[External cephalic version for breech presentation at term: an effective procedure to reduce the caesarean section rate].
Minerva Ginecol. 2003 Dec;55(6):519-24. PMID: 14676741
A Lojacono, G Donarini, A Valcamonico, M Soregaroli, T Frusca
Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia.
AIM: Although term breech presentation is a relatively rare condition (3-5% of all births), it continues to be an important indication for caesarean section and has contributed to its increased use. Risk of complications may be increased for both mother and foetus in such a situation. Vaginal delivery of a breech presenting foetus is complex and may involve many difficulties, so today there is a general consensus that planned caesarean section is better than planned vaginal birth for the foetus in breech presentation at term. External cephalic version is one of the most effective procedures in modern obstetrics. It involves the external manipulation of the foetus from the breech into the cephalic presentation. A successful manoeuvre can decrease costs by avoiding operative deliveries and decreasing maternal morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this obstetric manoeuvre to increase the proportion of vertex presentation among foetuses that were formerly in the breech position near term, so as to reduce the caesarean section rate. The safety of the version is also showed. METHODS: From 1999 to 2002, 89 women with foetal breech presentation underwent external cephalic version at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Brescia University. The gestational age was 36.8+/-0.8 weeks. The following variables have been taken into consideration: breech variety, placental location, foetal back position, parity, amount of amniotic fluid and gestational age. Every attempt was performed with a prior use of an intravenous drip of Ritodrine, and foetal heart rate was monitored continuously with cardiotocogram. RESULTS: The success rate of the procedure was 42.7% (n=38). No maternal or foetal complication or side effects occurred, both during and after the manoeuvre, except a transient foetal bradycardia that resolved spontaneously. Only one spontaneous reversion of the foetus occurred before delivery. Of all the women that underwent a successful version, 84.2% (n=32) had a non complicated vaginal delivery. Five women (15.8%) had a caesarean section. There was no significant interaction between the variables assessed. CONCLUSION: The external cephalic version is a safe and effective manoeuvre reducing the risks of vaginal breech delivery and the rate of caesarean section.
Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2003
[External cephalic version as a possible treatment of breech presentation].
Minerva Ginecol. 2000 Jun;52(6):221-7. PMID: 11085044
M Giusti, G C Bertolotti, R E Nappi, A Fignon, C Zara
BACKGROUND: Breech presentation shows 3-4% incidence on every foetal presentation at the time of delivery and is more correlated than vertex presentation to a foetal risk of perinatal mortality (with a frequency from 2 to 5 times higher) and to foetal malformations, low weight at birth and prematurity. On the other hand, without a careful case selection, breech delivery has a higher risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality in comparison to cephalic presentation. It is estimated that perinatal mortality for breech presentation at term is about 4-5% for vaginal delivery and about 2-4% for caesarean section. In addition caesarean section has a higher maternal morbidity and a small but significant risk of perinatal mortality, therefore, external cephalic version (ECV) can be a good choice to increase physiological deliveries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the real efficacy of this obstetric manoeuvre to decrease the frequency of breech presentation at delivery. METHODS: The study group included 67 patients (age 29.5 +/- 3.8) with foetal breech presentation at gestational age 35.8 +/- 1.9 weeks, recruited at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Pavia University. Every patient underwent ECV. The same physician has performed every ECV attempt using the forward roll technique, with previous tocolysis in 50 cases (rithodrine vs isoxsuprine). The following variables have been taken into consideration: amount of amniotic fluid, gestational age, kind of tocolysis, placental location, foetal back position, parity, breech variety and foetal adnexial complication at birth. RESULTS: ECV succeeded in 77.6% (n = 52) and failed in 22.4% (n = 15) of cases. No maternal or foetal complications, side effects and spontaneous breech version occurred and in 74.6% of cases (n = 50) a vaginal delivery was performed. In 25.4% of cases (n = 17) a caesarean section was performed (15 breech presentation, 1 foetal distress in labour and 1 cervical dystocia). Among variables examined related to successful ECV, it has been observed that the amount of amniotic fluid (chi 2 = 15.33; p<0.0000), the kind of tocolysis (chi 2 = 10.04; p<0.007) and the umbilical cord rounds (chi 2 = 3.98; p<0.045) were distributed in a significantly different way, whereas gestational age (p<0.045) was significantly higher in unsuccessful ECV. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained suggest that ECV may be a good therapeutic approach for decreasing the percentage of breech presentation at delivery.
Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2000
Abnormal hysteroscopy findings among a cross section of infertile Nigerian women.
Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Jan;22(1):9-15
Authors: Ugboaja JO, Oguejiofor CB, Igwegbe AO, Oranu EO
Background: Intrauterine lesions are important causes of infertility. This study aims to evaluate the abnormal findings at hysteroscopy among infertile women seen in 2 new Fertility/Gynaecological Endoscopy units in Nigeria.
Methods: A prospective study of 159 infertile women who had diagnostic hysteroscopy in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching hospital Nnewi and Holy Rosary Specialist Hospital, Onitsha to evaluate the intrauterine lesions seen. Data analysis was done with STATA software, version 12.0 SE (Stata Corporation, TX, USA).
Results: Secondary infertility was the major type of infertility seen in 56.6% (n = 91) of cases and the mean duration of infertility was 4.3+/- 2.8 years. The indication for hysteroscopy was routine evaluation for infertility in 83.6% cases (n = 133). One hundred and twelve (70.4%) of the women had abnormal findings at hysteroscopy. The lesions detected were intrauterine adhesions (47.8%; n = 76), endometrial polyps (17.6%; n = 28), submucous fibroids (11.9%; n = 19) and mullerian duct abnormalities (10.7%; n = 17). Other findings were lost intrauterine copper devices (IUCD; 6.3%, n = 10), embedded fetal bone (2.5%; n = 4) and incarcerated omentum (1.9%; n = 3). Intrauterine adhesions were mainly moderate (40.8%; n = 31) and mild (34.2, n = 26) in severity while the submucous fibroids were mostly of type 0 (63.2%; n = 12). The commonest Mullerian abnormality seen was arcuate uterus (41.2%; n = 7).
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of abnormal findings on hysteroscopy among the studied women mostly intrauterine adhesions, endometrial polyps and submucous fibroids. These findings indicate a need to incorporate hysteroscopy in the routine evaluation of female infertility in the region.
PMID: 30666014 [PubMed - in process]
Maternal, reproductive and obstetric factors associated with preterm births in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda: a case control study.
Pan Afr Med J. 2018;30:272
Authors: Ayebare E, Ntuyo P, Malande OO, Nalwadda G
Introduction: Preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal mortality accounts for 35 percent of all neonatal deaths worldwide. Uganda's high preterm birth rate of 13.6 per 1000 live births ranks 28th in the world. Efforts at reducing these pre-term births must entail interventions that target any associated risk factors. This study therefore aimed at identifying and describing the risk factors for preterm births among mothers delivering in Mulago Hospital.
Methods: This was a case control study among postpartum women in Mulago Hospital. Ninety nine women with preterm newborns were recruited as cases and 193 with full term babies were the controls. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was entered into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to STATA 11 for univariate analysis and multivariate analysis by logistic regression.
Results: Risk factors for preterm birth included maternal height less than 1.5 meters (OR 131.08 (20.35-844.02)), rural residence (OR 6.56(2.68-16.10)) and failure to attend antenatal care clinic (OR 8.88(1.44-54.67)). Pregnancy related risk factors included PPROM (OR 287.11(49.26-1673.28)), antepartum haemorrhage (OR 7.33(1.23-43.72)) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR 16.24(3.11-84.70)).
Conclusion: Preterm birth is more likely to occur in women of short stature, living in rural areas and those who do not attend antenatal care clinic. The preterm birth risk is higher for women who get PPROM, APH and preeclampsia/eclampsia in pregnancy. Early recognition and management of these high risk conditions among pregnant women may lead to a reduction in preterm birth rates.
PMID: 30637057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]