Peer supporters' experiences on an Australian perinatal mental health helpline.
Health Promot Int. 2018 Jan 16;:
Authors: Biggs LJ, McLachlan HL, Shafiei T, Small R, Forster DA
Perinatal mental health is an important public health issue, and peer support is a potentially important strategy for emotional well-being in the perinatal period. PANDA Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Australia provides support to individuals impacted by perinatal mental health issues via the National Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Helpline. Callers receive peer support from volunteers and counselling from paid professional staff. The views and experiences of PANDA peer support volunteers have not previously been studied. We conducted two focus groups and an online survey to explore the experiences of women providing volunteer peer support on the Helpline. Data collection took place in October and November 2013. Two social theories were used in framing and addressing the study aims and in interpreting our findings: the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis, and the Helper Therapy Principle. All PANDA volunteers were invited to participate (n = 40). Eight volunteers attended a focus group, and 11 survey responses were received. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data. All survey respondents 'strongly agreed' that they felt positive about being part of PANDA. Thematic analysis of data from focus groups and open-ended survey responses identified the following themes: motivated to help others, supported to support callers, helping to make a difference and emotional impacts for volunteers. Respondents described a strong desire to support others experiencing emotional distress as a motivator to volunteer. Although perinatal peer support services are designed to benefit those who receive support, this study suggests volunteers may also experience personal benefits from the role.
PMID: 29346557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Using Role-plays as an Empathy Education Tool for Ophthalmology Postgraduate.
Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2017 Dec;7(Suppl 1):S62-S66
Authors: Singh K, Bhattacharyya M, Veerwal V, Singh A
Purpose: To assess the role of an "empathy sensitizing module" (ESM) in ophthalmology postgraduates in promoting effective empathetic communication.
Methodology: Thirty-nine ophthalmology postgraduates were taught effective empathetic communication using specially designed module, comprising of five illustrative role-plays. We evaluated the impact of the training by (a) self-assessment of empathy quotient by residents using Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE scale) before and 6 weeks after ESM training and (b) nonparticipant observation (NPO) by trained faculty in real-life settings over the next 4 months. A peer-validated, self-designed checklist was used for NPO. The change in score was analyzed using Student's paired t-test. The faculty observed the use of empathy in real-life patient encounters of the trainees over the next 6 months. In addition, secondary qualitative data were collected and analyzed to assess the impact of the module on other stakeholders such as the role-playing undergraduate students and core faculty.
Results: Pretraining assessment revealed that concept of empathy during patient communication was understood by only 10% students. PostESM training, the self-rated mean empathy score, on JSE, significantly increased from 95.9 to 106.7 (of a maximum of 140). This was also confirmed by a significant improvement in externally rated empathy and soft skills scores (from 29.3 to 39.1; of a maximum of 55) using the NPO tool. Focus group discussion was done on the continued display of empathy by the trainees in real-life situation over 6 months of observation by the faculty. The group agreed that there was a gradual attrition of initial gain in empathy behavior over the observation period of 6 months. The spillover benefits of the training process were observed among the role-playing undergraduates as well. A thematic analysis of their reflections on the process revealed a substantial change with an improved understanding of effective communication.
Conclusions: There is a definite scope for introducing empathetic communication in medical training. Empathetic communication can be improved by effective training in a contextual manner with a need for regular reinforcement. Sensitization at all levels including the faculty is required to implement effective communication skills in medical profession.
PMID: 29344461 [PubMed]
Introduction of Medical Humanities in MBBS 1st Year.
Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2017 Dec;7(Suppl 1):S23-S26
Authors: Saiyad SM, Paralikar SJ, Verma AP
Context: Most vital areas of patient management such as empathy, professionalism, and ethics are lacking in fresh undergraduates. These areas are considered to be part of hidden curriculum, and as these are not formally taught, we lack competent medical graduates. Introduction of medical humanities (MH) early in the medical curriculum can help to inculcate required soft skills.
Aims: This study aims to develop, administer, and evaluate MH module in 1st year MBBS students.
