascular, metabolic and inflammatory parameters were observed between groups. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that omega-3 FA intake combined with aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents atrophy in AD-related brain regions in MCI patients, compared to omega-3 FA intake plus the control condition of stretching and toning. These promising findings should now be validated in a larger interventional trial. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2016
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Therapeutic Actions EXERCISE Aerobic

NCBI pubmed

The steady state load of five firefighting tasks.

Related Articles The steady state load of five firefighting tasks. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2019 Jan 21;:1-13 Authors: Medbø JI, Mamen A, Oseland H, Heimburg EDV Abstract PURPOSE: Physiologic demands of five common tasks in firefighting have been examined. METHODS: Eight male volunteers, being dressed up as smoke divers (+21 kg extra load), carried out the following tasks at constant pace for 5 min: Walking at 1.4 m·s-1, walking (all walks at the same speed) while carrying a 10 kg ladder, walking carrying two hose packs of 16 kg together, walking carrying a 32 kg spreader tool, finally climbing up and down a ladder at preset pace. A 5  min break separated each exercise. Heart rate, O2-uptake and ventilation were measured continuously, and blood lactate concentration was recorded after each task. RESULTS: The end-exercise heart rate rose from 108 to 180 bpm from first to last task, blood lactate concentration rose from 1 to 7 mmol·L-1, O2-uptake rose from 19 to 48 ml·kg-1·min-1, and ventilation rose from 38 to 124 L·min-1. DISCUSSION: Walking was an easy task even when dressed up as a smoke diver. Adding loads increased demands; ladder climbing taxed >90% of the subjects' aerobic power. CONCLUSIONS: The physiologic demands varied considerably between different tasks. PMID: 30664392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Physical fitness modulates the expression of CD39 and CD73 on CD4+ CD25- and CD4+ CD25+ T cells following high intensity interval exercise.

Related Articles Physical fitness modulates the expression of CD39 and CD73 on CD4+ CD25- and CD4+ CD25+ T cells following high intensity interval exercise. J Cell Biochem. 2019 Jan 20;: Authors: Dorneles GP, da Silva IM, Peres A, Romão PRT Abstract AIM: To investigate the impact of physical fitness on the mobilization of CD4+ CD25 - CD39 + and CD4 + CD25 + CD39 + T cells in response to acute exercise. METHODS: Fifteen high physical fitness (25.3 ± 1.4 years) and 15 low physical fitness (26.1 ± 1.9 years) men performed a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, 10 bouts of 60 seconds at 85% HRmax intercepted by 75 seconds of recovery at 50% HRmax). Blood lymphocytes were isolated before, immediately after and 1 hour after exercise for assessment of cell surface expression of CD25, CD39, and CD73 on CD4+ T cells. Effector memory T cells (mTeff) were identified by CD4 + CD25 - CD39 + coexpression, and memory regulatory T cells (mTReg) were defined as CD4 + CD25 + CD39 + T cells. RESULTS: Exercise increased CD4+ and CD4 + CD25 + T cell frequencies immediately after followed by a decrease bellow to baseline values at 1 hour after the bout in both low and high physical fitness groups. At baseline, the proportions of mTeff were higher, while mTreg were lower in low physical fitness individuals. The frequency of mTreg increased immediately after HIIE in both groups, and remained higher 1 hour after the bout. However, high physical fitness individuals presented higher mTreg frequency in all periods evaluated. A significantly mobilization of mTeff cells was identified in both groups immediately after HIIE. High physical fitness individuals displayed a decrease in mTeff cells bellow to baseline, while the frequency of mTeff remained higher in low physical fitness group 1 hour after the bout. The peripheral frequency of CD4 + CD25 + CD73 + T cells increased in a similar way immediately after the bout in both groups, returning to the baseline values 1 hour after exercise. No differences in CD4 + CD25 - CD73 + T cells were observed after HIIE in both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the impact of physical activity status in the redistribution of CD4+ T cells expressing ectonucleotidases in response to HIIE. PMID: 30663116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Proteomic Profile of Carbonylated Proteins Screen Regulation of Apoptosis via CaMK Signaling in Response to Regular Aerobic Exercise.

