CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Laser Treatment

Optimal Laser Phototherapy Parameters for Pain Relief.

Abstract Title: Optimal Laser Phototherapy Parameters for Pain Relief. Abstract Source: Photomed Laser Surg. 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27. PMID: 29583080 Abstract Author(s): Rohit J Kate, Sarah Rubatt, Chukuka S Enwemeka, Wendy E Huddleston Article Affiliation: Rohit J Kate Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies on laser phototherapy for pain relief have used parameters that vary widely and have reported varying outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter ranges of laser phototherapy for pain relief by analyzing data aggregated from existing primary literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original studies were gathered from available sources and were screened to meet the pre-established inclusion criteria. The included articles were then subjected to meta-analysis using Cohen's d statistic for determining treatment effect size. From these studies, ranges of the reported parameters that always resulted into large effect sizes were determined. These optimal ranges were evaluated for their accuracy using leave-one-article-out cross-validation procedure. RESULTS: A total of 96 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and yielded 232 effect sizes. The average effect size was highly significant: d = +1.36 (confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.04-1.68). Among all the parameters, total energy was found to have the greatest effect on pain relief and had the most prominent optimal ranges of 120-162 and 15.36-20.16 J, which always resulted in large effect sizes. The cross-validation accuracy of the optimal ranges for total energy was 68.57% (95% CI = 53.19-83.97). Fewer and less-prominent optimal ranges were obtained for the energy density and duration parameters. None of the remaining parameters was found to be independently related to pain relief outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of meta-analysis indicate that laser phototherapy is highly effective for pain relief. Based on the analysis of parameters, total energy can be optimized to yield the largest effect on pain relief. Article Published Date : Mar 26, 2018

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and pain management with low-level laser therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

Abstract Title: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and pain management with low-level laser therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Abstract Source: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014 May ;117(5):590-4. Epub 2014 Feb 6. PMID: 24725989 Abstract Author(s): Margit Albrektson, Lennart Hedström, Håkan Bergh Article Affiliation: Margit Albrektson Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has an analgesic effect in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). STUDY DESIGN: A randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled trial was conducted with LLLT (wavelength, 809 nm; power, 60 mW; pulse frequency, 1800 Hz; duration, 80 seconds per treatment; dose, 6.3 J/cm(2)) in 40 patients with RAS. The intervention group was treated with LLLT on 3 occasions, with a 1-day interval. The control group was treated similarly, without any laser power. Pain perception (visual analog scale [VAS] rating) and patients' experience of eating, drinking, and brushing teeth was registered. RESULTS: VAS rating decreased (day 0 until day 2) from 84.7 to 31.5 (LLLT) and from 81.7 to 76.1 (placebo) (P<.0001). LLLT also relieved the difficulty of drinking, eating, and brushing teeth. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT reduced the pain and the inconvenience of eating, drinking, and brushing teeth for patients with RAS, compared with placebo. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2014

Complementary treatment with oral pidotimod plus vitamin C after laser vaporization for female genital warts: a prospective study. 📎

Abstract Title: Complementary treatment with oral pidotimod plus vitamin C after laser vaporization for female genital warts: a prospective study. Abstract Source: J Med Life. 2010 Jul-Sep;3(3):286-8. PMID: 20945819 Abstract Author(s): S Zervoudis, G Iatrakis, P Peitsidis, A Peitsidou, L Papandonopolos, M K Nikolopoulou, L Papadopoulos, R Vladareanu Article Affiliation: Technol. Educational Institution of Athens, Athens, Greece. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: This is a prospective study to assess a complementary treatment for genital warts after laser vaporization. 62 patients were enrolled in two randomized groups: Al: laser vaporization alone. A2: laser vaporization, followed with Pidotimod plus vitamin C for 2 1/2 months. The latter treatment shortened the time of warts remission and marginally decreased the rate of the warts' recurrence: 81% versus 67% (N.S.). Despite the non-significant difference, this complementary treatment seems to have some efficiency. Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2010

The use of low-level light for hair growth: part I.

