CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Exercise Endurance

Similarities and differences among half-marathon runners according to their performance level. 📎

Abstract Title: Similarities and differences among half-marathon runners according to their performance level. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2018 ;13(1):e0191688. Epub 2018 Jan 24. PMID: 29364940 Abstract Author(s): Ana Ogueta-Alday, Juan Carlos Morante, Josué Gómez-Molina, Juan García-López Article Affiliation: Ana Ogueta-Alday Abstract: This study aimed to identify the similarities and differences among half-marathon runners in relation to their performance level. Forty-eight male runners were classified into 4 groups according to their performance level in a half-marathon (min): Group 1 (n = 11,<70 min), Group 2 (n = 13,<80 min), Group 3 (n = 13,<90 min), Group 4 (n = 11,<105 min). In two separate sessions, training-related, anthropometric, physiological, foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal variables were recorded. Significant differences (p<0.05) between groups (ES = 0.55-3.16) and correlations with performance were obtained (r = 0.34-0.92) in training-related (experience and running distance per week), anthropometric (mass, body mass index and sum of 6 skinfolds), physiological (VO2max, RCT and running economy), foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal variables (contact time, step rate and length). At standardized submaximal speeds (11, 13 and 15 km·h-1), no significant differences between groups were observed in step rate and length, neither in contact time when foot strike pattern was taken into account. In conclusion, apart from training-related, anthropometric and physiological variables, foot strike pattern and step length were the onlybiomechanical variables sensitive to half-marathon performance, which are essential to achieve high running speeds. However, when foot strike pattern and running speeds were controlled (submaximal test), the spatio-temporal variables were similar. This indicates that foot strike pattern and runningspeed are responsible for spatio-temporal differences among runners of different performance level. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

An Acute Dose of Specific Grape and Apple Polyphenols Improves Endurance Performance: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind versus Placebo Controlled Study. 📎

Abstract Title: An Acute Dose of Specific Grape and Apple Polyphenols Improves Endurance Performance: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind versus Placebo Controlled Study. Abstract Source: Nutrients. 2017 Aug 22 ;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 22. PMID: 28829368 Abstract Author(s): Gaëlle Deley, Damien Guillemet, François-André Allaert, Nicolas Babault Article Affiliation: Gaëlle Deley Abstract: Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols on the capacity to maintain intense exercise, here named endurance performance. Forty-eight physically active men (31± 6 years) were included in this study. During the two testing sessions, volunteers completed an endurance test at a high percentage of their maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion was measured. Respiratory and pain parameters were also monitored. The preceding evening and 1 h before testing,volunteers had to absorb either 500 mg of polyphenols or placebo according to randomization. In comparison with the placebo, the mean duration of the maximal endurance test was significantly increased with polyphenols (+9.7% ± 6.0%, p<0.05). The maximal perceived exertion was reached later with polyphenols (+12.8%± 6.8%, p<0.05). Practically, the present study showed the beneficial effects of grape and apple polyphenols for athletes looking for endurance performance improvements. The specifically designed profile of polyphenols appeared to enhance the capacity to maintain intensive efforts and delay perceived exertion. Article Published Date : Aug 21, 2017

Exercise effects in Huntington disease.

Abstract Title: Exercise effects in Huntington disease. Abstract Source: J Neurol. 2017 Jan ;264(1):32-39. Epub 2016 Oct 17. PMID: 27747393 Abstract Author(s): Sebastian Frese, Jens A Petersen, Maria Ligon-Auer, Sandro Manuel Mueller, Violeta Mihaylova, Saskia M Gehrig, Veronika Kana, Elisabeth J Rushing, Evelyn Unterburger, Georg Kägi, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Marco Toigo, Hans H Jung Article Affiliation: Sebastian Frese Abstract: Huntington disease (HD) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms across a wide range of neurological domains, including cognitive and motor dysfunction. There is still no causative treatment for HD but environmental factors such as passive lifestyle may modulate disease onset and progression. In humans, multidisciplinary rehabilitation has a positive impact on cognitive functions. However, a specific role for exercise as a component of an environmental enrichment effect has been difficult to demonstrate. We aimed at investigating whether endurance training (ET) stabilizes the progression of motor and cognitive dysfunction and ameliorates cardiovascular function in HD patients. Twelve male HD patients (mean ± SD, 54.8 ± 7.1 years) and twelve male controls (49.1 ± 6.8 years) completed 26 weeks of endurance training. Before and after the training intervention, clinical assessments, exercise physiological tests, and a body composition measurement were conducted and a muscle biopsy was taken from M. vastus lateralis. To examine the natural course of the disease, HD patients were additionally assessed 6 months prior to ET. During the ET period, there was a motor deficit stabilization as indicated by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale motor section score in HD patients (baseline: 18.6 ± 9.2, pre-training: 26.0 ± 13.7, post-training: 26.8 ± 16.4). Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) significantly increased in HD patients (∆[Formula: see text] = +0.33 ± 0.28 l) and controls (∆[Formula: see text] = +0.29 ± 0.41 l). No adverse effects of the training intervention were reported. Our results confirm that HD patients are amenable to a specific exercise-induced therapeutic strategy indicated by an increased cardiovascular function and a stabilization of motor function. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Acute endurance exercise lowers serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in Japanese men.

