Dietary Modification - Glutamic and Aspartic Acid Reduced (G.A.R.D)
The effect of dietary glutamate on fibromyalgia and irritable bowel symptoms.
Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012 Jul 4. Epub 2012 Jul 4. PMID: 22766026
Kathleen F Holton, Douglas L Taren, Cynthia A Thomson, Robert M Bennett, Kim D Jones
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of a challenge with monosodium glutamate (MSG) as compared to placebo on the symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM), in participants who initially experienced>30% remission of symptoms on an excitotoxin elimination diet. METHODS: Fifty-seven FM patients who also had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were placed on a 4-week diet that excluded dietary additive excitotoxins including MSG and aspartame. Thirty-seven people completed the diet and 84% of those reported that>30% of their symptoms resolved, thus making them eligible to proceed to challenges. Subjects who improved on the diet were then randomised to a 2-week double-blind placebo-controlled crossover challenge with MSG or placebo for 3 consecutive days each week. The primary outcome measure was total symptom score. Secondary outcome measures included visual analogue pain scales (VAS for FM and IBS), an IBS Quality of Life Questionnaire (IBS QOL) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse crossover challenge results. RESULTS: The MSG challenge, as compared to placebo, resulted in a significant return of symptoms (total symptom score, p<0.02); a worsening of fibromyalgia severity as determined by the FIQR (p<0.03); decreased quality of life in regards to IBS symptoms (IBS QOL, p<0.05); and a non-significant trend toward worsening FM pain based on visual analogue scale (VAS, p<0.07). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that dietary glutamate may be contributing to FM symptoms in some patients. Future research on the role of dietary excitotoxins in FM is warranted.
Article Published Date : Jul 03, 2012
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Glutamic and Aspartic Acid Reduced (G.A.R.D)
Cortical thickness and metabolite concentration in chronic stroke and the relationship with motor function.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2016 Sep 21;34(5):733-46
Authors: Jones PW, Borich MR, Vavsour I, Mackay A, Boyd LA
BACKGROUND: Hemiparesis is one of the most prevalent chronic disabilities after stroke. Biochemical and structural magnetic resonance imaging approaches may be employed to study the neural substrates underpinning upper-extremity (UE) recovery after chronic stroke.
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to 1) quantify anatomical and metabolic differences in the precentral gyrus, and 2) test the relationships between anatomical and metabolic differences, and hemiparetic arm function in individuals in the chronic stage of stroke recovery. Our hypotheses were: 1) the Stroke group would exhibit reduced precentral gyrus cortical thickness and lower concentrations of total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the ipsilesional motor cortex; and 2) that each of these measures would be associated with UE motor function after stroke.
METHODS: Seventeen individuals with chronic (>6 months) subcortical ischemic stroke and eleven neurologically healthy controls were recruited. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H1MRS) was performed to measure metabolite concentrations of tNAA and Glx in the precentral gyrus in both ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Surface-based cortical morphometry was used to quantify precentral gyral thickness. Upper-extremity motor function was assessed using the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT).
RESULTS: Results demonstrated significantly lower ipsilesional tNAA and Glx concentrations and precentral gyrus thickness in the Stroke group. Ipsilesional tNAA and Glx concentration and precentral gyrus thickness was significantly lower in the ipsilesional hemisphere in the Stroke group. Parametric correlation analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between precentral gyrus thickness and tNAA concentration bilaterally. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that ipsilesional concentrations of tNAA and Glx predicted the largest amount of variance in WMFT scores. Cortical thickness measures alone did not predict a significant amount of variance in WMFT scores.
CONCLUSION: While stroke impairs both structure and biochemistry in the ipsilesional hemisphere our data suggest that tNAA has the strongest relationship with motor function.
PMID: 27258945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]