Abstract Title: The use of low-level light for hair growth: part I. Abstract Source: J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2009 Jun;11(2):110-7. PMID: 19466643 Abstract Author(s): Marc R Avram, Nicole E Rogers Article Affiliation: Cornell Department of Dermatology, New York, NY, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a new therapy for the treatment of hair loss. It has received enormous media attention and tremendous marketing budgets from companies that sell the devices, but no independent, peer-reviewed studies have demonstrated its efficacy in this application. Here we investigate the efficacy of LLLT in enhancing hair growth. METHODS: A total of seven patients were exposed to LLLT twice weekly for 20 minutes each time over a period of 3-6 months. Five patients were treated for a total of 3 months and two were treated for 6 months. Videomicroscopic images were taken at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, and analyzed for changes in vellus hair counts, terminal hair counts, and shaft diameter. Both videomicroscopic and global images underwent blinded review for evidence of subjective improvement. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. Neither patients nor physicians conducting the study received any financial compensation. RESULTS: The results indicate that on average patients had a decrease in the number of vellus hairs, an increase in the number of terminal hairs, and an increase in shaft diameter. However, paired i-testing indicated that none of these changes was statistically significant. Also, blinded evaluation of global images did not support an improvement in hair density or caliber. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT may be a promising treatment option for patients who do not respond to either finasteride or minoxidil, and who do not want to undergo hair transplantation. This technology appears to work better for some people than for others. Factors predicting who will most benefit are yet to be determined. Larger, longer-term placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings, and demonstrate statistical significance, or refute them altogether. Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2009

Low-intensity laser therapy is an effective treatment for recurrent herpes simplex infection. Results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. 📎

Abstract Title: Low-intensity laser therapy is an effective treatment for recurrent herpes simplex infection. Results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Abstract Source: Glia. 2009 Mar;57(4):402-13. PMID: 10469307 Abstract Author(s): A Schindl, R Neumann Abstract: Recurrent infection with herpes simplex virus is a common disease. Recently, alternative therapies have been introduced. Among those, low-intensity laser therapy mainly used for the acceleration of wound healing and in pain therapy has previously been shown to be of benefit in herpes zoster infections. In this study we evaluated the influence of low-intensity laser therapy (wavelength 690 nm, intensity: 80 mW per cm2, dose: 48 J per cm2) in 50 patients with recurrent perioral herpes simplex infection (at least once per month for more than 6 mo) in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial design. Patients in the laser group received daily irradiations for 2 wk, whereas patients in the placebo group were sham-irradiated. After completion of the laser/sham treatment, patients were asked to return to the Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna Medical School at the time of recurrence. All except two patients completed the study and were monitored for 52 wk. The median recurrence-free interval in the laser-treated group was 37.5 wk (range: 2-52 wk) and in the placebo group 3 wk (range: 1-20 wk). This difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001; Wilcoxon's Rank Sum Test). In conclusion, we demonstrated that a total of 10 irradiations with low-intensity laser therapy significantly lowers the incidence of local recurrence of herpes simplex infection. Since this athermic phototherapeutic modality represents a safe, noninvasive treatment, it might be considered as an alternative to established therapeutic regimens in this indication. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2009

Phototherapy in peripheral nerve regeneration: From basic science to clinical study. 📎

Abstract Title: Phototherapy in peripheral nerve regeneration: From basic science to clinical study. Abstract Source: Neurosurg Focus. 2009 Feb;26(2):E8. PMID: 19199510 Abstract Author(s): Shimon Rochkind Article Affiliation: Division of Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction, Department of Neurosurgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECT: This review summarizes the continuous study of low-power laser radiation treatment of a severely injured peripheral nerve. Laser phototherapy was applied as a supportive factor for accelerating and enhancing axonal growth and regeneration after injury or a reconstructive peripheral nerve procedure. In nerve cell cultures, laser phototherapy was used to stimulate activation of nerve cells. METHODS: Low-power laser radiation was used for treatment of peripheral nerve injury using a rat sciatic nerve model after crush injury, neurorrhaphy, or neurotube reconstruction. Nerve cell growth and axonal sprouting were investigated using laser phototherapy on embryonic rat brain cultures. The outcome in animal studies facilitated a clinical double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study that measured the effectiveness of 780-nm laser phototherapy on patients suffering from incomplete peripheral nerve injuries for 6 months to several years. RESULTS: Animal studies showed that laser phototherapy has an immediate protective effect, maintains functional activity of the injured nerve, decreases scar tissue formation at the injury site, decreases degeneration in corresponding motor neurons of the spinal cord, and significantly increases axonal growth and myelinization. In cell cultures, laser irradiation accelerates migration, nerve cell growth, and fiber sprouting. A pilot clinical double-blind, placebocontrolled, randomized study showed that in patients with incomplete long-term peripheral nerve injury, 780-nm laser radiation can progressively improve peripheral nerve function, which leads to significant functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Using 780-nm laser phototherapy accelerates and enhances axonal growth and regeneration after injury or a reconstructive peripheral nerve procedure. Laser activation of nerve cells, their growth, and axonal sprouting can be considered as potential treatment of neuronal injury. Animal and clinical studies show the promoting action of phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration, making it possible to suggest that the time for broader clinical trials has arrived. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2009

Chapter 25: Phototherapy in peripheral nerve injury: effects on muscle preservation and nerve regeneration.