Abstract Title: Acute endurance exercise lowers serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in Japanese men. Abstract Source: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Jul 25. Epub 2016 Jul 25. PMID: 27453549 Abstract Author(s): Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Xiaomin Sun, Mitsuru Higuchi Article Affiliation: Hirokazu Taniguchi Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The independent effects of acute endurance exercise on FGF21 metabolism are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether acute endurance exercise modulates serum postprandial FGF21 levels in an age-dependent manner. DESIGN: Exercise intervention trial. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight subjects participated in the experiment, of whom 13 were excluded mainly because of a serum FGF21 level below the limit of detection. Thus data from 7 young (age: 18-22 years) and 8 elderly male subjects (age: 62-69 years) were analysed. MEASUREMENTS: Participants were asked to perform a cycling exercise for 30 min at 70% maximal oxygen uptake, following carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, and 24 h after the cessation of exercise. Serum FGF21 levels were measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Higher serum FGF21 was observed in the elderly subjects group throughout the experiment (p<0.05). There was no significant increase in serum FGF21 levels after the cessation of exercise, whereas serum FGF21 levels were significantly lower 24 h after the exercise compared with those pre-exercise, 0 min, 30 min, and 1 h after the cessation of exercise in both groups (p<0.01). The response did not differ between the two groups because of no significant group× time interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Acute endurance exercise lowers serum FGF21 levels 24 hours following exercise. The results suggest that acute endurance exercise modulates postprandial FGF21 metabolism regardless of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Article Published Date : Jul 24, 2016

Neuroprotective Effects of Endurance Exercise against High Fat Diet-Induced Hippocampal Neuroinflammation.

Abstract Title: Neuroprotective Effects of Endurance Exercise against High Fat Diet-Induced Hippocampal Neuroinflammation. Abstract Source: J Neuroendocrinol. 2016 Mar 16. Epub 2016 Mar 16. PMID: 26991447 Abstract Author(s): Eun-Bum Kang, Jung-Hoon Koo, Yong-Chul Jang, Chun-Ho Yang, Youngil Lee, Ludmilar M Cosio-Lima, Joon-Yong Cho Article Affiliation: Eun-Bum Kang Abstract: Obesity contributes to systemic inflammation, associated with various pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence has demonstrated that endurance exercise (EE) mitigate obesity-induced brain inflammation. However, exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. We investigated how treadmill exercise (TE) reverses obesity-induced brain inflammation, mainly focusing on toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)-dependent neuroinflammation in the obese rat brain following 20 weeks of high fat diet (HFD). TE in HFD-fed rats resulted in a significant lowering in HOMA-IR, AUC for glucose and abdominal visceral fat and improved working memory ability in a passive avoidance task relative to sedentary in HFD-fed rats with the exception of body weight. More importantly, TE revoked the increase in HFD-induced proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β) and COX-2, which parallels with reduction in TLR-4 and its downstream proteins, MyD88 and TRAF6 and phosphorylation of TAK-1, IkBα and NF-κB. Moreover, TE reduced an indicator of microglia activation, IBA-1 as well as decreased GFAP, an indicator of gliosis formed by activated astrocytes in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), compared to HFD-fed sedentary rats. Finally, EE upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and suppressed the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax in the hippocampus compared to HFD-fed sedentary rats. Taken together, these data suggest that TE may exert neuroprotective effects by mitigating the production of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathways. This study suggest that the unique combination of TE's beneficial effects on the restoration of blood profile and anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on cognitive function should inspire further investigation of its therapeutic potential for metabolic disorder and neurodegenerative diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Article Published Date : Mar 15, 2016

Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR. 📎

Abstract Title: Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2016 ;11(2):e0149082. Epub 2016 Feb 17. PMID: 26885978 Abstract Author(s): Zuzanna Kazior, Sarah J Willis, Marcus Moberg, William Apró, José A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Eva Blomstrand Article Affiliation: Zuzanna Kazior Abstract: Reports concerning the effect of endurance exercise on the anabolic response to strength training have been contradictory. This study re-investigated this issue, focusing on training effects on indicators of protein synthesis and degradation. Two groups of male subjects performed 7 weeks of resistance exercise alone (R; n = 7) or in combination with preceding endurance exercise, including both continuous and interval cycling (ER; n = 9). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the training period. Similar increases in leg-press 1 repetition maximum (30%; P<0.05) were observed in both groups, whereas maximal oxygen uptake was elevated (8%; P<0.05) only in the ER group. The ER training enlarged the areas of both type I and type II fibers, whereas the R protocol increased only the type II fibers. The mean fiber area increased by 28% (P<0.05) in the ER group, whereas no significant increase was observed in the R group. Moreover, expression of Akt and mTOR protein was enhanced in the ER group, whereas only the level of mTOR was elevated following R training. Training-induced alterations in the levels of both Akt and mTOR protein were correlated to changes in type I fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P<0.05), as well as mean fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P<0.05), reflecting the important role played by these proteins in connection with muscle hypertrophy. Both training regimes reduced the level of MAFbx protein (P<0.05) and tended to elevate that of MuRF-1. The present findings indicate that the larger hypertrophy observed in the ER group is due more to pronounced stimulation of anabolic rather than inhibition of catabolic processes. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

