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The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients. 📎

Abstract Title: The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients. Abstract Source: J Phys Ther Sci. 2017 Nov ;29(11):2022-2025. Epub 2017 Nov 24. PMID: 29200649 Abstract Author(s): Yo-Han Uhm, Dae-Jung Yang Article Affiliation: Yo-Han Uhm Abstract: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration in acute stroke patients on balance and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study and were divided into a group of 10, a group for biofeedback postural control training combined with a whole body vibration, one for biofeedback postural control training combined with an aero-step, and one for biofeedback postural control training. Biorescue was used to measure the limits of stability, balance ability, and Lukotronic was used to measure step length, gait ability. [Results] In the comparison of balance ability and gait ability between the groups for before and after intervention, Group I showed a significant difference in balance ability and gait ability compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration is effective for improving balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2017

Music as an Adjunct to Opioid-Based Analgesia.

Abstract Title: Music as an Adjunct to Opioid-Based Analgesia. Abstract Source: J Med Toxicol. 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23. PMID: 28646359 Abstract Author(s): Peter R Chai, Stephanie Carreiro, Megan L Ranney, Ketki Karanam, Marko Ahtisaari, Robert Edwards, Kristin L Schreiber, Lubabah Ben-Ghaly, Timothy B Erickson, Edward W Boyer Article Affiliation: Peter R Chai Abstract: Epidemic increases in opioid use in the USA and globally highlight the need for effective adjunctive therapies to opioid-based analgesia. Given the shortcomings of behavioral adjuncts to opioid-based pain treatment, an urgent need exists for pain-related behavioral interventions that resonate with broad patient populations, can be delivered confidentially in any environment, and can incorporate new content automatically. Understanding the potential for automated behavioral therapies like music therapy in modulating the experience of pain may unlock methods to transition patients to lower doses of pharmacologic therapy or provide alternatives to opioids during acute exacerbations of pain. This manuscript describes the neurologic mechanism of action, theoretical basis, and potential applications of personalized music as a smartphone-based mHealth intervention for acute and chronic pain management. Article Published Date : Jun 22, 2017

Evaluation of Efficacy of 1% Curcuminoids as Local Application in Management of Oral Lichen Planus - Interventional Study. 📎

Abstract Title: Evaluation of Efficacy of 1% Curcuminoids as Local Application in Management of Oral Lichen Planus - Interventional Study. Abstract Source: J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Apr ;11(4):ZC89-ZC93. Epub 2017 Apr 1. PMID: 28571271 Abstract Author(s): Anju Elizabeth Thomas, Beena Varma, Seema Kurup, Renju Jose, Marina Lazar Chandy, Sreeja P Kumar, M S Aravind, Athira Aruna Ramadas Article Affiliation: Anju Elizabeth Thomas Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease affecting the oral cavity which has been associated with severe burning sensation which in turn affects the quality of life of the patients. Currently, the effective treatment of choice remains the use of corticosteroids. The chronicity and recalcitrant nature of the disease demand the long term use of these drugs with ensuing adverse effects. Turmeric and its active ingredient,"curcumin", have been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Hence, this intervention study was done to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin oral gel in the management of oral lichen planus. AIM: The study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 1% curcumin gel with the conventional mid-potent topical corticosteroid, triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% in managing the signs and symptoms of OLP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An intervention study was conducted on 75 patients diagnosed with OLP divided into three groups, Group 1 (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide oral paste thrice daily in tapering doses), Group 2 (curcumin oral gel thrice daily) and Group 3 (curcumin oral gel six times daily). The patients were analysed for the symptom (burning) and sign (erythema and ulceration) using the numerical rating score and Modified Oral Mucositis Index (MOMI) for a period of three months on a bimonthly basis. The results were analysed using Students t-test and unpaired t-test. RESULTS: Intragroup comparison using paired t-test showed statistically significant reduction in burning sensation (p<0.001) as well as erythema and ulceration (p<0.001) in all the three groups. However, when the three groups were compared Group 1 showed the maximum reduction in burning sensation (77%) and erythema and ulceration (67%). Among the curcuminoid group, increased frequency was found to be more beneficial. CONCLUSION: Curcumin oral gel can bring about clinical improvements in OLP patients; however it cannot be used as a mainstay drug. Instead, it can be used as a maintenance drug after the patient is treated with an initial course of corticosteroids. Further studies with larger sample size and increased drug concentrations may be required. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2017

An open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study of the efficacy of sorghum bicolor extract in preoperative anemia.

Abstract Title: An open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study of the efficacy of sorghum bicolor extract in preoperative anemia. Abstract Source: Nutrition. 2017 Jan ;33:113-117. Epub 2016 May 18. PMID: 27461168 Abstract Author(s): Adetokunbo O Tayo, Adedoyin O Dosunmu, Ireti O Akinola, Adeniyi Adewunmi, Olufemi A Oloyede, Akinsegun A Akinbami, Bodunrin I Osikomaiya, Samira B L Makanjuola Article Affiliation: Adetokunbo O Tayo Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Anemia in patients presenting for elective surgery is associated with increased morbidity, allogeneic blood transfusion, and delay of surgery. Extract of sorghum bicolor has been shown to have hemopoietic, immune-stimulating, and antioxidant effects in rats and in patients with HIV. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the extract in patients with preoperative anemia booked for myomectomy. METHODS: Consenting patients (N = 66) were randomly assigned to two groups. The test group (n = 34) was given folic acid 5 mg/d, 200 mg iron tablet three times daily, and 500 mg/d of the extract. The control group (n = 32) was given the same doses of folic acid and iron for a period of 3 wk. Blood samples were taken atbaseline and weekly for full blood cell count and liver and kidney function tests. Participants were screened for tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis, and sickle cell anemia. RESULTS: Increases in red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration in participants in the test group were highly significant (P < 0.0002, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Participants in the control group had a significant increase in the hemoglobin concentration (P > 0.04). The changes in liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine for participants in the test group were within the normal ranges. CONCLUSION: The addition of the extract of sorghum bicolor to routine hematinics is superior to the use of routine hematinics alone. Although the difference is not statistically significant, the extract will correct preoperative anemia in an additional 15% of the patients. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

The Combination of Resveratrol and High-Fluence Light Emitting Diode-Red Light Produces Synergistic Photobotanical Inhibition of Fibroblast Proliferation and Collagen Synthesis: A Novel Treatment for Skin Fibrosis.