Abstract Title: Chapter 25: Phototherapy in peripheral nerve injury: effects on muscle preservation and nerve regeneration. Abstract Source: Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;87:445-64. PMID: 19682654 Abstract Author(s): Shimon Rochkind, Stefano Geuna, Asher Shainberg Article Affiliation: Division of Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction, Department of Neurosurgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Abstract: Posttraumatic nerve repair and prevention of muscle atrophy represent a major challenge of restorative medicine. Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of laser phototherapy for restoring or temporarily preventing denervated muscle atrophy as well as enhancing regeneration of severely injured peripheral nerves. Low-power laser irradiation (laser phototherapy) was applied for treatment of rat denervated muscle in order to estimate biochemical transformation on cellular and tissue levels, as well as on rat sciatic nerve model after crush injury, direct or side-to-end anastomosis, and neurotube reconstruction. Nerve cells' growth and axonal sprouting were investigated in embryonic rat brain cultures. The animal outcome allowed clinical double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study that measured the effectiveness of 780-nm laser phototherapy on patients suffering from incomplete peripheral nerve injuries for 6 months up to several years. In denervated muscles, animal study suggests that the function of denervated muscles can be partially preserved by temporary prevention of denervation-induced biochemical changes. The function of denervated muscles can be restored, not completely but to a very substantial degree, by laser treatment initiated at the earliest possible stage post injury. In peripheral nerve injury, laser phototherapy has an immediate protective effect. It maintains functional activity of the injured nerve for a long period, decreases scar tissue formation at the injury site, decreases degeneration in corresponding motor neurons of the spinal cord, and significantly increases axonal growth and myelinization. In cell cultures, laser irradiation accelerates migration, nerve cell growth, and fiber sprouting. In a pilot, clinical, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study in patients with incomplete long-term peripheral nerve injury, 780-nm laser irradiation can progressively improve peripheral nerve function, which leads to significant functional recovery. A 780-nm laser phototherapy temporarily preserves the function of a denervated muscle, and accelerates and enhances axonal growth and regeneration after peripheral nerve injury or reconstructive procedures. Laser activation of nerve cells, their growth, and axonal sprouting can be considered as potential treatment for neural injury. Animal and clinical studies show the promoting action of phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration, which makes it possible to suggest that the time for broader clinical trials has come. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2009

Efficacy of 780-nm laser phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration after neurotube reconstruction procedure (double-blind randomized study).

Abstract Title: Efficacy of 780-nm laser phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration after neurotube reconstruction procedure (double-blind randomized study). Abstract Source: Photomed Laser Surg. 2007 Jun;25(3):137-43. PMID: 17603852 Abstract Author(s): Shimon Rochkind, Leonor Leider-Trejo, Moshe Nissan, Merav H Shamir, Oleg Kharenko, Malvina Alon Article Affiliation: Division of Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This pilot double-blind randomized study evaluated the efficacy of 780-nm laser phototherapy on the acceleration of axonal growth and regeneration after peripheral nerve reconstruction by polyglycolic acid (PGA) neurotube. BACKGROUND DATA: The use of a guiding tube for the reconstruction of segmental loss of injured peripheral nerve has some advantages over the regular nerve grafting procedure. Experimental studies have shown that laser phototherapy is effective in influencing nerve regeneration. METHODS: The right sciatic nerve was transected, and a 0.5-cm nerve segment was removed in 20 rats. A neurotube was placed between the proximal and the distal parts of the nerve for reconnection of nerve defect. Ten of 20 rats received post-operative, transcutaneous, 200-mW, 780-nm laser irradiation for 14 consecutive days to the corresponding segments of the spinal cord (15 min) and to the reconstructed nerve (15 min). RESULTS: At 3 months after surgery, positive somato-sensory evoked responses were found in 70% of the irradiated rats (p = 0.015), compared to 30% of the non-irradiated rats. The Sciatic Functional Index in the irradiated group was higher than in the non-irradiated group (p<0.05). Morphologically, the nerves were completely reconnected in both groups, but the laser-treated group showed an increased total number of myelinated axons. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that postoperative 780-nm laser phototherapy enhances the regenerative process of the peripheral nerve after reconnection of the nerve defect using a PGA neurotube. Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2007

low-level laser therapy applied transcranially to mice following traumatic brain injury significantly reduces long-term neurological deficits.