EFFECTS OF L-ASCORBIC ACID AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SWIMMING-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SERUM OF GUINEA PIGS. 📎

Abstract Title: EFFECTS OF L-ASCORBIC ACID AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SWIMMING-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SERUM OF GUINEA PIGS. Abstract Source: Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2016 ;13(4):29-33. Epub 2016 Jul 3. PMID: 28852717 Abstract Author(s): Marija Bursać-Mitrović, Dragan R Milovanović, Radoslav Mitić, Danijela Jovanović, Miroslav Sovrlić, Perica Vasiljević, Jovica Tomović, Nedeljko Manojlović Article Affiliation: Marija Bursać-Mitrović Abstract: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase in the serum of guinea pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experimental measurements of intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase were done in the serum of guinea pigs. The animals were exposed to the test load to achieve exhaustion and the test was terminated when the animal for the third time to sink into the water. RESULTS: The results of this study demonstrated that endurance exercise of guinea pigs induced oxidative stress response in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and activity of xanthine oxidase in the serum of experimental animals. Our study investigated the antioxidant activity of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol also measuring three protective markers in the serum: total antioxidant activity, content of glutathione and activity of catalase. The results obtained show that the vitamins influence the concentrations of above mentioned biochemical parameters, which points out their protective effect of swimming-induced oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: Single or combined administration of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol caused significant inhibition of these markers indicating the important antioxidant activity of the vitamins. Results lead to conclude that the combined treatments with vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise showed the clear synergistic effect.. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Curcumin treatment enhances the effect of exercise on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by increasing cAMP levels.

Abstract Title: Curcumin treatment enhances the effect of exercise on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by increasing cAMP levels. Abstract Source: Metabolism. 2015 Oct ;64(10):1334-47. Epub 2015 Jul 21. PMID: 26278015 Abstract Author(s): Ronald D Ray Hamidie, Tatsuya Yamada, Rie Ishizawa, Yoko Saito, Kazumi Masuda Article Affiliation: Ronald D Ray Hamidie Abstract: BACKGROUND: In response to physiologic stressors, skeletal muscle has the potential to elicit wide variety of adaptive responses, such as biogenesis of mitochondria and clearance of damaged mitochondria to promote healthy muscle. The polyphenol curcumin, derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa L., is a natural antioxidant that exhibits various pharmacological activities and therapeutic properties. However, the effect of curcumin on the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of combination of endurance training (eTR) and curcumin treatment on the expression of AMPK, SIRT1, PGC-1α, and OXPHOS subunits, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and CS activity in rat skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the present study also examined the effect of exercise and curcumin treatment on the levels of cAMP and downstream targets of PKA including phosphorylated CREB and LKB-1. METHODS: Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into non-eTR and eTR groups. Low doses (50 mg/kg-BW/day) or high doses (100 mg/kg-BW/day) of curcumin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were injected intraperitoneally in all animals for 28 days to investigate the effect of curcumin alone and the combined effect of curcumin with eTR. Western blotting (WB) and immunoprecipitation (IP) were performed to detect the presence of proteins. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that combination of curcumin treatment and eTR increased the expression of COX-IV, OXPHOS subunits, mitochondrial DNA copy number and CS activity in the gastrocnemius (Gas) and soleus (Sol) muscles. In addition, this combination increased AMPK phosphorylation, NAD(+)/NADH ratio, SIRT1 expression, and PGC-1α deacetylation. Furthermore, curcumin treatment as well as exercise also increased levels of cAMP and downstream target of PKA including phosphorylation CREB and LKB-1 which are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that the combination of curcumin treatment and eTR has the potential to accelerate mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by increasing cAMP levels. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2015

Green tea extract supplementation does not hamper endurance-training adaptation but improves antioxidant capacity in sedentary men. 📎

