Risk factors for persistent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1 and 2: managed by watchful waiting.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2011 Oct ;15(4):268-75. PMID: 21811178
Gloria Y F Ho, Mark H Einstein, Seymour L Romney, Anna S Kadish, Maria Abadi, Magdy Mikhail, Jayasri Basu, Benjamin Thysen, Laura Reimers, Prabhudas R Palan, Shelly Trim, Nafisseh Soroudi, Robert D Burk,
OBJECTIVE: : This study examines risk factors for persistent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and examines whether human papillomavirus (HPV) testing predicts persistent lesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: : Women with histologically diagnosed CIN 1 or CIN 2 (n = 206) were followed up every 3 months without treatment. Human papillomavirus genotyping, plasma levels of ascorbic acid, and red blood cell folate levels were obtained. Cervical biopsy at 12 months determined the presence of CIN. Relative risk (RR) was estimated by log-linked binomial regression models.
RESULTS: : At 12 months, 70% of CIN 1 versus 54% of CIN 2 lesions spontaneously regressed (p<.001). Levels of folate or ascorbic acid were not associated with persistent CIN at 12 months. Compared with HPV-negative women, those with multiple HPV types (RRs ranged from 1.68 to 2.17 at each follow-up visit) or high-risk types (RRs range = 1.74-2.09) were at increased risk for persistent CIN; women with HPV-16/18 had the highest risk (RRs range = 1.91-2.21). Persistent infection with a high-risk type was also associated with persistent CIN (RRs range = 1.50-2.35). Typing for high-risk HPVs at 6 months only had a sensitivity of 46% in predicting persistence of any lesions at 12 months.
CONCLUSIONS: : Spontaneous regression of CIN 1 and 2 occurs frequently within 12 months. Human papillomavirus infection is the major risk factor for persistent CIN. However, HPV testing cannot reliably predict persistence of any lesion.
Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2011
Natural history of gallstone disease: Expectant management or active treatment? Results from a population-based cohort study.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Apr;25(4):719-24. PMID: 20492328
Davide Festi, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Adolfo F Attili, Paola Loria, Paolo Pazzi, Eleonora Scaioli, Simona Capodicasa, Ferdinando Romano, Enrico Roda, Antonio Colecchia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The knowledge of natural history is essential for disease management. We evaluated the natural history (e.g. frequency and characteristics of symptoms and clinical outcome) of gallstones (GS) in a population-based cohort study.
METHODS: A total of 11 229 subjects (6610 men, 4619 women, age-range: 29-69 years, mean age: 48 years) were studied. At ultrasonography, GS were present in 856 subjects (338 men, 455 women) (7.1%). GS were followed by means of a questionnaire inquiring about the characteristics of specific biliary symptoms.
RESULTS: At enrollment, 580 (73.1%) patients were asymptomatic, 94 (11.8%) had mild symptoms and 119 (15.1%) had severe symptoms. GS patients were followed up for a mean period of 8.7 years; 63 subjects (7.3%) were lost to follow up. At the end of the follow up, of the asymptomatic subjects, 453 (78.1%) remained asymptomatic; 61 (10.5%) developed mild symptoms and 66 (11.4%) developed severe symptoms. In subjects with mild symptoms, the symptoms disappeared in 55 (58.5%), became severe in 23 (24.5%), remained stable in 16 (17%); in subjects with severe symptoms, the symptoms disappeared in 62 (52.1%), became mild in 20 (16.8%) and remained stable in 37 (31.1%). A total of 189 cholecystectomies were performed: 41.3% on asymptomatic patients, 17.4% on patients with mild symptoms and 41.3% on patients with severe symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that: (i) asymptomatic and symptomatic GS patients have a benign natural history; (ii) the majority of GS patients with severe or mild symptoms will no longer experience biliary pain; and (iii) a significant proportion of cholecystectomies are performed in asymptomatic patients. Expectant management still represents a valid therapeutic approach in the majority of patients.
Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2010
Spontaneous partial regression of hepatocellular carcinoma in a cirrhotic patient.
Ann Hepatol. 2007 Jan-Mar;6(1):66-9. PMID: 17297433
Judith Meza-Junco, Aldo J Montaño-Loza, Braulio Martinez-Benítez, Tatiana Cabrera-Aleksandrova
Spontaneous regression of a malignant tumor is an exceptional phenomenon. A 56-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis C presented with a liver tumor. Partial regression of a hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by imaging studies that showed progressive diminution of the size of the tumor and changes in the tumor markers. However, because of the persistence of the tumor and uncertainty in the diagnosis we recommended surgery. A hepatectomy was performed and a hepatocellular carcinoma moderately differentiated was found. The patient is now doing well and without any evidence of recurrence at 25 months after surgery. We found 61 case reports that have been published from 1982 to September 2006, with apparently spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma. The precise mechanism regarding the spontaneous regression of this tumor is not fully understood, either ischemia due to rapid growth of the neoplasia or particular inflammatory and immunologic mechanisms may be involved in the regression of the hepatocellular carcinoma.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007
Nonsevere acute otitis media: a clinical trial comparing outcomes of watchful waiting versus immediate antibiotic treatment.