Abstract Title: low-level laser therapy applied transcranially to mice following traumatic brain injury significantly reduces long-term neurological deficits. Abstract Source: J Neurotrauma. 2007 Apr;24(4):651-6. PMID: 17439348 Abstract Author(s): Amir Oron, Uri Oron, Jackson Streeter, Luis de Taboada, Alexander Alexandrovich, Victoria Trembovler, Esther Shohami Article Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been evaluated in this study as a potential therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). LLLT has been found to modulate various biological processes. Following TBI in mice, we assessed the hypothesis that LLLT might have a beneficial effect on their neurobehavioral and histological outcome. TBI was induced by a weight-drop device, and motor function was assessed 1 h post-trauma using a neurological severity score (NSS). Mice were then divided into three groups of eight mice each: one control group that received a sham LLLT procedure and was not irradiated; and two groups that received LLLT at two different doses (10 and 20 mW/cm(2) ) transcranially. An 808-nm Ga-As diode laser was employed transcranially 4 h post-trauma to illuminate the entire cortex of the brain. Motor function was assessed up to 4 weeks, and lesion volume was measured. There were no significant changes in NSS at 24 and 48 h between the laser-treated and non-treated mice. Yet, from 5 days and up to 28 days, the NSS of the laser-treated mice were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the traumatized control mice that were not treated with the laser. The lesion volume of the laser treated mice was significantly lower (1.4%) than the non-treated group (12.1%). Our data suggest that a non-invasive transcranial application of LLLT given 4 h following TBI provides a significant long-term functional neurological benefit. Further confirmatory trials are warranted. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2007

Low-level laser therapy applied transcranially to rats after induction of stroke significantly reduces long-term neurological deficits. 📎

Abstract Title: Low-level laser therapy applied transcranially to rats after induction of stroke significantly reduces long-term neurological deficits. Abstract Source: Stroke. 2006 Oct;37(10):2620-4. Epub 2006 Aug 31. PMID: 16946145 Abstract Author(s): Amir Oron, Uri Oron, Jieli Chen, Anda Eilam, Chunling Zhang, Menachem Sadeh, Yair Lampl, Jackson Streeter, Luis DeTaboada, Michael Chopp Article Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin 70300, Israel. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) modulates various biological processes. In the present study, we assessed the hypothesis that LLLT after induction of stroke may have a beneficial effect on ischemic brain tissue. METHODS: Two sets of experiments were performed. Stroke was induced in rats by (1) permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery through a craniotomy or (2) insertion of a filament. After induction of stroke, a battery of neurological and functional tests (neurological score, adhesive removal) was performed. Four and 24 hours poststroke, a Ga-As diode laser was used transcranially to illuminate the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke at a power density of 7.5 mW/cm2. RESULTS: In both models of stroke, LLLT significantly reduced neurological deficits when applied 24 hours poststroke. Application of the laser at 4 hours poststroke did not affect the neurological outcome of the stroke-induced rats as compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in the stroke lesion area between control and laser-irradiated rats. The number of newly formed neuronal cells, assessed by double immunoreactivity to bromodeoxyuridine and tubulin isotype III as well as migrating cells (doublecortin immunoactivity), was significantly elevated in the subventricular zone of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the induction of stroke when treated by LLLT. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a noninvasive intervention of LLLT issued 24 hours after acute stroke may provide a significant functional benefit with an underlying mechanism possibly being induction of neurogenesis. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2006

Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with the pulsed dye laser over a 28-month period.

Abstract Title: Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with the pulsed dye laser over a 28-month period. Abstract Source: Cutis. 2003 May;71(5):414-6. PMID: 12769411 Abstract Author(s): John G Hancox, Jeffrey Jackson, Sean McCagh Abstract: Although benign, molluscum contagiosum causes cosmetic concern, infection, or transmission to close contacts. Treating patients with multiple lesions, especially children, may be difficult. Complications of treatment include infection, scarring, and limited posttreatment activity. The pulsed dye laser (PDL) has proven safe and effective for the treatment of many skin lesions, but little data exist for its role in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. The purpose of this study is to describe the use, over a 28-month period, of the 585-nm PDL for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. The benefits of this treatment are discussed. The charts of 43 patients receiving PDL treatment for molluscum contagiosum between November 1997 and March 2000 were reviewed. Number and location of lesions at initial presentation and on follow-up visits were recorded. Attempts were made to contact patients who were lost to follow-up. All of the approximately 1250 lesions treated resolved, and 35% of patients (n = 15) had no new lesions after 2 treatments. No complications were associated with the procedure. The PDL is a reasonable alternative to traditional treatment modalities for molluscum contagiosum. Benefits to the patient may include prompt response, fewer treatments, and minimal morbidity. Article Published Date : May 01, 2003
Therapeutic Actions Laser Treatment

NCBI pubmed

Future perspectives of flexible ureteroscopy.

