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Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low Glycemic Diet

Mediterranean diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular mechanisms of protection.

Abstract Title: Mediterranean diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular mechanisms of protection. Abstract Source: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Aug 2:1-10. Epub 2016 Aug 2. PMID: 27484357 Abstract Author(s): Justyna Godos, Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Francesca Scazzina Article Affiliation: Justyna Godos Abstract: Nutritional habits modifications have shown an important impact in preventing and ameliorating metabolic alterations, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among several dietary approaches that exert positive effects in NAFLD patients, the Mediterranean dietary pattern has shown notable benefits. This review explores the molecular mechanisms through which the Mediterranean diet would improve risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. The main features of the Mediterranean diet acting on metabolism are represented by its whole-grain and low glycemic index cereal-based items, its fatty acid profile, and its content in phytochemical compounds. Carbohydrate-rich foods high in dietary fiber inducing low glycemic response are able to interact with glucose and insulin metabolism. Unsaturated fatty acids are associated with better hepatic lipid metabolism. Finally, phytochemical compounds, such as dietary polyphenols, are thought to ameliorate inflammation, which is considered one of the mechanisms through which NALFD may evolve into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2016

Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer.

Abstract Title: Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer. Abstract Source: Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jun ;111(6):891-6. Epub 2016 Mar 29. PMID: 27021191 Abstract Author(s): Susanna C Larsson, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk Article Affiliation: Susanna C Larsson Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. METHODS: We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997. Incident cancer cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years (1,010,777 person-years), we identified 140 extrahepatic BTC cases (including 77 gallbladder cancers) and 23 intrahepatic BTC cases. A high dietary GL was associated with an increased risk of BTC. The multivariable relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of dietary GL were 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-2.63) for extrahepatic BTC, 2.14 (95% CI, 1.06-4.33) for gallbladder cancer, and 3.46 (95% CI, 1.22-9.84) for intrahepatic BTC. Dietary GI was statistically significantly positively associated with risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between carbohydrate intake and BTC risk, although all associations were positive. CONCLUSION: Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that high-GL and high-GI diets are associated with an increased risk of BTC. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016

Effect of a low glycemic load on body composition and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) in overweight and obese subjects. 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of a low glycemic load on body composition and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) in overweight and obese subjects. Abstract Source: Nutr Hosp. 2011 Feb;26(1):170-175. PMID: 21519744 Abstract Author(s): A L Armendáriz-Anguiano, A Jiménez-Cruz, M Bacardí-Gascón, L Hurtado-Ayala Article Affiliation: Medicine and Psychology School, Universidad Auntónoma de Baja California, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different glycemic load diets on biochemical data and body composition, in overweight and obese subjects, during a 6-month period. Research design and methods: This study was an experimental, randomized, parallel design. Anthropo-metric measurements and biochemical data were measured at baseline at 3 and at 6 months. All subjects completed 3-day dietary intake diaries at the baseline period and during the third and the sixth months. At the sixth month, LGL group had a mean intake of 1,360± 300 kcal/day and the high glycemic load group (HGL) had a mean intake of 1,544 ± 595 kcal/day. Results: LGL group obtained a weight reduction of 4.5% (p = 0.006) and the HGL group of 3.0% (p = 0.18). Significant reductions in waist circumference (5%, p = 0.001) of the LGL group were observed, 10% of body fat percentage (p = 0.001), 4.3 kg (13%) of body fat (p = 0.001), 14% of total cholesterol (p=0.007), 35% of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (p = 0.001), and 10% of HOMA (p = 0.009). In the HGL group, reductions of 4.5% of waist circumference (p = 0.02), 37% of HDL (p = 0.002), and an increase of 8 % of LDL (p = 0.04) were observed. Conclusions: These results suggest that long term LGL diets are more effective for reducing body mass index, body fat, waist circumference and HOMA and, therefore, may contribute in the prevention of diabetes. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2011

Improvement of dietary quality with the aid of a low glycemic index diet in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract Title: Improvement of dietary quality with the aid of a low glycemic index diet in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Abstract Source: J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3):161-70. PMID: 20833988 Abstract Author(s): Mohd Yusof Barakatun Nisak, Abd Talib Ruzita, A Karim Norimah, Heather Gilbertson, Kamaruddin Nor Azmi Article Affiliation: Department of Nutrition&Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine&Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of low glycemic index (GI) dietary advice on eating patterns and dietary quality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Asian patients with T2DM (N =  104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietaryintake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record. RESULTS: At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.1 ± 0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM. Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2010

