Assessment of potential risk factors for breast cancer in a population in Southern Brazil.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018 Jan 17;:
Authors: Breyer JZ, Wendland EM, Kops NL, Caleffi M, Hammes LS
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess potential risk factors for breast cancer in a population in Southern Brazil and build a multivariate logistic model using these factors for breast cancer risk prediction.
METHODS: A total of 4242 women between 40 and 69 years of age without a history of breast cancer were selected at primary healthcare facilities in Porto Alegre and submitted to mammographic screening. They were evaluated for potential risk factors.
RESULTS: In all, 73 participants among the 4242 women had a breast cancer diagnosis during the follow-up of the project (10 years). The multivariate analysis considering all the patients aged 40-69 years showed that older age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12), higher height (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.09), and history of previous breast biopsy (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.38-5.13) were associated with the development of breast cancer. Conversely, the number of pregnancies (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98) and use of hormone replacement therapy (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.75) were considered a protective factor. Additionally, we performed an analysis separating the participants into groups of 40-49 and 50-69 years old, since a risk factor could have a specific behavior in these age groups. No additional risk factors were identified within these age brackets, and some factors lost statistical significance.
CONCLUSION: The risk prediction model indicates that the following variables should be assessed in this specific population: age, height, having had previous breast biopsies, number of pregnancies, and use of hormone replacement therapy. These findings may help to better understand the causal model of breast cancer in Southern Brazil.
PMID: 29344741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Developments in rare bone diseases and mineral disorders.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2018 Jan;9(1):51-60
Authors: Bacon S, Crowley R
In the last decade, there have been a number of significant advances made in the field of rare bone diseases. In this review, we discuss the expansion of the classification system for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the resultant increase in therapeutic options available for management of OI. Bisphosphonates remain the most widely used intervention for OI, although the effect on fracture rate reduction is equivocal. We review the other therapies showing promising results, including denosumab, teriparatide, sclerostin, transforming growth factor β inhibition and gene targeted approaches. X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common heritable form of osteomalacia and rickets caused by a mutation in the phosphate regulating endopeptidase gene resulting in elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and decreased renal phosphate reabsorption. The traditional treatment is phosphate replacement. We discuss the development of a human anti-FGF23 antibody (KRN23) as a promising development in the treatment of XLH. The current management of primary hypoparathyroidism is replacement with calcium and active vitamin D. This can be associated with under or over replacement and its inherent complications. We review the use of recombinant parathyroid hormone (1-84), which can significantly reduce the requirements for calcium and vitamin D resulting in greater safety and quality of life for individuals with hypoparathyroidism. The use of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand infusions in the treatment of a particular form of osteopetrosis and enzyme replacement therapy for hypophosphatasia are also discussed.
PMID: 29344330 [PubMed]
Sirolimus treatment for cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma patients accompanied by psoriasis after liver transplantation: A single center experience.
Oncol Lett. 2017 Dec;14(6):7817-7824
Authors: Zhou L, Du GS, Pan LC, Zheng YG, Liu ZJ, Shi HD, Yang SZ, Shi XJ, Xuan M, Feng LK, Zhu ZD
There is currently no consensus on the most suitable therapeutic approach for psoriasis (PS) co-existing with posthepatic cirrhosis (PCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation (LT). The present study provides an analysis of the therapeutic experience of such patients. Five LT recipients (two with PC and three with HCC) with accompanying PS were included. The induction program consisted of methylprednisolone plus basiliximab treatment. The initial postoperative treatment scheme consisted of tacrolimus (FK506) plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and hormone; the latter was withdrawn 1 week after LT. The patients with PC had been using FK506 with or without a postoperative MMF program; the patients with HCC and recurrence of PS had been switched to a sirolimus (SRL)-based replacement therapy. Furthermore, all patients received anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy. The patients were followed up after 8.3±1.5 years. There was a positive correlation between HBV-DNA copy numbers, and psoriatic area and severity index (PASI) scores (r=0.97; P=0.006). The PASI scores were decreased significantly at 6 months following surgery compared with pre-transplantation (P<0.05). The patients who had received the FK506-based treatment experienced PS recurrence two years post-transplantation. The PASI scores increased significantly (P<0.05) and then declined gradually, maintaining a stable level (P<0.05) by 1 year after switching to the SRL-based treatment. The patients who had received the SRL-based treatment exhibited no recurrence of PS. The results of the present study suggest that SRL therapy provides a promising novel treatment method for patients with PS following LT that may be superior to tacrolimus treatment. When co-existing HBV is present pre-transplantation, regular injection of human hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be used to prevent the HBV from relapsing or aggravating the PS.
