Evidence-Based Exercise Recommendations to Reduce Hepatic Fat Content in Youth- a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Feb 13;:
Authors: Medrano M, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Álvarez-Bueno C, Cavero-Redondo I, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Labayen I
The main purposes of this study were to elucidate the effects of supervised-exercise training (ET) interventions on hepatic fat content and on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence in children and adolescents and to provide information about the optimal ET prescription (type, intensity, volume, and frequency) needed to reduce hepatic fat content in youths. Supervised-ET interventions performed in children and adolescents (6-19 years) that provided results of exercise effects on hepatic fat content or NAFLD prevalence were included. Supervised-exercise significantly reduced hepatic fat content compared to the control groups. Lifestyle interventions that included supervised-ET significantly reduced the prevalence of NAFLD. This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that supervised-ET could be an effective strategy in the management and prevention of NAFLD in children and adolescents. Both aerobic and resistance ET, at vigorous or moderate-to-vigorous intensities, with a volume ≥ 60 min/session and a frequency ≥ 3 sessions/week, aiming to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength, had benefits on hepatic fat content reduction in youth. These data concur with the international recommendations of physical activity for health promotion in youth and may be useful when designing ET programs to improve and prevent hepatic steatosis in the pediatric population.
PMID: 29452135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Urban-Rural Differences in Aerobic Physical Activity, Muscle Strengthening Exercise, and Screen-Time Sedentary Behavior.
J Rural Health. 2018 Feb 16;:
Authors: Robertson MC, Song J, Taylor WC, Durand CP, Basen-Engquist KM
PURPOSE: Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors.
METHODS: We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey.
FINDINGS: We found no evidence of a difference between large urban and rural residents' aerobic PA levels. The typical number of weekly bouts of leisure-time muscle strengthening PA was 25% lower for rural residents (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.751, P < .001); this relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for potentially confounding covariates. In adjusted models, we found rural residents to engage in 6.6% less daily leisure screen-time sedentary behavior than their large urban counterparts (IRR = 0.934, P = .031).
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together with previous literature, these results suggest that rural residents may engage in comparable levels of total PA, but less leisure-time PA, than their urban counterparts.
PMID: 29451333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Improving cerebral oxygenation, cognition and autonomic nervous system control of a chronic alcohol abuser through a three-month running program.
Addict Behav Rep. 2017 Dec;6:83-89
Authors: Cabral DA, da Costa KG, Okano AH, Elsangedy HM, Rachetti VP, Fontes EB
The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male) under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program. The maximal oxygen consumption increased from 24.2 ml/kg/min to 30.1 ml/kg/min, running time increased from 6 min to 45 min (650%) and distance covered from 765 m to 8700 m (1037.2%). In prefrontal cortex oxygenation, oxyhemoglobin levels improved by 76.1%, deoxyhemoglobin decreased 96.9% and total hemoglobin increased 78.8% during exercise. Reaction time in the cognitive test during rest decreased 23%, and the number of correct answers increased by 266.6%. Parasympathetic cardiac parameters increased in several heart rate variability indices. Thus, we conclude that running exercise performed by an alcoholic patient hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital improves cerebral function, cognition and cardiovascular health.
PMID: 29450240 [PubMed]
Seric concentrations of copper, chromium, manganesum, nickel and selenium in aerobic, anaerobic and mixed professional sportsmen.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:8
Authors: Maynar M, Llerena F, Bartolomé I, Alves J, Robles MC, Grijota FJ, Muñoz D
Background: The aim of the present study was to determine changes in serum concentrations of trace elements Cooper (Cu), Chromiun (Cr), Manganesum (Mn), Nickel (Ni) and Selenium (Se) in high-level sportsmen.
Methods: Eighty professional athletes of different metabolic modalities, were recruited before the start of their training period. Thirty one sedentary participants of the same geographic area constituted the control group. Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni and Se analysis was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).
Results: Higher concentrations of Cr (p < 0.001), Mn (p < 0.085), and Ni (p < 0.001) were found in sportsmen in comparison to controls, inversely, Se values were lower (p < 0.001) among sportsmen. When sportsmen were classified by metabolic modalities, it was found that aerobic-anaerobic group had higher (p < 0.01) Cu concentrations than controls and the other sportsmen. The highest Cr values were found in aerobic participants. For Mn, the major levels were found in aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic groups as well (p < 0.001). The lowest Se levels were found among anaerobic sportsmen (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: This research showed that daily, continuum physical training induced alterations in serum essential minerals concentrations, as well as that these changes can be dependent of the exercise modality practiced.
PMID: 29449792 [PubMed - in process]
Comparison of the effects on dynamic balance and aerobic capacity between objective and subjective methods of high-intensity robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.
Top Stroke Rehabil. 2017 May;24(4):309-313
Authors: Bae YH, Lee SM, Ko M
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is effective for improving dynamic balance and aerobic capacity, but previous RAGT method does not set suitable training intensity. Recently, high-intensity treadmill gait training at 70% of heart rate reserve (HRR) was used for improving aerobic capacity and dynamic balance.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare the effectiveness between objective and subjective methods of high-intensity RAGT for improving dynamic balance and aerobic capacity in chronic stroke.
METHODS: Subjects were randomly allocated into experimental (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. The experimental group underwent high-intensity RAGT at 70% of HRR, whereas the control group underwent high-intensity RAGT at an RPE of 15. Both groups received their assigned training for 30 min per session, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. All subjects also received an additional 30 min of conventional physical therapy. Before and after each of the 18 sessions, the dynamic balance and aerobic capacity of all subjects were evaluated by a blinded examiner.
RESULTS: After training, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go Test scores, VO2max, and VO2max/kg were significantly increased in both groups (p < 0.05). These variables in experimental group were significantly greater than control group. However, the BBS score was not significantly different between both groups. All subjects completed high-intensity RAGT. No adverse effect of training was observed in both groups.
CONCLUSION: High-intensity RAGT at 70% of HRR significantly improved dynamic balance and aerobic capacity more than RAGT at RPE of 15. These results suggest that high-intensity RAGT at 70% of HRR is safe and effective for improving dynamic balance and aerobic capacity in chronic stroke.
PMID: 28102113 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]