Related Articles Proteomic Profile of Carbonylated Proteins Screen Regulation of Apoptosis via CaMK Signaling in Response to Regular Aerobic Exercise. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:2828143 Authors: Liu W, Li L, Kuang H, Xia Y, Wang Z, Liu S, Yin D Abstract To research carbonylated proteins and screen molecular targets in the rat striatum on regular aerobic exercise, male Sprague-Dawley rats (13 months old, n = 24) were randomly divided into middle-aged sedentary control (M-SED) and aerobic exercise (M-EX) groups (n = 12 each). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) gradually increased from 50%-55% to 65%-70% for a total of 10 weeks. A total of 36 carbonylated proteins with modified oxidative sites were identified by Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF-MS), including 17 carbonylated proteins unique to the M-SED group, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta (CaMKIIβ), and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (Hnrnpa2b1), among others, and 19 specific to the M-EX group, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCH-L1), and malic enzyme, among others. Regular aerobic exercise improved behavioral and stereological indicators, promoted normal apoptosis (P < 0.01), alleviated carbonylation of the CaMKIIβ and Hnrnpa2b1, but induced carbonylation of the UCH-L1, and significantly upregulated the expression levels of CaMKIIβ, CaMKIIα, and Vdac1 (p < 0.01) and Hnrnpa2b1 and UCH-L1 (p < 0.01), as well as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway-related genes Akt and mTOR. Regular aerobic exercise for 10 weeks (incremental for the first 6 weeks followed by constant loading for 4 weeks) enhanced carbonylation of CaMKIIβ, Hnrnpa2b1, and modulated apoptosis via activation of CaMK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mTOR signaling. It also promoted normal apoptosis in the rat striatum, which may have protective effects in neurons. PMID: 30662904 [PubMed - in process]

Multidisciplinary approach to obesity: Aerobic or resistance physical exercise?

Related Articles Multidisciplinary approach to obesity: Aerobic or resistance physical exercise? J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Dec;16(3):118-123 Authors: Said MA, Abdelmoneem M, Almaqhawi A, Hamid Kotob AA, Alibrahim MC, Bougmiza I Abstract Background: An integrated treatment based on dieting, physical training and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy is an effective tool to reduce obesity and its consequences. However, the feasibility of this approach is problematic. This study aims to compare two multidisciplinary programs used to improve weight loss. Methods: Fifty-two obese individuals were subjected to an Enhanced Lifestyle Counselling associated with, according to their own choice, dieting (N = 11), or dieting + aerobic training (n = 18), or dieting + resistance training program (n = 23). The study experiment spanned 16 weeks divided into two phases. The first phase lasted 04 weeks and was oriented to enhance motivation and establishing changes in behaviours related to dietary and sedentary lifestyle. The second phase lasted 12 weeks and was oriented to add aerobic or resistance training. Body compositions, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardio-respiratory fitness were assessed. Results: Data demonstrated that all obesity treatment programs were able to improve all studied variables. Weight loss levels were -6.03 ± 2.08, -10.5 ± 2.33, and -9.37 ± 1.99 kg in Dieting, DAT and DRT groups, respectively. Our results noted also that exercise training could play an important role in reducing obesity and its consequences. Nevertheless, modifications were more important in DRT at the explosivity and muscle strength and in DAT at fat percentage, aerobic capacity, SA, and CVR factors. Conclusion: The current evidence noted that both multidisciplinary weight loss programs were efficient in the treatment of obesity and its comorbidity. Moreover, the use of aerobic exercises was more effective in reducing body fat and improving cardiorespiratory fitness. However, using resistance exercises appeared to be more appropriate to enhance the muscle potential. PMID: 30662505 [PubMed]

The relationship between arterial stiffness and maximal oxygen consumption in healthy young adults.