Abstract Title: The Combination of Resveratrol and High-Fluence Light Emitting Diode-Red Light Produces Synergistic Photobotanical Inhibition of Fibroblast Proliferation and Collagen Synthesis: A Novel Treatment for Skin Fibrosis. Abstract Source: Dermatol Surg. 2017 Jan ;43(1):81-86. PMID: 28027199 Abstract Author(s): Andrew Mamalis, Jared Jagdeo Article Affiliation: Andrew Mamalis Abstract: BACKGROUND: Skin fibrosis is a debilitating condition that significantly impacts patient quality of life. Ultraviolet phototherapy is currently used to treat several diseases featuring skin fibrosis. High-fluence light-emitting diode-generated red light (HF-LED-RL) does not cause DNA damage associated with skin cancer, and it is generally regarded as safe, portable, and cost-effective. Early clinical observations suggest that LED-generated light may possess antifibrotic effects, although these findings are largely unexplored. Previously published research demonstrated that HF-LED-RL decreases fibroblast proliferation and collagen in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare the combination effects of HF-LED-RL alone with HF-LED-RL in combination with resveratrol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is hypothesized that resveratrol, an active ingredient in red wine, a potent antioxidant scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and an inhibitor of collagen production, may synergistically decrease fibroblast proliferation and collagen production when combined with HF-LED-RL. RESULTS: In this study, evidence is provided that resveratrol combined with HF-LED-RL acts synergistically to decrease fibroblast proliferation and procollagen 1A1 production, and this represents a new potential therapeutic modality that is termed the"photobotanical"effect due to the combined light and botanical properties observed. CONCLUSION: The study, discovery, and use of photobotanical combinations may usher in new therapeutics or phototherapy adjuvants for the treatment of dermatologic diseases. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

The Effect of Yoga on Functional Recovery Level in Schizophrenic Patients.

Abstract Title: The Effect of Yoga on Functional Recovery Level in Schizophrenic Patients. Abstract Source: Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2016 Dec ;30(6):761-767. Epub 2016 Jul 30. PMID: 27888972 Abstract Author(s): Funda Kavak, Mine Ekinci Article Affiliation: Funda Kavak Abstract: PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of yoga on functional recovery level in schizophrenic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group. The population of the study consisted of schizophrenic patients with registered in Malatya and Elazığ Community Mental Health Centers and regularly going to these centers. The sample group of the study consisted of totally 100 patients including 50 patients in the experimental group and 50 patients in the control group who were specified through power analysis and chosen by using random sampling method from this population. The data were collected between April 2015 and August 2015. 'Patient Description Form' and 'FROGS' were used to collect the data. Yoga was applied to patients in the experimental group. Any intervention was not made to patients in the control group. Percentage distribution, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, chi-square, independent samples t test, and paired t test were used to assess the data. RESULTS: Patients in the control and experimental group pretest subscale and the total means scores of FROGS was found to be low. In the posttest subscale and total means scores of FROGS in the experimental group were higher than in the control group and the differences between them were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). In the experimental group pretest and posttest subscale and total means scores of FR0GS was determined to be statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Yoga that applied to schizophrenic patients it was determined to increased the level of functional recovery. It can be suggested that yoga should be used as an complementary method in nursing practise in order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2016

Bright Light Therapy as Augmentation of Pharmacotherapy for Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Abstract Title: Bright Light Therapy as Augmentation of Pharmacotherapy for Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Abstract Source: Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2016 Oct 20 ;18(5). Epub 2016 Aug 20. PMID: 27835725 Abstract Author(s): Thomas M Penders, Cornel N Stanciu, Alexander M Schoemann, Philip T Ninan, Richard Bloch, Sy A Saeed Article Affiliation: Thomas M Penders Abstract: Background: Bright light therapy has demonstrated efficacy and is an accepted treatment for seasonal depression. It has been suggested that bright light therapy may have efficacy in nonseasonal depressions. Also, there is evidence that bright light therapy may improve responsiveness to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Data Sources: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and Academic OneFile for English-language literature published between January 1998 and April 2016, using the keywords bright light therapy AND major depression, bright light therapy AND depress*, bright light therapy AND bipolar depression, bright light therapy AND affective disorders, circadian rhythm AND major depression, circadian rhythm AND depress*, and circadian rhythm AND affective disorder. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Studies that reported randomized trials comparing antidepressant pharmacotherapy with bright light therapy≥ 5,000 lux for ≥ 30 minutes to antidepressant pharmacotherapy without bright light therapy for the treatment of nonseasonal depression were included. Studies of seasonal depression were excluded. Following review of the initial 112 returns, 2 of the authors independently judged each trial, applying the inclusionary and exclusionary criteria. Ten studies were selected as meeting these criteria. Subjects in these studies were pooled using standard techniques of meta-analysis. Results: Ten studies involving 458 patients showed improvement using bright light therapy augmentation versus antidepressant pharmacotherapy alone. The effect size was similar to that of other accepted augmentation strategies, roughly 0.5. Conclusions: Analysis of pooled data from randomized trials provides evidence for the efficacy of use of bright light therapy≥ 5,000 lux for periods ≥ 30 minutes when used as augmentation to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar depression without a seasonal pattern. Article Published Date : Oct 19, 2016

"Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT): A feasibility and pilot study".

Abstract Title: "Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT): A feasibility and pilot study". Abstract Source: Complement Ther Med. 2016 Oct ;28:44-9. Epub 2016 Aug 10. PMID: 27670869 Abstract Author(s): Arlene A Schmid, Marieke Van Puymbroeck, Jennifer D Portz, Karen E Atler, Christine A Fruhauf Article Affiliation: Arlene A Schmid Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and benefits of the Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT) intervention. DESIGN: This is the primary analysis of a non-controlled pretest-posttest pilot study to understand the feasibility and impact of MY-OT on balance, balance self-efficacy, and fall risk factor management in people with chronic stroke. SETTING: University research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: People with chronic stroke were included in the study if they: had sustained a fall or had fear of falling, were able to stand, and hand impaired balance and were at risk for falls (≤46 on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS)). INTERVENTIONS: Individuals completed an 8 week intervention that included 16 sessions of both yoga and group occupational therapy (OT). Yoga included physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation. OT focused on post-stroke fall risk factor management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The BBS was used to assess balance, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) was used to measure balance self-efficacy. Five fall risk factor management scales were used. RESULTS: Overall, the intervention was considered feasible, as individuals were able to safely complete the intervention with little attrition and high attendance. Balance improved by 30% (p=0.002). Balance self-efficacy improved by 15% (p=0.034). Each of the five fall risk factor management scales improved, but only two significantly improved (Fall Prevention and Management Questionnaire, 29%, p=0.004 and Fall Prevention Strategy Survey, 42%, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that MY-OT is a potential intervention to improve multiple fall related outcomes for people with stroke. Therapists may consider these interventions for people with stroke, but additional research is warranted. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline.