PMID: 29344227 [PubMed]
Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopic Assessment of Urogenital Tissue in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.
Clin Med Insights Womens Health. 2018;11:1179562X17749608
Authors: Farage MA, Cambron T, Liu KZ
Background: A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a potential noninvasive measure of genital skin health in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Methods: A total of 45 female subjects (aged 21-70 years), all of whom gave fully informed consent to participate, were enrolled in the study and assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 15 premenopausal (Pre-M), 15 postmenopausal receiving hormone replacement therapy (Post-M HRT), and 15 postmenopausal receiving no form of hormone replacement therapy (Post-M non-HRT). Spectral measurements were taken at the vaginal mucosa, and spectral data were evaluated for the erythema index (EI), hemoglobin index (HI), bilirubin/β-carotene, and melanin. The color index (CI; calculated as the ratio of absorbance at 480 nm/540 nm) was also determined. Results were compared with previously published results on biomarkers and physical characteristic of genital tissue measured on the same groups of women.
Results: Spectral measurements from the Post-M Non-HRT subjects indicated a significant reduction in HI compared with the Pre-M group (P = .0003) and to the Post-M HRT group (P < .0001). Similarly, EI was reduced in the Post-M Non-HRT (P < .0001 and P = .0041 for the Pre-M and Post-M HRT groups, respectively). In contrast, the Post-M Non-HRT subjects exhibited a significant increase in β-carotene compared with the Pre-M subjects (P = .0098). Bilirubin and melanin were not significantly affected. The Post-M Non-HRT group exhibited a significant increase in CI, indicating a shift away from the hemoglobin absorption region (510-620 nm wavelength) and toward the bilirubin/β-carotene absorption region (450-490 nm wavelength). This change was significant when compared with both the Pre-M group (P < .0001) and the Post-M HRT group (P = .0048). The changes in spectral measurements were consistent with previously reported changes in physical parameters (vaginal atrophy, increased pH, decreased skin temperature) and with decreased concentrations of the biomarkers histamine and histidine.
Conclusions: Hemodynamic spectral characteristics differ in postmenopausal vaginal tissue compared with tissue in premenopausal women, with decreased absorbance in the hemoglobin absorption region (510-620 nm wavelength) and an increased absorbance in the bilirubin/β-carotene absorption region (450-490 nm wavelength). A change in absorbance in the visible and NIR wavelengths is a promising, additional measure of genital skin health related to menopause and vulvovaginal atrophy.
PMID: 29344000 [PubMed]
[Clinical features and prognosis of 18 cases of primary lymphocytic hypophysitis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Jan 09;98(2):102-108
Authors: Wei Q, Yang GQ, Li YJ, Zang L, Pei Y, Du J, Gu WJ, Ba JM, Lü ZH, Dou JT, Mu YM, Lu JM
Objective: To analyze clinical features, prognosis and treatment of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH). Methods: The clinical data, treatments and outcomes of 18 cases diagnosed as LYH at Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 2001 and July 2017 was respectively reviewed. Results: Eighteen patients with histology-proven LYH (13 females and 5 males ) were identified. All lymphocytic adenohypophysitis (LAH) were females(n=6), two of whom were associated with pregnancy. Eleven patients (6 females and 5 males) had lymphocytic panhypophysitis (LPH) and one(female) had hypothalamitis. Pre-treatment evaluation revealed that 11 patients presented with symptoms of intracranial space-occupying lesions, 12 patients had symptoms of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, and 12 patients had central diabetes insipidus (CDI). All patients had space-occupying lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which were symmetrically enlarged and homogenously enhanced with or without pituitary stalk thickening. Before or after surgery, 11 patients received immunosuppressant therapy or radiotherapy to alleviate space-occupying effect. After 4-204 months follow-up, 5 patients had a relapse and received immunosuppressants, radiotherapy or surgery to achieve remission. Full recovery (both symptomatic and radiographic) was seen in 6 patients, and 11 patients maintained stable replacement therapy. Conclusions: LYH presents with acute space-occupying effects such as headache, visual disturbances, hypopituitarism, CDI and mild hyperprolactinemia, especially with characteristic radiographic manifestations. Usually, surgery reliably establishes diagnosis, and immunosuppressant therapy is a necessity. On the whole, LYH has a good prognosis.
PMID: 29343033 [PubMed - in process]