Abstract Title: Green tea extract supplementation does not hamper endurance-training adaptation but improves antioxidant capacity in sedentary men. Abstract Source: Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 May 8:1-7. Epub 2015 May 8. PMID: 26319566 Abstract Author(s): Yu-Chi Kuo, Jung-Charng Lin, Jeffrey R Bernard, Yi-Hung Liao Article Affiliation: Yu-Chi Kuo Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation combined with endurance training on endurance capacity and performance in sedentary men. Forty untrained men (age: 20± 1 years) participated in this study. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (i) placebo-control (CTRL), (ii) GTE, (iii) endurance training (Ex), and (iv) endurance training with GTE (ExGTE). During the 4-week intervention, exercise training was prescribed as 75% oxygen uptake reserve for three 20-min sessions per week, and either GTE (250 mg/day) or placebo was provided. Endurance capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), and creatine kinase (CK) were examined. Ex and ExGTE but not GTE improved exhaustive-run time (Ex: +8.2%, p = 0.031; ExGTE: +14.3%, p<0.001); in addition, Ex and ExGTE significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake by∼14% (p = 0.041) and ∼17% (p = 0.017) above the values of the CTRL group, respectively. Both Ex and ExGTE significantly decreased the increase of CK by ∼11%-32% below that of CTRL following an exhaustive run (Ex: p = 0.007; ExGTE: p = 0.001). Moreover, TAS levels increased by ∼11% in ExGTE after training (p = 0.040), and GTE, Ex, and ExGTE markedly attenuated exercise-induced MDA production (p = 0.01, p = 0.005, p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, this investigation demonstrated that daily ingestion of GTE during endurance training does not impair improvements in endurance capacity. Moreover, endurance training combined with GTE not only increases antioxidant capacity without attenuating endurance training adaptations, but also further attenuates acute exercise-induced CK release. Article Published Date : May 07, 2015

Effects of far-infrared sauna bathing on recovery from strength and endurance training sessions in men. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of far-infrared sauna bathing on recovery from strength and endurance training sessions in men. Abstract Source: Springerplus. 2015 ;4:321. Epub 2015 Jul 7. PMID: 26180741 Abstract Author(s): Antti Mero, Jaakko Tornberg, Mari Mäntykoski, Risto Puurtinen Article Affiliation: Antti Mero Abstract: PURPOSE: This study investigated effects of far-infrared sauna (FIRS) bathing on recovery from strength training and endurance training sessions, but also possible differences between FIRS and traditional (TRAD) Finnish sauna bathing. METHODS: Ten healthy physically active male volunteers had on various days either a 60 min hypertrophic strength training session (STS) or a 34-40 min maximal endurance training session (ETS), which was following by 30 min bathing in special FIRS sauna at temperature of 35-50°C and humidity of 25-35%. After the sauna, subjects sat for 30 min at room temperature (21°C and 25-30%humidity). In comparison, 30 min of TRAD took place at 35-50°C and in 60-70% humidity. Performance tests included maximal isometric bench press and leg press, counter movement jump (CMJ) and maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill. RESULTS: After STS, there were decreases in maximal isometric bench press (p < 0.001), maximal isometric leg press (p < 0.001), CMJ (p < 0.001) and pH (p < 0.001), but increases in heart rate (p < 0.001) and lactate concentration (p < 0.001) as expected. During recovery there were no differences in any variables between FIRS and no sauna bathing (NO SAUNA). Maximal ETS increased oxygen uptake (p < 0.001), heart rate (p < 0.001), lactate concentration (p < 0.001) and decreased pH (p < 0.001) as expected. During recovery at 30 min, CMJ was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (0.34 ± 0.09 m) after FIRS bathing than after sitting with NO SAUNA (0.32 ± 0.0 m). After sauna heart rate was higher (p < 0.05) in TRAD (92 ± 13 beats/min) than in FIRS (71 ± 7 beats/min). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, deep penetration of infrared heat (approximately 3-4 cm into fat tissue and neuromuscular system) with mild temperature (35-50°C), and light humidity (25-35%) during FIRS bathing appears favorable for the neuromuscular system to recover from maximal endurance performance. FIRS bathing is a very light loading for the body and provides a comfortableand relaxing experience. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

An integrative analysis reveals coordinated reprogramming of the epigenome and the transcriptome in human skeletal muscle after training. 📎

Abstract Title: An integrative analysis reveals coordinated reprogramming of the epigenome and the transcriptome in human skeletal muscle after training. Abstract Source: Epigenetics. 2014 Dec 2 ;9(12):1557-69. PMID: 25484259 Abstract Author(s): Maléne E Lindholm, Francesco Marabita, David Gomez-Cabrero, Helene Rundqvist, Tomas J Ekström, Jesper Tegnér, Carl Johan Sundberg Article Affiliation: Maléne E Lindholm Abstract: Regular endurance exercise training induces beneficial functional and health effects in human skeletal muscle. The putative contribution to the training response of the epigenome as a mediator between genes and environment has not been clarified. Here we investigated the contribution of DNA methylation and associated transcriptomic changes in a well-controlled human intervention study. Training effects were mirrored by significant alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in regions with a homogeneous muscle energetics and remodeling ontology. Moreover, a signature of DNA methylation and gene expression separated the samples based on training and gender. Differential DNA methylation was predominantly observed in enhancers, gene bodies and intergenic regions and less in CpG islands or promoters. We identified transcriptional regulator binding motifs of MRF, MEF2 and ETS proteins in the proximity of the changing sites. A transcriptional network analysis revealed modules harboring distinct ontologies and, interestingly, the overall direction of the changes of methylation within each module was inversely correlated to expression changes. In conclusion, we show that highly consistent and associated modifications in methylation and expression, concordant with observed health-enhancing phenotypic adaptations, are induced by a physiological stimulus. Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2014

