[Water immersion for adjuvant treatment of refractory ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis].
J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009 Jul;47(1):85-95. Epub 2009 May 3. PMID: 18158879
María-Elena López-Ortega, Ernesto Santiago-Luna, Mario Salazar-Páramo, José Luis Montañez-Fernández, Jacqueline Osuna-Rubio, Alejandro González-Ojeda
BACKGROUND: Head-out water immersion has been proposed as an adjuvant treatment in refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome. We undertook this study to present the results of management of patients with refractory ascites. METHODS: We included 10 patients with diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Variables were measured in four stages: stage I (basal); II (at the end of water immersion); III (72 h after water immersion); IV (1 week after water immersion concludes). Clinical and laboratory variables were measured and included general exams and renal function tests. Friedman test was used for statistics to establish differences between variables at the end of stage IV. We considered statistical significance when p<0.05. RESULTS: Median age was 53.8 years, corresponding to seven men and three women with a Child's classification of B or C. Statistically significant variables were weight (p=0.02) and abdominal circumference (p=0.003), as a result of an increased urine output (p=0.03) and glomerular filtration rate (p<0.002). Renal plasma rate increased until stage III, returning to basal level in stage IV. Serum potassium levels decreased but the difference was marginal (p=0.052). During follow-up, two patients died as a consequence of liver insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Head-out water immersion showed a decrease in weight and abdominal circumference, which means reduction of ascites. There was a transitory improvement in renal function. No collateral events were reported. Water immersion could be proposed as an adjuvant treatment in patients with refractory ascites and liver cirrhosis.
Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2009
Effect of rehydration schedule after four-hour head-out water immersion on running performance and recovery.
Undersea Hyperb Med. 2018 Sep-Oct;45:495-503
Authors: Hess HW, Schlader ZJ, Russo LN, Stansbery RN, Carey MG, Pendergast DR, Hostler D
Introduction: Head-out water immersion (HOWI) results in diuresis, which could potentially limit performance after egress to land. We examined the effect of rehydration on endurance, cardiovascular stability, and overnight recovery following a four-hour thermoneutral HOWI on 12 subjects.
Methods: Twelve males completed a crossover design consisting of no hydration, replacement of fluid loss during immersion (RD), and replacement of fluid after the immersion period (RA). Sixty minutes following immersion, subjects ran to exhaustion at ~80% maximum heart rate. After completing the run, each subject submitted to a head-up tilt test (HUTT). Vital signs and ECG were monitored overnight.
Results: HOWI resulted in a transient diuresis in NH and RA, while it was sustained throughout immersion in the RD protocol, resulting in greater urine [l] output (1.27 ± 0.48 (NH), 1.18 ± 0.43 (RA), 2.32 ± 0.77 (RD) (p ⟨ 0.001). Body mass change (%) was greater in NH than RD, but not RA (-1.58 ± 0.56 (NH), -0.66 ± 0.47 (RD), and -0.92 ± 0.76 (RA)). Run times were 17% versus 20% in NH compared to RD and RA, respectively, but were not statistically different. Time to orthostasis during the HUTT did not differ by condition. Overnight heart rate variability and blood pressures were not different.
Conclusion: Rehydration during water immersion resulted in a large, sustained diuresis without improving performance or recovery after exiting the water. Loss of body water during thermoneutral HOWI was modest, and both rehydration strategies minimally affected aerobic performance and overnight recovery in young, healthy males.
PMID: 30428238 [PubMed - in process]