Perspectives on Queer Music Therapy: A Qualitative Analysis of Music Therapists' Reactions to Radically Inclusive Practice.
J Music Ther. 2018 Jan 13;54(4):375-404
Authors: Boggan CE, Grzanka PR, Bain CL
Background: The queer music therapy model was designed by Bain, Grzanka, and Crowe in 2016 as a novel therapeutic approach to affirm and empower LGBTQ+ identity through music. No data have been generated on how this model might actually be implemented, or the strengths and limitations of the model according to music therapy professionals.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to build on Bain and colleagues' work by collecting music therapists' perspectives on queer music therapy and using these data to critically evaluate the model.
Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with twelve music therapists who identify as LGBTQ+ or have experience working with LGBTQ+ clients. Participants were prompted to discuss their music therapy backgrounds, experiences with LGBTQ+ clients, and reactions to the queer music therapy model. Interviews were analyzed using a critical discourse analysis approach.
Results: The qualitative findings revealed major strengths of the queer music therapy model and ways in which it could be improved by attending to: (a) the structural limitations of the music therapy discipline, including the demographic composition of the field and lack of critical perspectives in music therapy training; and (b) intersectional considerations of ageism and ableism within diverse LGBTQ+ populations.
Conclusions: Queer music therapy has positive implications for future work with LGBTQ+ individuals, but it must more substantively integrate intersectionality theory to serve a diverse range of LGBTQ+ clients. Further, it must critically attend to the structural limitations of the music therapy discipline itself.
PMID: 29346657 [PubMed - in process]
Music Reduces State Anxiety Scores in Patients Undergoing Pleural Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Intern Med J. 2018 Jan 18;:
Authors: Mackintosh J, Cone G, Harland K, Sriram KB
BACKGROUND: Patient anxiety is an often overlooked complication of pleural diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Listening to music is effective in reducing patient anxiety in some endoscopy procedures but has not yet been evaluated in pleural procedures.
METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing therapeutic pleural procedures were randomised to music and control groups. Participants in the music group listened to self selected music using ear-bud headphones for the duration of the procedure. State anxiety was assessed before and after the procedure using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Physiological parameters were also measured.
RESULTS: 60 patients were included in the study. In the music group, a reduction in State Anxiety Scores were observed post-procedure (34±11 vs. 48±13, p<0.001) while no change was observed in the Control group (40±11 vs. 42±11, p=0.51). Participants in the music group had reductions in heart rate (87±17 vs. 95±15, p=0.04), systolic (121±13 vs. 130±16, p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (72±8 vs. 78±9, p=0.01) post procedure compared to the pre-procedures values. A similar change was not detected in the control group: heart rate (86±17 vs. 85±15, p=0.73), systolic (133±21 vs. 134±20, p=0.83) and diastolic blood pressure (77±9 vs. 79±10, p=0.30). There was no difference in patient pain scores (p=0.8), willingness to undergo the procedure again (p=0.27), satisfaction with the performance of the pleural procedure (p=0.20) and duration of the procedure (p=0.68) between the music and control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Listening to music appears to be beneficial in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing pleural procedures.
PMID: 29345398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Rate after-effects fail to transfer cross-modally: Evidence for distributed sensory timing mechanisms.
Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 17;8(1):924
Authors: Motala A, Heron J, McGraw PV, Roach NW, Whitaker D
Accurate time perception is critical for a number of human behaviours, such as understanding speech and the appreciation of music. However, it remains unresolved whether sensory time perception is mediated by a central timing component regulating all senses, or by a set of distributed mechanisms, each dedicated to a single sensory modality and operating in a largely independent manner. To address this issue, we conducted a range of unimodal and cross-modal rate adaptation experiments, in order to establish the degree of specificity of classical after-effects of sensory adaptation. Adapting to a fast rate of sensory stimulation typically makes a moderate rate appear slower (repulsive after-effect), and vice versa. A central timing hypothesis predicts general transfer of adaptation effects across modalities, whilst distributed mechanisms predict a high degree of sensory selectivity. Rate perception was quantified by a method of temporal reproduction across all combinations of visual, auditory and tactile senses. Robust repulsive after-effects were observed in all unimodal rate conditions, but were not observed for any cross-modal pairings. Our results show that sensory timing abilities are adaptable but, crucially, that this change is modality-specific - an outcome that is consistent with a distributed sensory timing hypothesis.
PMID: 29343859 [PubMed - in process]
Musical auditory stimulus acutely influences heart rate dynamic responses to medication in subjects with well-controlled hypertension.
Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 17;8(1):958
Authors: Martiniano EC, Santana MDR, Barros ÉLD, do Socorro da Silva M, Garner DM, de Abreu LC, Valenti VE
Music can improve the efficiency of medical treatment when correctly associated with drug action, reducing risk factors involving deteriorating cardiac function. We evaluated the effect of musical auditory stimulus associated with anti-hypertensive medication on heart rate (HR) autonomic control in hypertensive subjects. We evaluated 37 well-controlled hypertensive patients designated for anti-hypertensive medication. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from the HR monitor recordings of two different, randomly sorted protocols (control and music) on two separate days. Patients were examined in a resting condition 10 minutes before medication and 20 minutes, 40 minutes and 60 minutes after oral medication. Music was played throughout the 60 minutes after medication with the same intensity for all subjects in the music protocol. We noted analogous response of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in both protocols. HR decreased 60 minutes after medication in the music protocol while it remained unchanged in the control protocol. The effects of anti-hypertensive medication on SDNN (Standard deviation of all normal RR intervals), LF (low frequency, nu), HF (high frequency, nu) and alpha-1 scale were more intense in the music protocol. In conclusion, musical auditory stimulus increased HR autonomic responses to anti-hypertensive medication in well-controlled hypertensive subjects.
PMID: 29343839 [PubMed - in process]
Explaining the enjoyment of negative emotions evoked by the arts: The need to consider empathy and other underlying mechanisms of emotion induction.
Behav Brain Sci. 2017 Jan;40:e378
Authors: Vuoskoski JK, Eerola T
Any model aiming to explain the enjoyment of negative emotions in the context of the arts should consider how works of art are able to induce emotional responses in the first place. For instance, research on empathy and the arts suggests that the psychological processes that mediate the enjoyment of sadness and horror may be fundamentally different.
PMID: 29342803 [PubMed - in process]
The urge to judge: Why the judgmental attitude has anything to do with the aesthetic enjoyment of negative emotions.
Behav Brain Sci. 2017 Jan;40:e353
Authors: Brattico E, Vuust P
Based on arguments from both philosophical and empirical aesthetics, we hereby propose that the enjoyment of negative emotions in art and fiction is distinct from the immediate pleasure deriving from sensory features, because it requires a conscious, intentional attitude toward the object. This attitude is linked with the compelling goal of providing a judgment of liking, beauty, perfection, or similar.
PMID: 29342780 [PubMed - in process]
Emotional granularity and the musical enjoyment of sadness itself.
Behav Brain Sci. 2017 Jan;40:e351
Authors: Barrett NF, Schulkin J, Bernacer J
We contest the claim that musically induced sadness cannot be enjoyable in itself. This possibility is supported by closer attention to a musical experience as well as cases of affective reversal, such as the "hedonic flip" of painful feelings. We propose that the affective reversal of sadness in music is due to the high granularity of musically induced emotion.
PMID: 29342779 [PubMed - in process]