Abstract Title: Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline. Abstract Source: Med Hypotheses. 2016 Oct ;95:71-76. Epub 2016 Sep 7. PMID: 27692172 Abstract Author(s): Grace M McPhee, Luke A Downey, Anthony Noble, Con Stough Article Affiliation: Grace M McPhee Abstract: As the elderly population grows the impact of age associated cognitive decline as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia will increase. Ageing is associated with consistent impairments in cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, memory, executive function and learning) important for work, well-being, life satisfaction and overall participation in society. Recently, there has been increased effort to conduct research examining methods to improve cognitive function in older citizens. Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance in some cognitive domains; including memory, processing speed, executive function and attention in older adults. These cognitive changes are thought to be related to improvements in brain connectivity and neural circuitry. Bacopa monnieri has also been shown to improve specific domains of cognition, sensitive to age associated cognitive decline (particularly processing speed and memory). These Bacopa monnieri dependent improvements may be due to the increase in specific neuro-molecular mechanisms implicated in the enhancement of neural connections in the brain (i.e. synaptogenesis). In particular, a number of animal studies have shown Bacopa monnieri consumption upregulates calcium dependent kinases in the synapse and post-synaptic cell, crucial for strengthening and growing connections between neurons. These effects have been shown to occur in areas important for cognitive processes, such as the hippocampus. As Bacopa monnieri has shown neuro-molecular mechanisms that encourage synaptogenesis, while cognitive training enhances brain connectivity, Bacopa monnieri supplementation could theoretically enhance and strengthen synaptic changes acquired through cognitive training. Therefore, the current paper hypothesises that the combination of these two interventions could improve cognitive outcomes, over and above the effects of administrating these interventions independently, as an effective treatment to ameliorate age associated cognitive decline. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Role of the Whole Body Vibration Machine in the Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis in Old Age: A Systematic Review. 📎

Abstract Title: Role of the Whole Body Vibration Machine in the Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis in Old Age: A Systematic Review. Abstract Source: Malays J Med Sci. 2016 Sep ;23(5):8-16. Epub 2016 Oct 5. PMID: 27904420 Abstract Author(s): Myint Swe, Biju Benjamin, Aye Aye Tun, Sandheep Sugathan Article Affiliation: Myint Swe Abstract: A literature search of related articles was carried out in electronic data sources. Initially, 276 randomised controlled trials related to the title were collected, after which 44 were selected using the keywords. Overlapping articles, articles with a study duration of less than six months, and studies involving young participants were removed from the list. The remaining 20 articles were checked for entitlement using the PEDro scale. A total of nine eligible articles with 1486 participants were analysed. Seven trials used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure bone mineral density (BMD). The six trials published from 2005 to 2013 found a significant increase in BMD. In the remaining one trial, there was no significant increase in BMD. One study published in 2013 reported a significant increase in BMD measured with peripheral qualitative computed tomography, whereas another trial published in 2014 stated that there was a reduction in calcaneal bone density measured by peripheral qualitative ultrasound. From these findings it can be concluded that the whole body vibration machine is a good adjunctive therapy for the prevention and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, further investigations are necessary before the same can be recommended for elderly men. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2016

Meditation for Posttraumatic Stress: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Abstract Title: Meditation for Posttraumatic Stress: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Abstract Source: Psychol Trauma. 2016 Aug 18. Epub 2016 Aug 18. PMID: 27537781 Abstract Author(s): Lara Hilton, Alicia Ruelaz Maher, Benjamin Colaiaco, Eric Apaydin, Melony E Sorbero, Marika Booth, Roberta M Shanman, Susanne Hempel Article Affiliation: Lara Hilton Abstract: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of meditation interventions to provide estimates of their efficacy and safety in treating adults diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review was based on an established protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42015025782) and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, functional status, and adverse events. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 10 trials on meditation interventions for PTSD with 643 participants met inclusion criteria. Across interventions, adjunctive meditation interventions of mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, and the mantram repetition program improve PTSD and depression symptoms compared with control groups, but the findings are based on low and moderate quality of evidence. Effects were positive but not statistically significant for quality of life and anxiety, and no studies addressed functional status. The variety of meditation intervention types, the short follow-up times, and the quality of studies limited analyses. No adverse events were reported in the included studies; only half of the studies reported on safety. Meditation appears to be effective for PTSD and depression symptoms, but in order to increase confidence in findings, more high-quality studies are needed on meditation as adjunctive treatment with PTSD-diagnosed participant samples large enough to detect statistical differences in outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record Article Published Date : Aug 17, 2016

Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo. 📎

Abstract Title: Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo. Abstract Source: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2016 Jul 25 ;49(8). PMID: 27464024 Abstract Author(s): K H Mou, D Han, W L Liu, P Li Article Affiliation: K H Mou Abstract: Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. Article Published Date : Jul 24, 2016

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Wholistic Hybrid Derived From Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Technique (WHEE) for Self-Treatment of Pain, Depression, and Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients. 📎

Abstract Title: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Wholistic Hybrid Derived From Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Technique (WHEE) for Self-Treatment of Pain, Depression, and Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients. Abstract Source: J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2016 Jul 18. Epub 2016 Jul 18. PMID: 27432773 Abstract Author(s): Daniel Benor, John Rossiter-Thornton, Loren Toussaint Article Affiliation: Daniel Benor Abstract: In this pilot study, a convenience sample of 24 chronic pain patients (17 with chronic fatigue syndrome/fibromyalgia) were randomized into WHEE treatment and wait-list control groups for 6 weeks. Assessments of depression, anxiety, and pain were completed before, during, and at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Wait-listed patients then received an identical course of WHEE and assessments. WHEE decreased anxiety (P<.5) and depression (P<.05) compared with the control group. The wait-list-turned-WHEE assessments demonstrated decreased pain severity (P<.05) and depression (P<.04) but not pain interference or anxiety. WHEE appears a promising method for pain, anxiety, and depression in patients with chronic pain, compared to standard medical care alone. Though a small pilot study, the present results suggest that further research appears warranted. An incidental finding was that a majority of patients with chronic pain had suffered psychological trauma in childhood and/or adulthood. Article Published Date : Jul 17, 2016

Photodynamic Therapy Potentiates the Effects of Curcumin on Pediatric Epithelial Liver Tumor Cells.