The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. 📎

Abstract Title: The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Abstract Source: J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 ;11:18. Epub 2014 May 11. PMID: 24860277 Abstract Author(s): Muqing Yi, Jinde Fu, Lili Zhou, Hong Gao, Chenguang Fan, Jing Shao, Baohua Xu, Qirong Wang, Juntao Li, Guangwei Huang, Karen Lapsley, Jeffrey B Blumberg, C-Y Oliver Chen Article Affiliation: Muqing Yi Abstract: BACKGROUND: Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. METHODS: A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. RESULTS: ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to CHO reservation and utilization and effective oxygen utilization. The results suggest that almonds can be incorporated into diets of those who undertake exercise training for performance improvement. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013

Exercise training improves endothelial function in young prehypertensives. 📎

Abstract Title: Exercise training improves endothelial function in young prehypertensives. Abstract Source: Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2013 Apr ;238(4):433-41. PMID: 23760009 Abstract Author(s): Darren T Beck, Darren P Casey, Jeffrey S Martin, Blaze D Emerson, Randy W Braith Article Affiliation: Darren T Beck Abstract: Prehypertensives exhibit marked endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the ability of exercise to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in prehypertensives is grossly underinvestigated. This prospective randomized and controlled study examined the separate effects of resistance and endurance training on conduit artery endothelial function in young prehypertensives. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP]=120-139 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure [DBP]=80-89 mmHg) but otherwise healthy men and women and 15 normotensive matched time-controls (NMTC); n = 15) between 18 and 35 y of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to either a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). The treatment groups performed exercise training three days per week for eight weeks. The control groups did not initiate exercise programs throughout the study. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, biomarkers of enodothelial function and peripheral blood pressure were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP (9.6± 3.6 and 11.9 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P<0.05) and DBP (8.0± 5.1 and 7.2 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P<0.05). Exercise training improved brachial artery FMD absolute diameter, percent dilation and normalized percent dilation by 30%, 34% and 19% for PHRT, P<0.05; and by 54%, 63% and 75% for PHET, P<0.05; respectively. PHRT and PHET increased plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (19% and 22%, respectively; P<0.05), NO x (19% and 23%, respectively; P<0.05), and reduced endothelin-1 by (16% and 24%, respectively; P<0.01). This study provides novel evidence that resistance and endurance exercise separately have beneficial effects on resting peripheral blood pressure, brachial artery FMD and endothelial-derived vasoactive agents in young prehypertensives. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2013

Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 📎

Abstract Title: Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Abstract Source: J Am Heart Assoc. 2013 Feb ;2(1):e004473. Epub 2013 Feb 1. PMID: 23525435 Abstract Author(s): Veronique A Cornelissen, Neil A Smart Article Affiliation: Veronique A Cornelissen Abstract: BACKGROUND: We conducted meta-analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials lasting≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ≥18 years) and published in a peer-reviewed journal up to February 2012 were included. Random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval. We included 93 trials, involving 105 endurance, 29 dynamic resistance, 14 combined, and 5 isometric resistance groups, totaling 5223 participants (3401 exercise and 1822 control). Systolic BP (SBP) was reduced after endurance (-3.5 mm Hg [confidence limits -4.6 to -2.3]), dynamic resistance (-1.8 mm Hg [-3.7 to -0.011]), and isometric resistance (-10.9 mm Hg [-14.5 to -7.4]) but not after combined training. Reductions in diastolic BP (DBP) were observed after endurance (-2.5 mm Hg [-3.2 to -1.7]), dynamic resistance (-3.2 mm Hg [-4.5 to -2.0]), isometric resistance (-6.2 mm Hg [-10.3 to -2.0]), and combined (-2.2mm Hg [-3.9 to -0.48]) training. BP reductions after endurance training were greater (P<0.0001) in 26 study groups of hypertensive subjects (-8.3 [-10.7 to -6.0]/-5.2 [-6.8 to -3.4] mm Hg) than in 50 groups of prehypertensive subjects (-2.1 [-3.3 to -0.83]/-1.7 [-2.7 to -0.68]) and 29 groups of subjects with normal BP levels (-0.75 [-2.2 to +0.69]/-1.1 [-2.2 to -0.068]). BP reductions after dynamic resistance training were largest for prehypertensive participants (-4.0 [-7.4 to -0.5]/-3.8 [-5.7 to -1.9] mm Hg) compared with patients with hypertension or normal BP. CONCLUSION: Endurance, dynamic resistance, and isometric resistance training lower SBP and DBP, whereas combined training lowers only DBP. Data from a small number of isometric resistance training studies suggest this form of training has the potential for the largest reductions in SBP. Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2013