Settings and Design: Module of MH was introduced among 150 1st year MBBS medical students.
Subjects and Methods: After taking permission from ethical committee of the institute, a core committee for development of MH module was formed. A standardized validated module for MH comprising of three sessions was formed and was introduced in 1st year MBBS 150 students. Evaluation was done in the form of student and faculty feedback questionnaire, consisting of open- and closed-ended questions.
Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using descriptive statistics using mean and standard deviation.
Results: According to participants' feedback and perception, mean overall rating of MH module was 4.69, indicating that it was received well by the students. Out of 3 sessions conducted, students gave maximum grades to session 2: cinemeducation. Results of faculty feedback questionnaire indicated that MH is needed and should be introduced in every batch of 1st year MBBS and should be continued longitudinally.
Conclusions: Awareness, knowledge, and attitude of students improved as a result of MH module. Our results indicate that such modules should be implemented in undergraduate medical curriculum.
PMID: 29344453 [PubMed]
Investigating the use of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and prompt device: influence and acceptability.
J Infect Prev. 2017 Nov;18(6):278-287
Authors: Dyson J, Madeo M
Introduction: Hand hygiene (HH) prevents the transmission of healthcare-associated infections. Electronic HH monitoring and prompt devices have been developed to overcome problems with monitoring HH and to improve compliance. Devices monitor room entry and exit and soap use through communication between ceiling sensors and badges worn by practitioners and the badges sense alcohol rub.
Objectives: To investigate (1) the impact of devices on HH compliance, (2) how devices influence behaviour and (3) the experience and opinions of practitioners on the use devices.
Methods: HH compliance was monitored (before, during and after system installation) by observations and alcohol rub usage. Compliance during installation was also monitored by the device. Healthcare practitioner interviews (n = 12) explored how the device influenced behaviour and experiences and opinions of wearing the device.
Results: HH compliance improved during the period the device was installed. Practitioners reported the device increased their awareness, enhancing their empathy for patients and encouraged patients and colleagues to prompt when HH was needed. Practitioners' reported better HH, gaming the system and feelings of irritation.
Conclusion: HH prompt and monitoring systems seem to improve compliance but improvements may be undermined by practitioner irritation and system gaming.
PMID: 29344097 [PubMed]
Effects of Multimodal Mandala Yoga on Social and Emotional Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Study.
Int J Yoga. 2018 Jan-Apr;11(1):59-65
Authors: Litchke LG, Liu T, Castro S
Context: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships.
Aims: The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.
Subjects and Methods: Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks. Multimodal Mandala yoga comprised 26 circular partner/group poses, color and tracing sheets, rhythmic chanting, yoga cards, and games. Treatment and Research Institute for ASD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA) scores were collected before and after the eight yoga sessions. The Modified Facial Mood Scale (MFMS) was used to observe mood changes before and after each yoga class. Paired sample t-tests were conducted on TSSA and MFMS scores to compare social and emotional differences post the 4-week camp. Narrative field notes were documented after each of the eight yoga sessions.
Results: A significant improvement from pre- to post-test was found in overall TSSA (t(4) = -5.744, P = 0.005) and on respondent to initiation (t(4) = -3.726, P = 0.020), initiating interaction (t(4) = -8.5, P = 0.039), and affective understanding and perspective taking subscales (t(4) = -5.171 P = 0.007). Youth's MFMS scores increased from 80% to 100% at the end of eight yoga sessions demonstrating a pleasant or positive mood. Thematic analysis of the narrative notes identified three key factors associated with the yoga experience: (a) enhanced mood and emotional expression, (b) increased empathy toward others, and (c) improved teamwork skills.
Conclusion: This multimodal Mandala yoga training has implication for developing positive social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.
PMID: 29343932 [PubMed]
Psychopathy and Victim Selection: Does Nonverbal Decoding or Empathy Impact Vulnerability Ratings?