Future perspectives of flexible ureteroscopy. Curr Opin Urol. 2019 Mar;29(2):113-117 Authors: Secker A, Rassweiler J, Neisius A Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the recent past, there were numerous and promising technological developments in the field of endourology leading to tremendous changes in the management of urolithiasis. This review will try to weave ancient stone therapy with the very modern advent of flexible ureteroscopy and recent developments in robotic systems. RECENT FINDINGS: In the broad field of flexible ureteroscopy for stone surgery, new disposable scopes have been developed and established. The use of robotic instruments is also a new and interesting concept. Additionally, clinical research on the understanding of laser features leads to a specific and appropriate use of lasers for lithotripsy, both holmium, and nowadays also interestingly thulium. SUMMARY: Disposable, digital flexible ureteroscopes for the treatment of both ureteric and kidney stones are taking an essential role in the medical field. Until recently, the clinically relevant laser systems for stone surgery during ureteroscopy are mainly based on Holmium laser YAG (Ho:YAG) devices, but a new thulium variant with promising features is giving interesting results. Additional research in laser features will guide to a better, more effective and safer treatment algorithm. Robotic technologies are promising but their definitive role still needs to be determined. PMID: 30668555 [PubMed - in process]

Chidamide-induced ROS accumulation and miR-129-3p-dependent cell cycle arrest in non-small lung cancer cells.

Chidamide-induced ROS accumulation and miR-129-3p-dependent cell cycle arrest in non-small lung cancer cells. Phytomedicine. 2018 Oct 02;56:94-102 Authors: Wu YF, Ou CC, Chien PJ, Chang HY, Ko JL, Wang BY Abstract BACKGROUND: Epigenetic therapy is a promising popular treatment modality for various cancers. Histone modification and miRNA should not be underestimated in lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether chidamide, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), which inhibits telomerase activity and induces cell cycle arrest, influences ROS and miRNA production in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. METHODS: H1355 and A549 were treated with chidamide. The analysis of DNA content was measured by FACSCalibur equipped with a 488 nm laser. H1355 cells were transfected with miR-129-3p mimic by Lipofectamine2000. Telomerase activity was performed on the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Detection of thymidylate synthase (TS), p21, p53, pRB, and β-actin, were performed by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Our data showed that expression of TS, p21, and pRB were altered in the presence of chidamide by PCR and western blot. Using BrdU-incorporation analysis, we found that chidamide induced G1 arrest through the regulation of the TS gene by miR-129-3p. Chidamide was shown to suppress telomerase activity in the TRAP assay and reduced the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by PCR and q-PCR in H1355 and A549 cells. Chidamide increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow cytometry. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, attenuated chidamide-induced telomerase activity inhibition. CONCLUSION: Chidamide repressed telomerase activity through ROS accumulation and cell cycle arrest by miR-129-3p upregulation in both H1355 and A549 cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that chidamide induces miR-129-3p upregulation and ROS accumulation, leading to cell cycle arrest. PMID: 30668358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The role of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

The role of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Dig Endosc. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Wu H, Minamide T, Yano T Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment of choice for cancer, induce photochemical reaction, thereby eradicating tumor cells. This is achieved through the administration of a photosensitizer drug, which is activated with a laser after localization to the tumor mass, and is an approved curative endoscopic ablative treatment for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Japan. PDT has been approved for dysplastic Barrett 's esophagus and as a palliative treatment for patients with symptomatic obstructive esophageal cancer in US. However, its adverse events and complicated procedure and the development of alternative endoscopic procedures such as endoscopic submucosal dissection, radio frequency ablation and cryotherapy, have largely limited the practice of PDT in esophageal cancer worldwide. Recently, owing to the invention of second-generation PDT using talaporfin sodium and diode laser, PDT can be performed with less phototoxicity and therefore has regained popularity in the treatment of ESCC. As a salvage treatment for patients with local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CRT), PDT has shown promising complete response with less phototoxicity and shorter sun shade period. And, the efficacy and safety of PDT in patients with local failure of ESCC after CRT were shown in several clinical trials. The direction of the study-interest of the next generation PDT is the safety and potential expansion of the indications for its application in the future. This review covers the PDT for the treatment of ESCC and dysplastic Barrett 's esophagus, with special focus on the role of PDT in practice for esophageal cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30667112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Endometrial resection and ablation techniques for heavy menstrual bleeding.