Moderate-to-high-intensity training and a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet enhance endothelial progenitor cells and fitness in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

Abstract Title: Moderate-to-high-intensity training and a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet enhance endothelial progenitor cells and fitness in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Abstract Source: Clin Sci (Lond). 2012 Sep ;123(6):361-73. PMID: 22489903 Abstract Author(s): Juan Marcelo Fernández, Daniel Rosado-Álvarez, Marzo Edir Da Silva Grigoletto, Oriol Alberto Rangel-Zúñiga, Leslie Lorena Landaeta-Díaz, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, José López-Miranda, Francisco Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco Fuentes-Jiménez Article Affiliation: Juan Marcelo Fernández Abstract: A reduction in EPC (endothelial progenitor cell) number could explain the development and progression of atherosclerosis in the MetS (metabolic syndrome). Although much research in recent years has focused on the Mediterranean dietary pattern and the MetS, the effect of this diet with/without moderate-to-high-intensity endurance training on EPCs levels and CrF (cardiorespiratory fitness) remains unclear. In the present study, the objective was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet hypocaloric model with and without moderate-to-high-intensity endurance training on EPC number and CrF of MetS patients. Thus 45 MetS patients (50-66 years) were randomized to a 12-week intervention with the hypocaloric MeD (Mediterranean diet) or the MeDE (MeD plus moderate-to-high-intensity endurance training). Training included two weekly supervised sessions [80% MaxHR (maximum heart rate); leg and arm pedalling] and one at-home session (65-75% MaxHR; walking controlled by heart rate monitors). Changes in: (i) EPC number [CD34(+)KDR(+) (kinase insert domain-containing receptor)], (ii) CrF variables and (iii) MetS components and IRH (ischaemic reactive hyperaemia) were determined at the end of the study. A total of 40 subjects completed all 12 weeks of the study, with 20 in each group. The MeDE led to a greater increase in EPC numbers and CrF than did the MeD intervention (P≤ 0.001). In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in EPCs and fitness in the MeDE group (r=0.72; r(2)=0.52; P ≤ 0.001). Body weight loss, insulin sensitivity, TAGs (triacylglycerols) and blood pressure showed a greater decrease in the MeDE than MeD groups. Furthermore, IRH was only improved after the MeDE intervention. In conclusion, compliance with moderate-to-high-intensity endurance training enhances the positive effects of a model of MeD on the regenerative capacity of endothelium and on the fitness of MetS patients. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2012
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High Sensitivity Troponin T in Marathon Runners, Marathon Runners with Heart Disease and Collapsed Marathon Runners.

Related Articles High Sensitivity Troponin T in Marathon Runners, Marathon Runners with Heart Disease and Collapsed Marathon Runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Leckie T, Richardson AJ, Watkins ER, Fitzpatrick D, Galloway R, Grimaldi R, Roberts A, Baker P Abstract Endurance exercise is an established cause of cardiac troponin (cTn) elevation, of further interest is whether this rise represents clinical significance. This study compared cTnT rise in three cohorts of marathon runners using a high sensitivity assay; control runners, those with known heart disease and runners who collapsed at the finish line. Control runners (n = 126) and runners with heart disease (n = 12) were prospectively recruited with cTnT levels measured pre-race and at race completion. Collapsed runners (n = 15) were retrospectively recruited. A mixed model ANCOVA was used to compare the three groups. Pre-race median cTnT for the control group and heart disease groups were 3.9 ng.L-1 (IQR 3.1 ng.L-1 ) and 4.1 ng.L-1 (IQR 3.4 ng.L-1 ). Post-race values for the three groups were; control 45.6 ng.L-1 (IQR 42.5 ng.L-1 ), heart disease 41.2 ng.L-1 (IQR 36.1 ng.L-1 ) and collapsed 41.9 ng.L-1 (IQR 57.8 ng.L-1 ). Post-race cTnT and cTnT change were significantly correlated with pre-race cTnT within the control group (r = 0.38 and 0.30, p < 0.01). There was no difference in post-race cTnT (adjusted for pre-race cTnT) between the three groups. None of the runners reported symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction on follow up. These results demonstrate that marathon running is associated with an asymptomatic cTnT rise for all runners and this rise is significantly correlated to baseline cTnT levels, in addition, marathon runners with pre-existing cardiac pathology or who collapse at the finish line do not exhibit an increased cTnT rise compared to healthy runners. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30664255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Variation in the spatial distribution of erector spinae activity during a lumbar endurance task in people with low back pain.