Related Articles The relationship between arterial stiffness and maximal oxygen consumption in healthy young adults. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Dec;16(3):73-77 Authors: Namgoong H, Lee D, Hwang MH, Lee S Abstract Objective: Arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in various populations. There was little research on the relationship between arterial stiffness and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO2max and arterial stiffness in young adults. Methods: The subjects were 13 men and 10 women with mean age of 22.9 ± 0.7, 23.6 ± 0.4 years, respectively. Height, weight, body mass index, body fat (%), waist to hip ratio, total/high density lipoprotein (HDL)/low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, glycated hemoglobin and blood lactate were measured. In addition, peripheral arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and VO2max was determined using graded exercise test. Results: VO2max had no significant correlation with baPWV (r = 0.2, p = 0.2). Total cholesterol correlated significantly to variables such as HDL (r = 0.6, p = 0.0015) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.6, p = 0.0018). VO2max had a significant association with triglyceride (r = -0.5, p = 0.0033). Conclusions: This study suggests that there is no relationship between arterial stiffness and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. PMID: 30662497 [PubMed]

The relationship between ventilatory threshold and repeated-sprint ability in competitive male ice hockey players.

Related Articles The relationship between ventilatory threshold and repeated-sprint ability in competitive male ice hockey players. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Apr;16(1):32-36 Authors: Lowery MR, Tomkinson GR, Peterson BJ, Fitzgerald JS Abstract Background/objective: The relationship between ventilatory threshold (VT1, VT2) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in competitive male ice hockey players was investigated. Methods: Forty-three male ice hockey players aged 18-23 years competing in NCAA Division I, NCAA Division III, and Junior A level participated. Participants performed an incremental graded exercise test on a skate treadmill to determine V ˙ O2peak, VT1, and VT2 using MedGraphics Breezesuit™ software (v-slope). Participants performed an on-ice repeated shift (RSA) test consisting of 8-maximal skating bouts, lasting approximately 25 s and interspersed with 90 s of passive recovery, to determine first gate, second gate, and total sprint decrement (%dec). Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships between ventilatory threshold variables (VT1, VT2, Stage at VT1, and Stage at VT2) and RSA (first gate, second gate, and total course decrement). Results: Stage at VT2 was the only variable substantially correlated with first gate (r = -0.35; P < 0.05), second gate (r = -0.58; P < 0.001) and total course decrement (r = -0.42; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that VT is substantially associated with RSA, and VT2 is more strongly correlated with RSA than V ˙ O2peak. This study suggests that longer duration high-intensity interval training at intensities that increase workrate at VT2 may lead to possible improvements in RSA. PMID: 30662490 [PubMed]

The effect of a 12-week combinational exercise program on CD4 count and mental health among HIV infected women: A randomized control trial.

Related Articles The effect of a 12-week combinational exercise program on CD4 count and mental health among HIV infected women: A randomized control trial. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Apr;16(1):21-25 Authors: Dianatinasab M, Fararouei M, Padehban V, Dianatinasab A, Alimohamadi Y, Beheshti S, AminiLari Z, AminiLari M Abstract Background/objective: There are conflicting results regarding the effects of exercise on immune function of HIV positive patients. Exercise can also be beneficial to psychological functioning of the patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 12-week aerobic and resistance exercise training program on mental health and CD4 counts among female HIV+ patients. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted between September and December 2013. Forty participants (women age range 20-40) were carefully selected from 240 HIV-positive women referred to Voluntary Counseling and Treatment Center (VCT) and randomly assigned to either exercise (80 min of aerobic and strength training while receiving the VCT's routine services) group (n = 20) or control (received the VCT's routine services only) group (n = 20). To assess their mental health status, all participants completed GHQ28 questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to measure CD4 and T-cell counts at baseline and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Results: From a sample of 40 women with HIV infection, the data of 30 participants [experimental group (14) and control group (16)] were analyzed (participation rate 75%). The results indicated that after the intervention program, a significant difference in CD4 cell counts was found between the two groups (P = 0.01). With regard to mental health, after performing intervention, significant improvement in all subscales including anxiety disorder, social function, depression and mental health's total score was observed in the exercise compared to the control groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Exercise training can be included in health care services in order to improve the mental health status of women with HIV infection. No effect on CD4 count was detected. PMID: 30662488 [PubMed]