Endometrial resection and ablation techniques for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 22;1:CD001501 Authors: Bofill Rodriguez M, Lethaby A, Grigore M, Brown J, Hickey M, Farquhar C Abstract BACKGROUND: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a significant health problem in premenopausal women; it can reduce their quality of life and can cause social disruption and physical problems such as iron deficiency anaemia. First-line treatment has traditionally consisted of medical therapy (hormonal and non-hormonal), but this is not always successful in reducing menstrual bleeding to acceptable levels. Hysterectomy is a definitive treatment, but it is more costly and carries some risk. Endometrial ablation may be an alternative to hysterectomy that preserves the uterus. Many techniques have been developed to 'ablate' (remove) the lining of the endometrium. First-generation techniques require visualisation of the uterus with a hysteroscope during the procedure; although it is safe, this procedure requires specific technical skills. Newer techniques for endometrial ablation (second- and third-generation techniques) have been developed that are quicker than previous approaches because they do not require hysteroscopic visualisation during the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of endometrial destruction techniques to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in premenopausal women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycInfo (from inception to May 2018). We also searched trials registers, other sources of unpublished or grey literature, and reference lists of retrieved studies, and we made contact with experts in the field and with pharmaceutical companies that manufacture ablation devices. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different endometrial ablation or resection techniques for women reporting HMB without known uterine pathology, other than fibroids outside the uterine cavity and smaller than 3 centimetres, were eligible. Outcomes included improvement in HMB and in quality of life, patient satisfaction, operative outcomes, complications, and the need for further surgery, including hysterectomy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trials for risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted study authors for clarification of methods or for additional data. We assessed adverse events only if they were separately measured in the included trials. We undertook comparisons with individual techniques as well as an overall comparison of first- and second-generation ablation methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included in this update 28 studies (4287 women) with sample sizes ranging from 20 to 372. Most studies had low risk of bias for randomisation, attrition, and selective reporting. Less than half of these studies had adequate allocation concealment, and most were unblinded. Using GRADE, we determined that the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. We downgraded evidence for risk of bias, imprecision, and inconsistency.Overall comparison of second-generation versus first-generation (i.e. gold standard hysteroscopic ablative) techniques revealed no evidence of differences in amenorrhoea at 1 year and 2 to 5 years' follow-up (risk ratio (RR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.27; 12 studies; 2145 women; I² = 77%; and RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.72; 672 women; 4 studies; I² = 80%; very low-quality evidence) and showed subjective improvement at 1 year follow-up based on a Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart (PBAC) (< 75 or acceptable improvement) (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.09; 5 studies; 1282 women; I² = 0%; and RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.28; 236 women; 1 study; low-quality evidence). Study results showed no difference in patient satisfaction between second- and first-generation techniques at 1 year follow-up (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.04; 11 studies; 1750 women; I² = 36%; low-quality evidence) nor at 2 to 5 years' follow-up (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.13; 672 women; 4 studies; I² = 81%).Compared with first-generation techniques, second-generation endometrial ablation techniques were associated with shorter operating times (mean difference (MD) -13.52 minutes, 95% CI -16.90 to -10.13; 9 studies; 1822 women; low-quality evidence) and more often were performed under local rather than general anaesthesia (RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.4; 6 studies; 1434 women; low-quality evidence).We are uncertain whether perforation rates differed between second- and first-generation techniques (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.01; 1885 women; 8 studies; I² = 0%).Trials reported little or no difference between second- and first-generation techniques in requirement for additional surgery (ablation or hysterectomy) at 1 year follow-up (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.26; 6 studies: 935 women; low-quality evidence). At 5 years, results showed probably little or no difference between groups in the requirement for hysterectomy (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.22; 4 studies; 758 women; moderate-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Approaches to endometrial ablation have evolved from first-generation techniques to newer second- and third-generation approaches. Current evidence suggests that compared to first-generation techniques (endometrial laser ablation, transcervical resection of the endometrium, rollerball endometrial ablation), second-generation approaches (thermal balloon endometrial ablation, microwave endometrial ablation, hydrothermal ablation, bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation, endometrial cryotherapy) are of equivalent efficacy for heavy menstrual bleeding, with comparable rates of amenorrhoea and improvement on the PBAC. Second-generation techniques are associated with shorter operating times and are performed more often under local rather than general anaesthesia. It is uncertain whether perforation rates differed between second- and first-generation techniques. Evidence was insufficient to show which second-generation approaches were superior to others and to reveal the efficacy and safety of third-generation approaches versus first- and second-generation techniques. PMID: 30667064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Titania-coated 2D gold nanoplates as nanoagents for synergistic photothermal/sonodynamic therapy in the second near-infrared window.