Related Articles Variation in the spatial distribution of erector spinae activity during a lumbar endurance task in people with low back pain. J Anat. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Sanderson A, Martinez-Valdes E, Heneghan NR, Murillo C, Rushton A, Falla D Abstract This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution and redistribution of lumbar erector spinae (ES) activity during a lumbar extension endurance task in pain-free participants and how this is modified in people with low back pain (LBP). High density surface electromyography (HDEMG) was recorded using 13 × 5 electrode grids placed over the lumbar ES in 13 LBP and 13 control participants while completing an Ito test to task failure. The root mean square of the HDEMG signals was computed, a topographical map of the EMG amplitude generated and the centre of the activity (centroid) determined throughout the task. The centroid of the EMG amplitude map was systematically more cranial (F = 6.09, P = 0.022) for the LBP participants compared with the control subjects. Regression analysis showed that the extent of redistribution of ES activity was associated with longer endurance. These results show that LBP participants utilised a different motor strategy to perform the endurance task, characterised by greater activation of more cranial regions of the ES and less redistribution of ES activity throughout the task. This study provides new insight into the functional activation of the lumbar ES and how it is modified when people have pain. PMID: 30663783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Clinical remission of myopathy with MYH2 deficiency after precision medicine-developed rehabilitation: a case report.

Related Articles Clinical remission of myopathy with MYH2 deficiency after precision medicine-developed rehabilitation: a case report. Am J Transl Res. 2018;10(11):3827-3832 Authors: Chen N, Shen N, Yu Y, Chen C, Li X, Liang J, Yang Y, Du Q Abstract Here, we describe the case of a motor developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability accompanied by MYH2 mutations (c.2266G>A and c.4258C>T) in a female child in China. Her initial detailed functional rehabilitation evaluation gauged motor skills, balance, verbal language, and daily living skills. A general therapy plan was then established to enhance balance, muscle strength in the lower extremities, walking, gross and fine motor function, and family education. Clinicians and therapists later modified her rehabilitation regimen after her MYH2 mutations were identified by adding specific mobility and endurance exercise to the original plan. The clinical remission of myopathy with MYH2 missense mutations was observed in the patient after this targeted rehabilitation, indicating that precision therapy is very effective for developing a suitable rehabilitation program for patients with unexplained myopathies. PMID: 30662633 [PubMed]

Physiological responses to a five-day adventure race: Continuous blood glucose, hemodynamics and metabolites the 2012 GODZone field-study.

Related Articles Physiological responses to a five-day adventure race: Continuous blood glucose, hemodynamics and metabolites the 2012 GODZone field-study. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Dec;16(3):78-82 Authors: Francois ME, Cosgrove SD, Walker NM, Lucas SJ, Black KE Abstract Background/Objective: Adventure racing is an ultra-endurance activity that imposes a unique multifaceted stress on the human body. The purpose of this field study was to examine the physiological responses to a 5-day adventure race. Methods: Eight competitors, two teams (1 female each) in the 2012 GODZone adventure race volunteered. Competitors trekked, cycled and paddled ∼326 km in ∼116 hours. Continuous glucose was measured the day before and throughout. Body mass, urinary solutes, and blood pressure and heart rate during resting, standing, and repeated squat-stand conditions, were assessed pre and post. Results: Despite no changes in mean blood glucose levels, there was increased glycemic variability (Standard deviation glucose; Pre: 0.5 ± 0.1 vs Race: 1.0 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p = 0.02) and periods of hypoglycemia (i.e., Min glucose Pre: 4.1 ± 0.3 vs Race: 3.6 ± 0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.05) during the race. After the race, the blood pressure during resting, standing and squat-stand conditions was significantly lower, by 14 ± 14 mmHg, 16 ± 15 mmHg and 18 ± 15 mmHg (all p < 0.05), respectively, with no change in heart rate. During five-days of adventure racing there is increased glycemic variability and more frequent periods of low blood glucose levels. Additionally, following the race pronounced hypotension is observed in competitors. Conclusion: We observed more frequent glucose fluctuations, lower glucose levels and significant perturbations in blood pressure control. Further research is warranted to examine the long-term impact of adventure racing on metabolic and cardiovascular function. PMID: 30662498 [PubMed]

Influence of recovery duration during 6-s sprint interval exercise on time spent at high rates of oxygen uptake.

Related Articles Influence of recovery duration during 6-s sprint interval exercise on time spent at high rates of oxygen uptake. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018 Apr;16(1):16-20 Authors: Shi Q, Tong TK, Sun S, Kong Z, Chan CK, Liu W, Nie J Abstract Background/Objective: This study examined whether time spent at high rates of oxygen consumption (VO2) during 6-s sprint interval exercises (SIE) is a function of recovery interval duration. Methods: In a randomised crossover study, thirteen male endurance runners performed 40 × 6-s all-out sprints interspersed with 15-s, 30-s and 60-s passive recovery intervals (SIE15, SIE30, and SIE60 trials respectively), and a work duration-matched Wingate-SIE (8 × 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min passive recovery, SIEWin trial). The accumulated exercise time at ≥ 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% and 100% of VO2max, and maximum heart rate (HRmax) in the four trials were compared. Results: During the 6-s SIEs, accumulated time spent at all selected high rates of VO2max increased as recovery time decreased, whilst the SIE work rate decreased (p < .05). In SIEWin, although the exercise lasted longer, the time spent at ≥90% VO2max (74 ± 16 s) was significant less than that in SIE15 (368 ± 63 s, p < .05), yet comparable to that in SIE30 (118 ± 30 s, p > .05), and longer than that in SIE60 (20 ± 14 s, p < .05). The differences between the four trials in accumulated time at high percentages of HRmax were similar to those for VO2, although the temporal characteristics of the increases in HR and VO2 during the SIEs were different. Conclusion: In conclusion, the duration of the recovery interval in 6-s SIE protocols appears to be a crucial parameter when sprint interval training is prescribed to enhance aerobic capacity. Further, the SIE15 protocol may represent a potential alternative to 30-s SIEWin in the development of time-efficient aerobic training intervention. PMID: 30662487 [PubMed]