J Interpers Violence. 2018 Jan 01;:886260517742914
Authors: Denardo Roney JL, Falkenbach DM, Aveson O
This research examined the role of psychopathic traits in perceptions of victimization and vulnerability. Community-member participants viewed video clips of victims, nonvictims, and victims who studied self-defense, then rated them on vulnerability and perceived history of victimization. Participants were most proficient at identifying nonvictims as nonvictims. Victims who studied self-defense were harder to correctly identify than both victims and nonvictims and were rated by participants as less vulnerable and less likely to be victims than other victims and nonvictims. Moreover, individuals high in psychopathic traits, specifically Factor 2, were more likely than individuals low in psychopathic traits to correctly identify victims who practiced self-defense as victims, as well as nonvictims as victims. Unexpectedly, there was an observed negative relationship between facial affect decoding and identifying self-defense victims. The ability to correctly interpret facial expressions was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychopathy scores and the identification of self-defense victims. The results of this study provide insight into the ability of individuals with psychopathic traits to identify nonverbal cues associated with vulnerability. The results provide evidence that taking self-defense classes may be a meaningful intervention for victims, particularly.
PMID: 29343162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Spontaneous communication and infant imitation.
Behav Brain Sci. 2017 Jan;40:e385
Authors: Buck R
Infant behavior is viewed in a social-communicative context centered on the phenomenon of spontaneous communication. Symbolic communication is learned and culturally structured, intentional, consists of symbols, and is propositional in content. In contrast, spontaneous communication is innate in both its sending (display) and receiving (preattunement) aspects, non-intentional, consists of signs, and is non-propositional or emotional in content. It underlies infant imitation, interactional synchrony, primary intersubjectivity, emotional empathy, and mirror neurons; and it is associated with oxytocin.
PMID: 29342811 [PubMed - in process]
Explaining the enjoyment of negative emotions evoked by the arts: The need to consider empathy and other underlying mechanisms of emotion induction.
Behav Brain Sci. 2017 Jan;40:e378
Authors: Vuoskoski JK, Eerola T
Any model aiming to explain the enjoyment of negative emotions in the context of the arts should consider how works of art are able to induce emotional responses in the first place. For instance, research on empathy and the arts suggests that the psychological processes that mediate the enjoyment of sadness and horror may be fundamentally different.
PMID: 29342803 [PubMed - in process]
Empathy as a guide for understanding the balancing of Distancing-Embracing with negative art.
Behav Brain Sci. 2017 Jan;40:e361
Authors: Gerger G, Ishizu T, Pelowski M
We connect the Distancing-Embracing model to theoretical and empirical evidence regarding empathy, which raises questions about the ordering and modulation of distancing in particular. Namely, distancing may not be a binary, continuously on/off process. Rather we suggest that changes in distancing as actualized via the relation between the individual and art (e.g., through empathy) might be a useful avenue for further consideration.
PMID: 29342787 [PubMed - in process]
Fiction as a bridge to action.
Behav Brain Sci. 2017 Jan;40:e363
Authors: Green MC, Fitzgerald K
We propose an extension of the Distancing-Embracing model to the use of stories for prosocial ends. Specifically, audiences may find stories of individuals in need too emotionally overwhelming. Audiences may attempt to regulate or reduce negative emotions, which can reduce empathy and willingness to help. Through distancing, fictionalized accounts may counteract this tendency and thus increase prosocial behavior.
PMID: 29342786 [PubMed - in process]
WHERE HAS THE COMPASSION GONE FROM THE RESIDENTIAL AGED CARE ENVIRONMENT?
Aust Nurs Midwifery J. 2017 02;24(7):40
Authors: Oliver K
Would working in residential aged care be your dream job as a newly qualified nurse, probably not, but why not? Montayre (2015) suggests that although nurses don't like to talk about it, or even less, what the real problem is perceived to be with this practice area, residential aged care nursing is thought to be less exciting, monotonous, and requiring less skill than other areas such as emergency nursing, or medical nursing.
PMID: 29257650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]