Effect of two carbohydrate-modified tube-feeding formulas on metabolic responses in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Abstract Title: Effect of two carbohydrate-modified tube-feeding formulas on metabolic responses in patients with type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Nutrition. 2008 Oct;24(10):990-7. Epub 2008 Aug 21. PMID: 18718737 Abstract Author(s): Anne Coble Voss, Kevin C Maki, W Timothy Garvey, Deborah S Hustead, Carolyn Alish, Brenda Fix, Vikkie A Mustad Article Affiliation: Abbott Nutrition, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the glycemic, insulinemic, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus to consumption of two diabetes-specific tube-feeding formulas (slowly digested carbohydrate formula [SDC] and diabetes-specific formula [DSF]) and one formula intended for individuals without diabetes (standard formula [STND]). METHODS: Forty-eight subjects controlled with diet and/or oral antihyperglycemic medications received the SDC, DSF, and STND. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 were measured on three occasions after an overnight fast in a double-blinded, randomized, three-treatment, crossover design. RESULTS: The positive area under the curve for glucose and insulin with the STND was higher (P<0.001) compared with the SDC and DSF. The adjusted GLP-1 concentration at 60 min was higher for the SDC compared with the DSF and STND (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Both lower-carbohydrate diabetes-specific formulas resulted in a lower postprandial blood glucose response compared with the STND. The formula also rich in slowly digested carbohydrate and monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids (SDC) produced significantly lower blood glucose and insulin responses and higher levels of GLP-1 in the presence of significantly lower insulin concentrations. These results support the view that the quantity and quality of carbohydrate and fat may play important roles in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and could result in improved beta-cell function over the long term. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2008
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Glycemic Diet

NCBI pubmed

Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with increased risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality in head and neck cancer patients: results from a prospective cohort study.

Related Articles Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with increased risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality in head and neck cancer patients: results from a prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2018 09 01;143(5):1105-1113 Authors: Arthur AE, Goss AM, Demark-Wahnefried W, Mondul AM, Fontaine KR, Chen YT, Carroll WR, Spencer SA, Rogers LQ, Rozek LS, Wolf GT, Gower BA, University of Michigan Head and Neck SPORE Program Abstract No studies have evaluated associations between carbohydrate intake and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prognosis. We prospectively examined associations between pre- and post-treatment carbohydrate intake and recurrence, all-cause mortality, and HNSCC-specific mortality in a cohort of 414 newly diagnosed HNSCC patients. All participants completed pre- and post-treatment Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) and epidemiologic surveys. Recurrence and mortality events were collected annually. Multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards models tested associations between carbohydrate intake (categorized into low, medium and high intake) and time to recurrence and mortality, adjusting for relevant covariates. During the study period, there were 70 deaths and 72 recurrences. In pretreatment analyses, high intakes of total carbohydrate (HR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.23-4.25), total sugar (HR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.12-3.68), glycemic load (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.15-3.83) and simple carbohydrates (HR 2.26; 95% CI 1.19-4.32) were associated with significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to low intake. High intakes of carbohydrate (HR 2.45; 95% CI: 1.23-4.25) and total sugar (HR 3.03; 95% CI 1.12-3.68) were associated with increased risk of HNSCC-specific mortality. In post-treatment analyses, medium fat intake was significantly associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR 0.08; 95% CI 0.01-0.69) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.07-0.96). Stratification by tumor site and cancer stage in pretreatment analyses suggested effect modification by these factors. Our data suggest high pretreatment carbohydrate intake may be associated with adverse prognosis in HNSCC patients. Clinical intervention trials to further examine this hypothesis are warranted. PMID: 29604042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study in children aged 10 to 17 years: Design, methods and baseline results.

Related Articles PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study in children aged 10 to 17 years: Design, methods and baseline results. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 05;20(5):1096-1101 Authors: Dorenbos E, Drummen M, Rijks J, Adam T, Stouthart P, Alfredo Martínez J, Navas-Carretero S, Stratton G, Swindell N, Fogelholm M, Raben A, Westerterp-Plantenga M, Vreugdenhil A Abstract Insulin resistance (IR) in adolescence is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]. The PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study assessed the effectiveness of a high-protein, low-glycaemic-index diet and a moderate-protein, moderate-glycaemic-index diet to decrease IR in insulin-resistant children who were overweight or obese. Inclusion criteria were age 10 to 17 years, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) ≥2.0 and overweight/obesity. In 126 children (mean ± SD age 13.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index [BMI] z-score 3.04 ± 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 ± 2.28) anthropometrics, fat mass percentage (FM%), metabolic characteristics, physical activity, food intake and sleep were measured. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. IR was higher in pubertal children with morbid obesity than in prepubertal children with morbid obesity (5.41 ± 1.86 vs 3.23 ± 1.86; P = .007) and prepubertal and pubertal children with overweight/obesity (vs 3.61 ± 1.60, P = .004, and vs 3.40 ± 1.50, P < .001, respectively). IR was associated with sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. Fasting glucose concentrations were negatively associated with Baecke sport score (r = -0.223, P = .025) and positively with daytime sleepiness (r = 0.280, P = .016) independent of sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. In conclusion, IR was most severe in pubertal children with morbid obesity. The associations between fasting glucose concentration and Baecke sport score and sleepiness suggest these might be possible targets for diabetes prevention. PMID: 29322617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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