Titania-coated 2D gold nanoplates as nanoagents for synergistic photothermal/sonodynamic therapy in the second near-infrared window. Nanoscale. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Gao F, He G, Yin H, Chen J, Liu Y, Lan C, Zhang S, Yang B Abstract The development of efficient nanomedicines to improve anticancer therapeutic effects is highly attractive. In this work, we firstly report titania-coated Au nanoplate (Au [email protected]) heterostructures, which play dual roles as nanoagents for synergistic photothermal/sonodynamic therapy in the second near-infrared (NIR) window. On the one hand, because the controlled TiO2 shells endow the Au [email protected] nanostructures with a red shift to the NIR II region, the as-prepared Au [email protected] nanostructures possess a high photothermal conversion efficiency of 42.05% when irradiated by a 1064 nm laser and are anticipated to be very promising candidates as photothermal agents. On the other hand, the Au nanoplates (Au NPLs), as electron traps, vastly improve the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the Au [email protected] nanostructures in contrast with pure TiO2 shell nanoparticles upon activation by ultrasound (US) via a sonodynamic process. Moreover, the toxicity and therapeutic effect of the Au [email protected] nanostructures were relatively systemically evaluated in vitro. The Au [email protected] nanostructures generate a large amount of intracellular ROS and exhibit laser power density-dependent toxicity, which eventually induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, a synergistic therapeutic effect, with a cell viability of only 20.3% upon both photothermal and sonodynamic activation, was achieved at low concentrations of the Au [email protected] nanostructures. Experiments on mice also demonstrate the superiority of the combination of PTT and SDT, with the total elimination of tumors. This work provides a way of applying two-dimensional (2D) gold nanoplate core/TiO2 shell nanostructures as novel nanoagents for advanced multifunctional anticancer therapies in the second NIR window. PMID: 30667014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Successful Treatment of Eczema-Like Mucormycosis in a Child by Combination of Intravenous Drip and Percutaneous Injection Amphotericin B.

Related Articles Successful Treatment of Eczema-Like Mucormycosis in a Child by Combination of Intravenous Drip and Percutaneous Injection Amphotericin B. Mycopathologia. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Fu MH, Liu J, Liang GZ, Li CR, Zhu XM, Wang L, Chen H, Hu WL, Lv GX, Liu WD Abstract We report a case of eczema-like cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus. A 4-year-old child was presented to our hospital with a history of gradually enlarging papule and plaque in the periumbilical area for nearly 4 years since 2 weeks after his birth, and it has been misdiagnosed as eczema for nearly 3 years. Based on histopathology examination, the fungus culture test and DNA sequencing, it was revealed that R. arrhizus should be the responsible fungus for skin infection. The patient was successfully cured by combination of intravenous drip and percutaneous injection amphotericin B for nearly 3 months, and no recrudescence was seen during a follow-up of 6-month observation. PMID: 30666543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Efficacy of Trifecting® Night Cream, a Novel Triple acting Skin Brightening Product: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.

Related Articles Efficacy of Trifecting® Night Cream, a Novel Triple acting Skin Brightening Product: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2018 Dec;11(12):21-25 Authors: Jiang L, Hino PD, Bhatia A, Stephens TJ, Jimenez F Abstract Background: Melasma is a common, persistent disorder of hyperpigmented facial skin predominantly attributed to ultraviolet light exposure, hormonal influences, and genetic predisposition. Objectives: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerance of a multimodality night cream when used over a course of 24 weeks followed by a four-week regression in female subjects with moderate to severe melasma, presence of solar lentigines, and periocular lines and wrinkles. Methods: Subjects were randomized into one of two groups: Cell 1 received Trifecting® Night Cream (Envy Medical, Long Beach, California) 1.0 and Cell 2 did not. All subjects were supplied with a two-product regimen comprising a cleanser and sunscreen to use during the trial. Clinical grading, tolerability assessments, and Chroma Meter measurements (Konica Minolta, Tokyo, Japan) were performed at baseline and at Weeks 8, 16, 24, and 28 (regression). Standardized digital photographs were taken and self-assessment questionnaires were completed. Results: Twenty-five subjects completed the 28-week study, with 14 subjects in Cell 1 and 11 subjects in Cell 2. Subjects in both groups showed improvements in facial conditions. Cell 1 outperformed Cell 2 in improving fine lines, solar lentigines, and melasma conditions. These improvements were sustained during regression period. Conclusions: Trifecting® Night Cream 1.0, is effective for the treatment of moderate to severe melasma, solar lentigines, and periocular lines and wrinkles over 24 weeks of usage, with its benefits sustained for at least four weeks after treatment. PMID: 30666274 [PubMed]

Transthoracic echocardiography guided percutaneous laser ablation of the interventricular septum: A successful sheep model for septal thickness reduction and one year follow-up.