Pediatrics. 2005 Jun;115(6):1455-65. PMID: 15930204
David P McCormick, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Carmen Pittman, Kokab Saeed, Norman R Friedman, Tatsuo Uchida, Constance D Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: The widespread use of antibiotics for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens that are difficult to treat. However, it has been shown that most children with nonsevere AOM recover without ABX. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, acceptability, and costs of a non-ABX intervention for children with nonsevere AOM.
METHODOLOGY: Children 6 months to 12 years old with AOM were screened by using a novel AOM-severity screening index. Parents of children with nonsevere AOM received an educational intervention, and their children were randomized to receive either immediate antibiotics (ABX; amoxicillin plus symptom medication) or watchful waiting (WW; symptom medication only). The investigators, but not the parents, were blinded to enrollment status. Primary outcomes included parent satisfaction with AOM care, resolution of symptoms, AOM failure/recurrence, and nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains resistant to ABX. Secondary outcomes included medication-related adverse events, serious adverse events, unanticipated AOM-related office and emergency department visits and telephone calls, the child's absence from day care or school resulting from AOM, the parent's absence from school or work because of their child's AOM, and costs of treatment. Subjects were defined as failing (days 0-12) or recurring (days 13-30) if they experienced a higher AOM-severity score on reexamination.
RESULTS: A total of 223 subjects were recruited: 73% were nonwhite, 57% were<2 years old, 47% attended day care, 82% had experienced prior AOM, and 83% had not been fully immunized with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine. One hundred twelve were randomized to ABX, and 111 were randomized to WW. Ninety-four percent of the subjects were followed to the 30-day end point. Parent satisfaction with AOM care was not different between the 2 treatment groups at either day 12 or 30. Compared with WW, symptom scores on days 1 to 10 resolved faster in subjects treated with immediate ABX. At day 12, among the immediate-ABX group, 69% of tympanic membranes and 25% of tympanograms were normal, compared with 51% of normal tympanic membranes and 10% of normal tympanograms in the WW group. Parents of children in the ABX group gave their children fewer doses of pain medication than did parents of children in the WW group. Subjects in the ABX group experienced 16% fewer failures than subjects in the WW group. Of the children in the WW group, 66% completed the study without needing ABX. Immediate ABX resulted in eradication of S pneumoniae carriage in the majority of children, but S pneumoniae strains cultured from children in the ABX group at day 12 were more likely to be multidrug-resistant than strains from children in the WW group. More ABX-related adverse events were noted in the ABX group, compared with the WW group. No serious AOM-related adverse events were observed in either group. Office and emergency department visits, phone calls, and days of work/school missed were not different between groups. Prescriptions for ABX were reduced by 73% in the WW group compared with the ABX group. Costs of ABX averaged $47.41 per subject in the ABX group and $11.43 in the WW group.
CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-six percent of subjects in the WW group completed the study without ABX. Parent satisfaction was the same between groups regardless of treatment. Compared with WW, immediate ABX treatment was associated with decreased numbers of treatment failures and improved symptom control but increased ABX-related adverse events and a higher percent carriage of multidrug-resistant S pneumoniae strains in the nasopharynx at the day-12 visit. Key factors in implementing a WW strategy were (a) a method to classify AOM severity; (b) parent education; (c) management of AOM symptoms; (d) access to follow-up care; and (e) use of an effective ABX regimen, when needed. When these caveats are observed, WW may be an acceptable alternative to immediate ABX for some children with nonsevere AOM.
Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2005
Extreme Metabolic Alkalosis and Acute Kidney Injury in a 38-Year-Old Male Patient.
Indian J Crit Care Med. 2018 Dec;22(12):883-885
Authors: Heymer J, Lienig A, Löffler J, Schilling T, Räpple D
Repeated vomiting may lead to profound loss of fluid and electrolytes. We describe a case with life-threatening acid-base disturbances due to vomiting. A 38-year-old man presented to an emergency department with weakness and decreased urine output after having vomited up to 20 times per day over a period of 7 days. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a metabolic alkalosis with partial respiratory compensation. Initial management consisted of oxygen therapy and intravenous fluid therapy with normal saline and potassium chloride. To prevent further gastric losses of HCl, proton-pump inhibitors and metoclopramide were administered. The vomiting was caused most likely by a temporary duodenal stenosis due to portal hypertension of unknown etiology. In our opinion, this case demonstrates the successful management of a life-threatening condition by simple measures. Despite extensive diagnostic procedures, the effective treatment of the underlying condition consisted of watchful waiting.
PMID: 30662230 [PubMed]