Abstract Title: Photodynamic Therapy Potentiates the Effects of Curcumin on Pediatric Epithelial Liver Tumor Cells. Abstract Source: Anticancer Res. 2016 Jul ;36(7):3363-72. PMID: 27354595 Abstract Author(s): Verena Ellerkamp, Nicola Bortel, Evi Schmid, Bettina Kirchner, Sorin Armeanu-Ebinger, Jörg Fuchs Article Affiliation: Verena Ellerkamp Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: Curcumin (CUM) is a promising agent in complementary oncology. The present study analyzed the photoactive properties of curcumin on pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatoblastoma cell lines (HuH6, HepT1) and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2, HC-AFW1) were treated with curcumin and exposed to blue light (phototherapy, 480 nm, 300 W). Cell viability (MTT tests), cellular oxidative stress (production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and cellular uptake/degradation of curcumin were analyzed. RESULTS: Significant loss of viability resulted from 24-48 h incubation with curcumin. With photodynamic therapy (PDT), even short time incubation (1 h) with curcumin resulted in significantly lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) (p<0.001, two-way ANOVA). Significant ROS production was observed with PDT and curcumin. CONCLUSION: Phototherapy strongly enhances the anticancer properties of curcumin in pediatric solid liver tumors in vitro. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2016

Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

Abstract Title: Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study. Abstract Source: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Jun ;67(4):461-9. Epub 2016 Mar 17. PMID: 26983396 Abstract Author(s): Zahra Yari, Mehran Rahimlou, Tannaz Eslamparast, Naser Ebrahimi-Daryani, Hossein Poustchi, Azita Hekmatdoost Article Affiliation: Zahra Yari Abstract: A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p< 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016
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Therapeutic Actions Integrative Medicine

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Rohitukine inhibits NF-κB activation induced by LPS and other inflammatory agents.

Related Articles Rohitukine inhibits NF-κB activation induced by LPS and other inflammatory agents. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Jan 18;69:34-49 Authors: Singh A, Chibber P, Kolimi P, Malik TA, Kapoor N, Kumar A, Kumar N, Gandhi SG, Singh S, Abdullah ST, Vishwakarma R, Singh G Abstract Rohitukine (referred to as RHK) is a bioactive chromone alkaloid isolated from the leaves of plant Dysoxylum binectariferum, which has been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), diarrhoea and anti-lipidemic. However, the underlying mechanism by which RHK exerts its anti-inflammatory activity has not yet demonstrated. This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RHK using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated J774A.1 macrophage cells and in-vivo inflammatory models. Results demonstrated that RHK treatment could significantly decrease the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukins (ILs) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in J774A.1 cells. Molecular studies revealed that RHK inhibited the activation of upstream mediator nuclear factor-κB by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65. In in-vivo experiments showed prominent anti-inflammatory activity of RHK. Thus, RHK could be considered as a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID: 30665042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Endosomolytic polymersomes increase the activity of cyclic dinucleotide STING agonists to enhance cancer immunotherapy.

Related Articles Endosomolytic polymersomes increase the activity of cyclic dinucleotide STING agonists to enhance cancer immunotherapy. Nat Nanotechnol. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Shae D, Becker KW, Christov P, Yun DS, Lytton-Jean AKR, Sevimli S, Ascano M, Kelley M, Johnson DB, Balko JM, Wilson JT Abstract Cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) agonists of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) are a promising class of immunotherapeutics that activate innate immunity to increase tumour immunogenicity. However, the efficacy of CDNs is limited by drug delivery barriers, including poor cellular targeting, rapid clearance and inefficient transport to the cytosol where STING is localized. Here, we describe STING-activating nanoparticles (STING-NPs)-rationally designed polymersomes for enhanced cytosolic delivery of the endogenous CDN ligand for STING, 2'3' cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP). STING-NPs increase the biological potency of cGAMP, enhance STING signalling in the tumour microenvironment and sentinel lymph node, and convert immunosuppressive tumours to immunogenic, tumoricidal microenvironments. This leads to enhanced therapeutic efficacy of cGAMP, inhibition of tumour growth, increased rates of long-term survival, improved response to immune checkpoint blockade and induction of immunological memory that protects against tumour rechallenge. We validate STING-NPs in freshly isolated human melanoma tissue, highlighting their potential to improve clinical outcomes of immunotherapy. PMID: 30664751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An integrated chromatin accessibility and transcriptome landscape of human pre-implantation embryos.

Related Articles An integrated chromatin accessibility and transcriptome landscape of human pre-implantation embryos. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 21;10(1):364 Authors: Liu L, Leng L, Liu C, Lu C, Yuan Y, Wu L, Gong F, Zhang S, Wei X, Wang M, Zhao L, Hu L, Wang J, Yang H, Zhu S, Chen F, Lu G, Shang Z, Lin G Abstract Human pre-implantation embryonic development involves extensive changes in chromatin structure and transcriptional activity. Here, we report on LiCAT-seq, a technique that enables simultaneous profiling of chromatin accessibility and gene expression with ultra-low input of cells, and map the chromatin accessibility and transcriptome landscapes for human pre-implantation embryos. We observed global difference in chromatin accessibility between sperm and all stages of embryos, finding that the accessible regions in sperm tend to occur in gene-poor genomic regions. Integrative analyses between the two datasets reveals strong association between the establishment of accessible chromatin and embryonic genome activation (EGA), and uncovers transcription factors and endogenous retrovirus (ERVs) specific to EGA. In particular, a large proportion of the early activated genes and ERVs are bound by DUX4 and become accessible as early as the 2- to 4-cell stages. Our results thus offer mechanistic insights into the molecular events inherent to human pre-implantation development. PMID: 30664750 [PubMed - in process]

Spatially clustering de novo variants in CYFIP2, encoding the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, cause intellectual disability and seizures.

Related Articles Spatially clustering de novo variants in CYFIP2, encoding the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, cause intellectual disability and seizures. Eur J Hum Genet. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Zweier M, Begemann A, McWalter K, Cho MT, Abela L, Banka S, Behring B, Berger A, Brown CW, Carneiro M, Chen J, Cooper GM, Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) Study, Finnila CR, Guillen Sacoto MJ, Henderson A, Hüffmeier U, Joset P, Kerr B, Lesca G, Leszinski GS, McDermott JH, Meltzer MR, Monaghan KG, Mostafavi R, Õunap K, Plecko B, Powis Z, Purcarin G, Reimand T, Riedhammer KM, Schreiber JM, Sirsi D, Wierenga KJ, Wojcik MH, Papuc SM, Steindl K, Sticht H, Rauch A Abstract CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia. PMID: 30664714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Carboniferous-Permian climate change constrained early land vertebrate radiations.