Influence of recovery duration during 6-s sprint interval exercise on time spent at high rates of oxygen uptake.

Related Articles Influence of recovery duration during 6-s sprint interval exercise on time spent at high rates of oxygen uptake. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Apr;16(1):16-20 Authors: Shi Q, Tong TK, Sun S, Kong Z, Chan CK, Liu W, Nie J Abstract Background/Objective: This study examined whether time spent at high rates of oxygen consumption (VO2) during 6-s sprint interval exercises (SIE) is a function of recovery interval duration. Methods: In a randomised crossover study, thirteen male endurance runners performed 40 × 6-s all-out sprints interspersed with 15-s, 30-s and 60-s passive recovery intervals (SIE15, SIE30, and SIE60 trials respectively), and a work duration-matched Wingate-SIE (8 × 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min passive recovery, SIEWin trial). The accumulated exercise time at ≥ 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% and 100% of VO2max, and maximum heart rate (HRmax) in the four trials were compared. Results: During the 6-s SIEs, accumulated time spent at all selected high rates of VO2max increased as recovery time decreased, whilst the SIE work rate decreased (p < .05). In SIEWin, although the exercise lasted longer, the time spent at ≥90% VO2max (74 ± 16 s) was significant less than that in SIE15 (368 ± 63 s, p < .05), yet comparable to that in SIE30 (118 ± 30 s, p > .05), and longer than that in SIE60 (20 ± 14 s, p < .05). The differences between the four trials in accumulated time at high percentages of HRmax were similar to those for VO2, although the temporal characteristics of the increases in HR and VO2 during the SIEs were different. Conclusion: In conclusion, the duration of the recovery interval in 6-s SIE protocols appears to be a crucial parameter when sprint interval training is prescribed to enhance aerobic capacity. Further, the SIE15 protocol may represent a potential alternative to 30-s SIEWin in the development of time-efficient aerobic training intervention. PMID: 30662487 [PubMed]

Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance.

Related Articles Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Apr;16(1):12-15 Authors: Wagner DR, Clark NW Abstract Background/Objective: Wintertime thermal inversions in narrow mountain valleys create a ceiling effect, increasing concentration of small particulate matter (PM2.5). Despite potential health risks, many people continue to exercise outdoors in thermal inversions. This study measured the effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure associated with a typical thermal inversion on exercise performance, pulmonary function, and biological markers of inflammation. Methods: Healthy, active adults (5 males, 11 females) performed two cycle ergometer time trials outdoors in a counterbalanced design: 1) low ambient PM2.5 concentrations (<12 μg/m3), and 2) an air quality index (AQI) ranking of "yellow." Variables of interest were exercise performance, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), c-reactive protein (CRP), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Results: Despite a significant difference in mean PM2.5 concentration of 9.3 ± 3.0 μg/m3 between trials (p < .001), there was no significant difference (p = .424) in the distance covered during low PM2.5 conditions (9.9 ± 1.7 km) compared to high PM2.5 conditions (10.1 ± 1.5 km). There were no clinically significant differences across time or between trials for eNO, CRP, FVC, or FEV1. Additionally, there were no dose-response relationships (p > .05) for PM2.5 concentration and the measured variables. Conclusion: An acute bout of vigorous exercise during an AQI of "yellow" did not diminish exercise performance in healthy adults, nor did it have a negative effect on pulmonary function or biological health markers. These variables might not be sensitive to small changes from acute, mild PM2.5 exposure. PMID: 30662486 [PubMed]

Therapeutic and preventive effects of exercise on cardiometabolic parameters in aging and obese rats.