Effects of diet before endurance exercise on hepcidin response in young untrained females.

Related Articles Effects of diet before endurance exercise on hepcidin response in young untrained females. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2018 Dec 31;22(4):55-61 Authors: Hayashi N, Ishibashi A, Goto K Abstract PURPOSE: We examined the effects of diet before endurance exercise on hepcidin response in young untrained females. METHODS: Ten young untrained females [age: 20.6 ± 0.8 y, height: 157.5 ± 1.0 cm, weight: 54.4 ± 1.5 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 35.9 ± 1.1 mL/kg/min] were involved in two experimental conditions with a crossover design. The two conditions were separated by approximately 1 month, and each condition was performed during the follicular phase. Subjects completed 60 min of pedaling at 65% of VO2max after consuming a meal (FED) or not consuming a meal (CON). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 3 h after exercise. RESULTS: Serum ferritin levels before exercise did not differ between the two conditions (P > 0.05). Blood glucose and lactate levels were significantly elevated immediately after exercise only under the FED condition (P < 0.05). Serum iron levels were significantly elevated after exercise under both conditions. However, the plasma interleukin-6 and serum hepcidin levels were not significantly different 3 h after exercise under either condition (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Consuming a meal before endurance exercise at moderate intensity did not affect exercise-induced hepcidin elevation in young untrained females. PMID: 30661331 [PubMed]

Effects of endurance cycling training on neuromuscular fatigue in healthy active men. Part II: Corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation.

Related Articles Effects of endurance cycling training on neuromuscular fatigue in healthy active men. Part II: Corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2018 Nov;118(11):2295-2305 Authors: Aboodarda SJ, Mira J, Floreani M, Jaswal R, Moon SJ, Amery K, Rupp T, Millet GY Abstract This study investigated the effects of 9-week endurance cycling training on central fatigability and corticomotor excitability of the locomotor muscles. Fourteen healthy participants undertook three incremental fatiguing cycling tests to volitional exhaustion (EXH): (i) before training (PRE), (ii) after training at the same absolute power output as PRE (POSTABS) and (iii) after training at the same percentage of V̇O2max as PRE (POSTREL). At baseline (i.e. before cycling), every 5 min during cycling and immediately at EXH, a neuromuscular evaluation including a series of 5-s knee extensions at 100, 75 and 50% of maximal voluntary knee extension (MVC) was performed. During each contraction, transcranial magnetic and peripheral nerve stimuli were elicited to obtain motor evoked potential (MEP), silent period (SP) and compound muscle action potential (Mmax) and to calculate voluntary activation (VA). The MEP·Mmax-1 ratio recorded from vastus lateralis at 100 and 50% MVC did not show any difference between conditions. At 75% MVC, MEP exhibited significantly lower values in POSTABS and POSTREL compared to PRE at baseline (P = 0.022 and P = 0.011, respectively) as well as at 25% of time to EXH of PRE (P = 0.022) for POSTREL. No adaptations, either at baseline or during cycling, were observed for VA and SPs. In conclusion, endurance training may result in some adaptations in the corticomotor responses when measured at rest or with low level of fatigue, yet these adaptations do not translate into attenuation of central fatigue at a similar cycling workload or at exhaustion. PMID: 30128852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

Related Articles Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners. Physiol Rep. 2018 02;6(3): Authors: Skovgaard C, Christiansen D, Christensen PM, Almquist NW, Thomassen M, Bangsbo J Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P < 0.05) and dystrophin was higher (P < 0.05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P < 0.05) in fast twitch muscle fibers. Running economy at 60% vVO2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P < 0.05) after the intervention in the normal condition, but unchanged in the ST glycogen-depleted condition. Ten kilometer performance was improved (P < 0.01) by 3.2% (43.7 ± 1.0 vs. 45.2 ± 1.2 min) and 3.9% (45.8 ± 1.2 vs. 47.7 ± 1.3 min) in the normal and the ST glycogen-depleted condition, respectively. VO2 -max was the same, but vVO2 -max was 2.0% higher (P < 0.05; 19.3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. PMID: 29417745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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