Related Articles Transthoracic echocardiography guided percutaneous laser ablation of the interventricular septum: A successful sheep model for septal thickness reduction and one year follow-up. Int J Cardiol. 2019 Jan 04;: Authors: Fu J, Sun C, Liu F, Hu R, Hsi DH, Tuo S, Shao H, Yin H, Zheng J, Zhang J, Yang J, Zhang J, Guan X, Liu L Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common genetic cardiovascular disease, causing breathlessness, chest pain, syncope and sudden death. One-year outcome of echo-guided transthoracic percutaneous laser ablation (TPLA) of the sheep interventricular septum was studied as a novel treatment to reduce the septal thickness. It may partially address the limitations of surgical myectomy and alcohol septal ablation in terms of trauma, safety, and efficacy. METHODS: Twelve healthy adult sheep were randomly categorized into two groups: with and without the laser application of TPLA of the interventricular septum (IVS) at the energy level of 5 W for 3 min. Echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), serological and pathological examinations were performed over a 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: After the laser ablation all animals survived with normal cardiac function; No severe complications or bundle branch block were noted. The septal thickness (3.11 ± 1.14 vs. 8.40 ± 0.45 mm, p < 0.05), regional movement of ablated IVS and longitudinal strain significantly decreased when comparing the experimental and control groups. The Troponin I level was significantly elevated after the operation, which validated immediate cardiac coagulation necrosis. On cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, the ablated myocardium showed significant fibrosis evidenced by late gadolinium enhancement. Pathological results revealed damaged ultra-structure of the ablated myocardium and development of fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: TPLA is a safe and effective minimally invasive method to reduce IVS thickness in the long term, making it a potential alternative for HOCM treatment. PMID: 30665806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Blood flow index as an indicator of successful sciatic nerve block: a prospective observational study using laser speckle contrast imaging.

Related Articles Blood flow index as an indicator of successful sciatic nerve block: a prospective observational study using laser speckle contrast imaging. Br J Anaesth. 2018 Oct;121(4):859-866 Authors: Wu X, Li J, Joypaul K, Bao WW, Wang D, Huang YJ, Li PC, Mei W Abstract BACKGROUND: Laser speckle contrast imaging allows real-time, non-invasive, quantitative measurements of regional blood flow. The objectives of this prospective observational study were to use laser speckle contrast imaging to evaluate blood flow changes after sciatic nerve block, and to determine whether this novel optical technique can evaluate block success. METHODS: This observational study included 63 adult patients undergoing elective lower limb surgery with sciatic nerve block. Blood flow images and blood flow index (BFI) values of toes were recorded using laser speckle contrast imaging 5 min before nerve block and at 5 min intervals until 30 min after sciatic block. The sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of laser speckle contrast imaging for predicting successful sciatic block were determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: The BFI values of toes were significantly increased at each time point after successful sciatic block, compared with the baseline value obtained 5 min before nerve block; in failed sciatic block, there were no significant differences. For successful sciatic block, the highest increase of BFI value was at the big toe. BFI increase of the big toe at 10 min after sciatic block has great potential as an indicator of block success. The area under the ROC curve was 0.954 at a cut-off value of 8.48 perfusion units (PU) with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Laser speckle contrast imaging might be an early, objective, quantitative, and reliable indicator of successful sciatic block. BFI increase of the big toe not reaching 8.48 PU within 10 min after sciatic block indicates block failure. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03169517. PMID: 30236247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A delayed dose of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine demonstrates immune memory in HIV-1-infected men.

Related Articles A delayed dose of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine demonstrates immune memory in HIV-1-infected men. Papillomavirus Res. 2018 12;6:11-14 Authors: Ellsworth GB, Lensing SY, Ogilvie CB, Lee JY, Goldstone SE, Berry-Lawhorn JM, Jay N, Stier EA, Logan JS, Einstein MH, Saah A, Mitsuyasu RT, Aboulafia D, Palefsky JM, Wilkin TJ PMID: 29807211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Photobiomodulation in Light of Our Biological Clock's Inner Workings.

Related Articles Photobiomodulation in Light of Our Biological Clock's Inner Workings. Photomed Laser Surg. 2018 03;36(3):119-121 Authors: Santana-Blank L, Rodríguez-Santana E PMID: 29649380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Refractive lenticule extraction - The ReLEx/SMILE technique : Video article].

Related Articles [Refractive lenticule extraction - The ReLEx/SMILE technique : Video article]. Ophthalmologe. 2017 Sep;114(9):851-856 Authors: Blum M, Sekundo W Abstract Refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx/SMILE) is a refractive surgical method developed by the authors in stages primarily for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism, in which a femtosecond laser is exclusively used. In the (ReLEx/SMILE) method a refractive lenticule is generated by the femtosecond laser, which is subsequently extracted through a small incision. Opening of the corneal surface with a flap and use of an excimer laser is no longer necessary. In 2013 the method was newly assessed and classified by the Joint Commisssion for Refractive Surgery (KRC) of the Professional Association of Ophthalmologists (BVA) and the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG). This article presents the individual stages of the technique in a video and possible errors and their avoidance are explained. PMID: 28808774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reduced susceptibility to cefixime but not ceftriaxone: an uncertain perspective for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Brazil.

Related Articles Reduced susceptibility to cefixime but not ceftriaxone: an uncertain perspective for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Brazil. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 04;49(4):515-516 Authors: Costa-Lourenço APR, Abrams JA, Barros Dos Santos KT, Coelho-Souza T, Moreira BM, Fracalanzza SEL, Trees DL, Bonelli RR PMID: 28232214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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