Related Articles Carboniferous-Permian climate change constrained early land vertebrate radiations. Nat Ecol Evol. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Pardo JD, Small BJ, Milner AR, Huttenlocker AK Abstract The Carboniferous-Permian transition (CPT) was Earth's last pre-Quaternary icehouse-greenhouse transition, recording major shifts in late Palaeozoic climate regimes and increased continental seasonality over approximately 40 Myr. Its parallels to Quaternary climate change have inspired recent investigations into the impacts of purported rainforest collapse on palaeotropical vertebrate diversity, but little is known about how the protracted spatial dynamics of this transition impacted the emergence of modern tetrapod lineages. Here, we apply ecological ordinance analyses on a dataset of 286 CPT fossil vertebrate localities binned across four physiographic regions forming a palaeoequatorial transect. Our results clarify the spatiotemporal expansion of land-living vertebrates, demonstrating that the reduction of tropical wetlands accommodated emerging dryland-adapted amniote faunas from a western Pangaean epicentre. We call this west-east lag the 'Vaughn-Olson model': CPT climatic transitions were regionally diachronous with delayed proliferation of amniote-dominated dryland assemblages in the east. By combining our ecological analyses with a phylogenetic approach, we demonstrate that this pattern also applies to some co-occurring total-group amphibians, suggesting that there was pervasive selection for such dryland adaptations across the crown tetrapod tree, in contrast with stem tetrapods and 'fishes'. PMID: 30664698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

CRISPR-Cas: a tool for cancer research and therapeutics.

Related Articles CRISPR-Cas: a tool for cancer research and therapeutics. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Yin H, Xue W, Anderson DG Abstract In the past decade, the development of a genome-editing technology mediated by CRISPR has made genetic engineering easier than ever, both in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR systems have enabled important advances in cancer research by accelerating the development of study models or as a tool in genetic screening studies, including those aiming to discover and validate therapeutic targets. In this Review, we discuss these applications as well as new potential uses of CRISPR to assist in cancer detection or the development of anticancer therapies. PMID: 30664678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The lineage stability and suppressive program of regulatory T cells require protein O-GlcNAcylation.

Related Articles The lineage stability and suppressive program of regulatory T cells require protein O-GlcNAcylation. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 21;10(1):354 Authors: Liu B, Salgado OC, Singh S, Hippen KL, Maynard JC, Burlingame AL, Ball LE, Blazar BR, Farrar MA, Hogquist KA, Ruan HB Abstract Regulatory T (Treg) cells control self-tolerance, inflammatory responses and tissue homeostasis. In mature Treg cells, continued expression of FOXP3 maintains lineage identity, while T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and interleukin-2 (IL-2)/STAT5 activation support the suppressive effector function of Treg cells, but how these regulators synergize to control Treg cell homeostasis and function remains unclear. Here we show that TCR-activated posttranslational modification by O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) stabilizes FOXP3 and activates STAT5, thus integrating these critical signaling pathways. O-GlcNAc-deficient Treg cells develop normally but display modestly reduced FOXP3 expression, strongly impaired lineage stability and effector function, and ultimately fatal autoimmunity in mice. Moreover, deficiency in protein O-GlcNAcylation attenuates IL-2/STAT5 signaling, while overexpression of a constitutively active form of STAT5 partially ameliorates Treg cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation in O-GlcNAc deficient mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that protein O-GlcNAcylation is essential for lineage stability and effector function in Treg cells. PMID: 30664665 [PubMed - in process]

A highly efficient and faithful MDS patient-derived xenotransplantation model for pre-clinical studies.

Related Articles A highly efficient and faithful MDS patient-derived xenotransplantation model for pre-clinical studies. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 21;10(1):366 Authors: Song Y, Rongvaux A, Taylor A, Jiang T, Tebaldi T, Balasubramanian K, Bagale A, Terzi YK, Gbyli R, Wang X, Fu X, Gao Y, Zhao J, Podoltsev N, Xu M, Neparidze N, Wong E, Torres R, Bruscia EM, Kluger Y, Manz MG, Flavell RA, Halene S Abstract Comprehensive preclinical studies of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) have been elusive due to limited ability of MDS stem cells to engraft current immunodeficient murine hosts. Here we report a MDS patient-derived xenotransplantation model in cytokine-humanized immunodeficient "MISTRG" mice that provides efficient and faithful disease representation across all MDS subtypes. MISTRG MDS patient-derived xenografts (PDX) reproduce patients' dysplastic morphology with multi-lineage representation, including erythro- and megakaryopoiesis. MISTRG MDS-PDX replicate the original sample's genetic complexity and can be propagated via serial transplantation. MISTRG MDS-PDX demonstrate the cytotoxic and differentiation potential of targeted therapeutics providing superior readouts of drug mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy. Physiologic humanization of the hematopoietic stem cell niche proves critical to MDS stem cell propagation and function in vivo. The MISTRG MDS-PDX model opens novel avenues of research and long-awaited opportunities in MDS research. PMID: 30664659 [PubMed - in process]

Low-frequency variation in TP53 has large effects on head circumference and intracranial volume.

Related Articles Low-frequency variation in TP53 has large effects on head circumference and intracranial volume. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 21;10(1):357 Authors: Haworth S, Shapland CY, Hayward C, Prins BP, Felix JF, Medina-Gomez C, Rivadeneira F, Wang C, Ahluwalia TS, Vrijheid M, Guxens M, Sunyer J, Tachmazidou I, Walter K, Iotchkova V, Jackson A, Cleal L, Huffmann J, Min JL, Sass L, Timmers PRHJ, UK10K consortium, Davey Smith G, Fisher SE, Wilson JF, Cole TJ, Fernandez-Orth D, Bønnelykke K, Bisgaard H, Pennell CE, Jaddoe VWV, Dedoussis G, Timpson N, Zeggini E, Vitart V, St Pourcain B Abstract Cranial growth and development is a complex process which affects the closely related traits of head circumference (HC) and intracranial volume (ICV). The underlying genetic influences shaping these traits during the transition from childhood to adulthood are little understood, but might include both age-specific genetic factors and low-frequency genetic variation. Here, we model the developmental genetic architecture of HC, showing this is genetically stable and correlated with genetic determinants of ICV. Investigating up to 46,000 children and adults of European descent, we identify association with final HC and/or final ICV + HC at 9 novel common and low-frequency loci, illustrating that genetic variation from a wide allele frequency spectrum contributes to cranial growth. The largest effects are reported for low-frequency variants within TP53, with 0.5 cm wider heads in increaser-allele carriers versus non-carriers during mid-childhood, suggesting a previously unrecognized role of TP53 transcripts in human cranial development. PMID: 30664637 [PubMed - in process]

C1 CAGE detects transcription start sites and enhancer activity at single-cell resolution.