Related Articles Therapeutic and preventive effects of exercise on cardiometabolic parameters in aging and obese rats. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2019 Feb;29:203-212 Authors: Coqueiro RDS, Soares TJ, Pereira R, Correia TML, Coqueiro DSO, Oliveira MV, Marques LM, de Sá CKC, de Magalhães ACM Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aging, obesity and sedentarism are among the most important predictors of cardiometabolic diseases. Aiming to reduce the impact of the combination of these three factors, we tested the therapeutic and preventive effects of exercise in aging and obese rats on the following cardiometabolic disease risk parameters: body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glycemic homeostasis. METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats (initial age = 4 months, and final age = 14 months) were randomly distributed into three aging and obese groups: sedentary, therapeutic exercise and preventive exercise. Food and caloric intake, body adiposity, muscle mass, cardiovascular parameters, biochemical markers, glycemic homeostasis, and gene expression of insulin-dependent, insulin-independent and insulin resistance pathways in skeletal muscle were evaluated. RESULTS: Therapeutic and preventive exercises were associated with higher food and caloric intake, and expression of TBC1D1 in the soleus muscle, as well as lower total cholesterol/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios, glucose levels at the end (90 min) of the glucose tolerance test and IKBKB expression in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Only the preventive exercise improved the cardiovascular and body composition parameters, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity, besides reducing total cholesterol, triglycerides, triglycerides/HDL ratio, plasmatic insulin and MAPK8 expression in soleus. The preventive exercise group also presented greater expression of INRS, IRS1, IRS2, PIK3CA, AKT1, and SLC2A4 in gastrocnemius and soleus, TBC1D1 in gastrocnemius, and AKT2 and PRKAA1 in soleus. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic exercise promoted some improvements on cardiometabolic parameters in aging and obese rats, however, the best benefits were achieved through the preventive exercise. PMID: 30661688 [PubMed - in process]

Aerobic training modulates salience network and default mode network metabolism in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

Related Articles Aerobic training modulates salience network and default mode network metabolism in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Neuroimage Clin. 2018;19:616-624 Authors: Porto FHG, Coutinho AM, de Souza Duran FL, de Sá Pinto AL, Gualano B, Buchpiguel CA, Busatto G, Nitrini R, Brucki SMD Abstract Aerobic training (AT) is a promising intervention to improve cognitive functioning. However, its modulatory effects on brain networks are not yet entirely understood. Sixty-five subjects with mild cognitive impairment performed a moderate intensity, 24-week AT program. Differences in resting regional brain glucose metabolism (rBGM) with FDG-PET were assessed before and after AT on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent variables based on regions with significant rBGM changes and to test a hypothetical model about the inter-relationships between these changes. There were significant rBGM reductions in both anterior temporal lobes (ATL), left inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex, right hippocampus, left meddle frontal gyrus and bilateral caudate nuclei. In contrast, there was an increase in rBGM in the right precuneus and left inferior frontal gyrus. Latent variables reflecting the salience network and ATL were created, while the precuneus represented the default mode network. In the model, salience network rBGM was decreased after AT. In contrast, rBGM in the default mode network increased as a final outcome. This result suggested improved salience network efficacy and increased control over other brain functional networks. The ATL network decreased its rBGM and connected to the salience network and default mode network with positive and negative correlations, respectively. The model fit values reached statistical significance, demonstrating that this model explained the variance in the measured data. In mild cognitive impairment subjects, AT modulated rBGM in salience network and default mode network nodes. Such changes were in the direction of the normally expected resting-state metabolic patterns of these networks. PMID: 29984169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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