Nasal changes associated with exercise in athletes: systematic review.
J Laryngol Otol. 2018 Jan 18;:1-7
Authors: Surda P, Walker A, Limpens J, Fokkens W, Putala M
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of rhinitis in athletes has frequently been studied in combination with asthma, but the impact of exercise on the paracrine and secretory functions of nasal mucosa is less well established. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of exercise on nasal mucosa in elite athletes.
METHOD: A systematic search of Medline, Embase and the non-Medline subset of PubMed, from inception to 8th March 2016, was performed to identify studies on rhinitis in athletes.
RESULTS: Of the 373 identified unique articles, a total of 8 studies satisfied the criteria for this review.
CONCLUSION: There is no evidence in the existing literature that indicates a reduction in nasal airway induced by exercise. Olfaction and mucociliary transport time are affected in swimmers, which can likely be attributed to chlorine irritation and which resolves with training cessation. Short-term strenuous exercise may trigger changes in cytology and prolonged mucociliary transport time, which also resolve quickly with rest.
PMID: 29343306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The Importance of Holding Water: Salinity and Chemosensory Cues Affect Zebrafish Behavior.
Zebrafish. 2017 Oct;14(5):444-458
Authors: Mahabir S, Gerlai R
The zebrafish is becoming a popular model organism for studying numerous biological phenomena. Among these are brain function and behavior, including social behavior. Although usually neglected, few studies have already demonstrated that even trivial factors, such as features of the holding water may alter zebrafish behavior. In this study, we employed a 2 × 2 between-subject experimental design, exposing zebrafish to water of either high or low salinity and with chemosensory/olfactory cues of conspecifics either present or absent (while maintaining pH, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia levels constant). We presented moving images of conspecifics to experimental zebrafish and analyzed their behavioral responses using video tracking. We found significant interaction between salinity and olfactory cues. For example, zebrafish exposed to their home tank water (high salinity with chemosensory/olfactory cues present) stayed significantly closer to the bottom of their tank compared with fish exposed to the other water conditions, and fish exposed to water with chemosensory/olfactory cues significantly reduced their turns compared with fish exposed to water without chemosensory/olfactory cues. These differences signify the impact environmental factors, for example, fluctuations in salinity level and presence or absence of chemosensory/olfactory cues, may have on zebrafish behavior. We conclude that maintaining stable environmental conditions and specifying and reporting them precisely are important for reducing error variation and for making results across independent studies more comparable.
PMID: 28873052 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]