Related Articles C1 CAGE detects transcription start sites and enhancer activity at single-cell resolution. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 21;10(1):360 Authors: Kouno T, Moody J, Kwon AT, Shibayama Y, Kato S, Huang Y, Böttcher M, Motakis E, Mendez M, Severin J, Luginbühl J, Abugessaisa I, Hasegawa A, Takizawa S, Arakawa T, Furuno M, Ramalingam N, West J, Suzuki H, Kasukawa T, Lassmann T, Hon CC, Arner E, Carninci P, Plessy C, Shin JW Abstract Single-cell transcriptomic profiling is a powerful tool to explore cellular heterogeneity. However, most of these methods focus on the 3'-end of polyadenylated transcripts and provide only a partial view of the transcriptome. We introduce C1 CAGE, a method for the detection of transcript 5'-ends with an original sample multiplexing strategy in the C1TM microfluidic system. We first quantifiy the performance of C1 CAGE and find it as accurate and sensitive as other methods in the C1 system. We then use it to profile promoter and enhancer activities in the cellular response to TGF-β of lung cancer cells and discover subpopulations of cells differing in their response. We also describe enhancer RNA dynamics revealing transcriptional bursts in subsets of cells with transcripts arising from either strand in a mutually exclusive manner, validated using single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization. PMID: 30664627 [PubMed - in process]

Poor transcript-protein correlation in the brain: negatively correlating gene products reveal neuronal polarity as a potential cause.

Related Articles Poor transcript-protein correlation in the brain: negatively correlating gene products reveal neuronal polarity as a potential cause. J Neurochem. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Moritz CP, Mühlhaus T, Tenzer S, Schulenborg T, Friauf E Abstract Transcription, translation, and turnover of transcripts and proteins are essential for cellular function. The contribution of those factors to protein levels is under debate, as transcript levels and cognate protein levels do not necessarily correlate due to regulation of translation and protein turnover. Here we propose neuronal polarity as a third factor that is particularly evident in the CNS, leading to considerable distances between somata and axon terminals. Consequently, transcript levels may negatively correlate with cognate protein levels in CNS regions, i.e., transcript and protein levels behave reciprocally. To test this hypothesis, we performed an integrative inter-omics study and analyzed three interconnected rat auditory brainstem regions (cochlear nuclear complex, CN; superior olivary complex, SOC; inferior colliculus, IC) and the rest of the brain as a reference. We obtained transcript and protein sets in these regions of interest (ROIs) by DNA microarrays and label-free mass spectrometry, and performed principal component and correlation analyses. We found 508 transcript|protein pairs and detected poor to moderate transcript|protein correlation in all ROIs, as evidenced by coefficients of determination from 0.34 to 0.54. We identified 57-80 negatively correlating gene products in the ROIs and intensively analyzed four of them for which the correlation was poorest. Three cognate proteins (Slc6a11, Syngr1, Tppp) were synaptic and hence candidates for a negative correlation because of protein transport into axon terminals. Thus, we systematically analyzed the negatively correlating gene products. GO analyses revealed overrepresented transport/synapse-related proteins, supporting our hypothesis. We present 30 synapse/transport-related proteins with poor transcript|protein correlation. In conclusion, our analyses support that protein transport in polar cells is a third factor that influences the protein level and, thereby, the transcript|protein correlation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30664243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Cardiac Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Heart.

Related Articles Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Cardiac Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Heart. J Vis Exp. 2019 Jan 07;(143): Authors: Yadav SK, Mishra PK Abstract Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. A major goal of regenerative medicine is to replenish the dead myocardium after MI. Although several strategies have been used to regenerate myocardium, stem cell therapy remains a major approach to replenish the dead myocardium of an MI heart. Accumulating evidence suggests the presence of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the adult heart and their endocrine and/or paracrine effects on cardiac regeneration. However, CSC isolation and their characterization and differentiation toward myocardial cells, especially cardiomyocytes, remains a technical challenge. In the present study, we provided a simple method for the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of CSCs from the adult mouse heart. Here, we describe a density gradient method for the isolation of CSCs, where the heart is digested by a 0.2% collagenase II solution. To characterize the isolated CSCs, we evaluated the expression of CSCs/cardiac markers Sca-1, NKX2-5, and GATA4, and pluripotency/stemness markers OCT4, SOX2, and Nanog. We also determined the proliferation potential of isolated CSCs by culturing them in a Petri dish and assessing the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. For evaluating the differentiation potential of CSCs, we selected seven- to ten-days cultured CSCs. We transferred them to a new plate with a cardiomyocyte differentiation medium. They are incubated in a cell culture incubator for 12 days, while the differentiation medium is changed every three days. The differentiated CSCs express cardiomyocyte-specific markers: actinin and troponin I. Thus, CSCs isolated with this protocol have stemness and cardiac markers, and they have a potential for proliferation and differentiation toward cardiomyocyte lineage. PMID: 30663680 [PubMed - in process]

Rosiglitazone affects lumen formation in MDCKII cell through regulating apico-basal polarity.

Related Articles Rosiglitazone affects lumen formation in MDCKII cell through regulating apico-basal polarity. Am J Transl Res. 2018;10(11):3579-3589 Authors: Cheng Y, Ye CY, Mao ZG, Wang Y, Chen ZJ, Cong WL Abstract This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of Rosiglitazone on the apico-basal polarity in renal epithelial cells. 3D-MDCK model was used to study the lumen formation and localization of polarity proteins at the early stage of the establishment of the apico-basal polarity. The calcium switch model, immunofluorescence staining and measurement of transmembrane electrical impedance are employed to investigate the epithelial apico-basal polarity including the development and maintenance of apical domains and the formation of tight junction. MDCKII cells were cultured with 20 uM rosiglitazone or DMSO. Results showed Rosiglitazone reduced the percentage of single central lumen cysts, but the percentage of multiple lumen cysts increased. At the early stage of MDCKII cysts (2-5 cells), Rosiglitazone induced mislocalization of apical and basolateral membrane proteins. In the repolarization process of MDCKII cell induced by a calcium switch (CS), Rosiglitazone delayed the apical membrane domain development in the early phase of cell polarization; while during the maintenance phase of cell polarity, the apical domain retention was significantly affected by Rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone significantly delayed the formation of tight junctions (TJs); 24 h after CS, however, there were no apparent differences between control group and Rosiglitazone group; the development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was significantly disturbed in Rosiglitazone group. This study shows Rosiglitazone may affect the development and maintenance of apical domains and the formation of TJs disturbs apical protein delivery to the plasma membrane, eventually leading to the abnormal apico-basal polarity, which affects lumen formation in MDCKII cells. PMID: 30662609 [PubMed]

Brachytherapy of tongue carcinoma in a patient with difficult airway: anesthetic considerations.

Related Articles Brachytherapy of tongue carcinoma in a patient with difficult airway: anesthetic considerations. J Contemp Brachytherapy. 2018 Dec;10(6):573-576 Authors: Ghaffar ZA, Chong SE, Tan KL, Appalanaido GK, Musa MY, Hussin HB, Jusoh N Abstract The practice of brachytherapy in unresectable tongue carcinoma is gaining popularity. However, this procedure poses specific anesthetic challenges, particularly challenges of airway sharing and a higher rate of difficult airway. We report a 74-year-old chronic smoker, chronic alcoholic with history of stroke, who had undergone brachytherapy for tongue carcinoma. Apart from a huge tongue tumor, he had an epiglottic mass but refused elective tracheostomy. This had led to a few critical states throughout the process of treatment, including a metabolic crisis due to thiamine deficiency and difficult airway crisis. To our best knowledge, there have been no reported case on a patient with vocal cord mass undergoing tongue brachytherapy. We hope sharing of this experience may aid the management of similar patients in future. PMID: 30662482 [PubMed]

Short Intracortical Inhibition During Voluntary Movement Reveals Persistent Impairment Post-stroke.

Related Articles Short Intracortical Inhibition During Voluntary Movement Reveals Persistent Impairment Post-stroke. Front Neurol. 2018;9:1105 Authors: Ding Q, Triggs WJ, Kamath SM, Patten C Abstract Objective: Short intracortical inhibition (SICI) is a GABAA-mediated phenomenon, argued to mediate selective muscle activation during coordinated motor activity. Markedly reduced SICI has been observed in the acute period following stroke and, based on findings in animal models, it has been posited this disinhibitory phenomenon may facilitate neural plasticity and contribute to early motor recovery. However, it remains unresolved whether SICI normalizes over time, as part of the natural course of stroke recovery. Whether intracortical inhibition contributes to motor recovery in chronic stroke also remains unclear. Notably, SICI is typically measured at rest, which may not fully reveal its role in motor control. Here we investigated SICI at rest and during voluntary motor activity to determine: (1) whether GABAA-mediated inhibition recovers, and (2) how GABAA-mediated inhibition is related to motor function, in the chronic phase post-stroke. Methods: We studied 16 chronic stroke survivors (age: 64.6 ± 9.3 years; chronicity: 74.3 ± 52.9 months) and 12 age-matched healthy controls. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce SICI during three conditions: rest, submaximal grip, and performance of box-and-blocks. Upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Box-and-Blocks tests were used to evaluate motor impairment in stroke survivors and manual dexterity in all participants, respectively. Results: At rest, SICI revealed no differences between ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of either cortical or subcortical stroke survivors, or healthy controls (P's > 0.05). During box-and-blocks, however, ipsilesional hemisphere SICI was significantly reduced (P = 0.025), especially following cortical stroke (P < 0.001). SICI in the ipsilesional hemisphere during box-and-blocks task was significantly related to paretic hand dexterity (r = 0.56, P = 0.039) and motor impairment (r = 0.56, P = 0.037). Conclusions: SICI during motor activity, but not rest, reveals persistent impairment in chronic stroke survivors indicating that inhibitory brain circuits responsible for motor coordination do not fully normalize as part of the natural history of stroke recovery. Observation that reduced SICI (i.e., disinhibition) is associated with greater motor impairment and worse dexterity in chronic hemiparetic individuals suggests the response considered to promote neuroplasticity and recovery in the acute phase could be maladaptive in the chronic phase post-stroke. PMID: 30662425 [PubMed]

Compound K, a ginsenoside metabolite, plays an antiinflammatory role in macrophages by targeting the AKT1-mediated signaling pathway.

Related Articles Compound K, a ginsenoside metabolite, plays an antiinflammatory role in macrophages by targeting the AKT1-mediated signaling pathway. J Ginseng Res. 2019 Jan;43(1):154-160 Authors: Lee JO, Choi E, Shin KK, Hong YH, Kim HG, Jeong D, Hossain MA, Kim HS, Yi YS, Kim D, Kim E, Cho JY Abstract Background: Compound K (CK) is an active metabolite of ginseng saponin, ginsenoside Rb1, that has been shown to have ameliorative properties in various diseases. However, its role in inflammation and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this report, the antiinflammatory role of CK was investigated in macrophage-like cells. Methods: The CK-mediated antiinflammatory mechanism was explored in RAW264.7 and HEK293 cells that were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or exhibited overexpression of known activation proteins. The mRNA levels of inflammatory genes and the activation levels of target proteins were identified by quantitative and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results: CK significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-α and morphological changes in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells under noncytotoxic concentrations. CK downregulated the phosphorylation of AKT1, but not AKT2, in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, CK reduced the AKT1 overexpression-induced expression of aldehyde oxidase 1, interleukin-1β, interferon-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CK plays an antiinflammatory role during macrophage-mediated inflammatory actions by specifically targeting the AKT1-mediated signaling pathway. PMID: 30662304 [PubMed]

Human Semaphorin 3 Variants Link Melanocortin Circuit Development and Energy Balance.

Related Articles Human Semaphorin 3 Variants Link Melanocortin Circuit Development and Energy Balance. Cell. 2019 Jan 14;: Authors: van der Klaauw AA, Croizier S, Mendes de Oliveira E, Stadler LKJ, Park S, Kong Y, Banton MC, Tandon P, Hendricks AE, Keogh JM, Riley SE, Papadia S, Henning E, Bounds R, Bochukova EG, Mistry V, O'Rahilly S, Simerly RB, INTERVAL, UK10K Consortium, Minchin JEN, Barroso I, Jones EY, Bouret SG, Farooqi IS Abstract Hypothalamic melanocortin neurons play a pivotal role in weight regulation. Here, we examined the contribution of Semaphorin 3 (SEMA3) signaling to the development of these circuits. In genetic studies, we found 40 rare variants in SEMA3A-G and their receptors (PLXNA1-4; NRP1-2) in 573 severely obese individuals; variants disrupted secretion and/or signaling through multiple molecular mechanisms. Rare variants in this set of genes were significantly enriched in 982 severely obese cases compared to 4,449 controls. In a zebrafish mutagenesis screen, deletion of 7 genes in this pathway led to increased somatic growth and/or adiposity demonstrating that disruption of Semaphorin 3 signaling perturbs energy homeostasis. In mice, deletion of the Neuropilin-2 receptor in Pro-opiomelanocortin neurons disrupted their projections from the arcuate to the paraventricular nucleus, reduced energy expenditure, and caused weight gain. Cumulatively, these studies demonstrate that SEMA3-mediated signaling drives the development of hypothalamic melanocortin circuits involved in energy homeostasis. PMID: 30661757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Large-scale comparative neuroimaging: Where are we and what do we need?

Related Articles Large-scale comparative neuroimaging: Where are we and what do we need? Cortex. 2018 Dec 08;: Authors: Thiebaut de Schotten M, Croxson PL, Mars RB Abstract Neuroimaging has a lot to offer comparative neuroscience. Although invasive "gold standard" techniques have a better spatial resolution, neuroimaging allows fast, whole-brain, repeatable, and multi-modal measurements of structure and function in living animals and post-mortem tissue. In the past years, comparative neuroimaging has increased in popularity. However, we argue that its most significant potential lies in its ability to collect large-scale datasets of many species to investigate principles of variability in brain organisation across whole orders of species-an ambition that is presently unfulfilled but achievable. We briefly review the current state of the field and explore what the current obstacles to such an approach are. We propose some calls to action. PMID: 30661736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Eye movement abnormalities and their association with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

Related Articles Eye movement abnormalities and their association with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2019 Jan 17;: Authors: Morita K, Miura K, Fujimoto M, Yamamori H, Yasuda Y, Kudo N, Azechi H, Okada N, Koshiyama D, Ikeda M, Kasai K, Hashimoto R Abstract BACKGROUND: Eye movement abnormalities have been identified in schizophrenia; however, their relevance to cognition is still unknown. In this study, we explored the general relationship between eye movements and cognitive function. METHODS: The three eye movement measures (scanpath length, horizontal position gain, and duration of fixations) that were previously reported to be useful in distinguishing subjects with schizophrenia from healthy subjects, as well as Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) scores, were collected and tested for association in 113 subjects with schizophrenia and 404 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Scanpath length was positively correlated with matrix reasoning and digit symbol coding in subjects with schizophrenia and correlated with vocabulary and symbol search in healthy subjects. Upon testing for interaction effects of diagnosis and scanpath length on correlated WAIS-III scores, a significant interaction effect was only observed for matrix reasoning. The positive correlation between scanpath length and matrix reasoning, which was specific to subjects with schizophrenia, remained significant after controlling for demographic confounders such as medication and negative symptoms. No correlation was observed between the two other eye movement measures and any of the WAIS-III scores. CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we reveal novel findings on the association between eye-movement-based measures of visual exploration and cognitive scores requiring visual search in subjects with schizophrenia and in healthy subjects. The association between scanpath length and matrix reasoning, a measure of perceptual organization in subjects with schizophrenia, implies the existence of common cognitive processes, and subjects with longer scanpath length may be advantageous in performance of perceptual organization tasks. PMID: 30661730 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The effect of a lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women on gestational metabolic profiles: findings from the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) randomised controlled trial.

Related Articles The effect of a lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women on gestational metabolic profiles: findings from the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) randomised controlled trial. BMC Med. 2019 Jan 21;17(1):15 Authors: Mills HL, Patel N, White SL, Pasupathy D, Briley AL, Santos Ferreira DL, Seed PT, Nelson SM, Sattar N, Tilling K, Poston L, Lawlor DA, UPBEAT Consortium Abstract BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with widespread change in metabolism, which may be more marked in obese women. Whether lifestyle interventions in obese pregnant women improve pregnancy metabolic profiles remains unknown. Our objectives were to determine the magnitude of change in metabolic measures during obese pregnancy, to indirectly compare these to similar profiles in a general pregnant population, and to determine the impact of a lifestyle intervention on change in metabolic measures in obese pregnant women. METHODS: Data from a randomised controlled trial of 1158 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) pregnant women recruited from six UK inner-city obstetric departments were used. Women were randomised to either the UPBEAT intervention, a tailored complex lifestyle intervention focused on improving diet and physical activity, or standard antenatal care (control group). UPBEAT has been shown to improve diet and physical activity during pregnancy and up to 6-months postnatally in obese women and to reduce offspring adiposity at 6-months; it did not affect risk of gestational diabetes (the primary outcome). Change in the concentrations of 158 metabolic measures (129 lipids, 9 glycerides and phospholipids, and 20 low-molecular weight metabolites), quantified three times during pregnancy, were compared using multilevel models. The role of chance was assessed with a false discovery rate of 5% adjusted p values. RESULTS: All very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles increased by 1.5-3 standard deviation units (SD) whereas intermediate density lipoprotein and specific (large, medium and small) LDL particles increased by 1-2 SD, between 16 and 36 weeks' gestation. Triglycerides increased by 2-3 SD, with more modest changes in other metabolites. Indirect comparisons suggest that the magnitudes of change across pregnancy in these obese women were 2- to 3-fold larger than in unselected women (n = 4260 in cross-sectional and 583 in longitudinal analyses) from an independent, previously published, study. The intervention reduced the rate of increase in extremely large, very large, large and medium VLDL particles, particularly those containing triglycerides. CONCLUSION: There are marked changes in lipids and lipoproteins and more modest changes in other metabolites across pregnancy in obese women, with some evidence that this is more marked than in unselected pregnant women. The UPBEAT lifestyle intervention may contribute to a healthier metabolic profile in obese pregnant women, but our results require replication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UPBEAT was registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN89971375 , on July 23, 2008 (prior to recruitment). PMID: 30661507 [PubMed - in process]
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