Improvement of 10-km time-trial cycling with motivational self-talk compared with neutral self-talk.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015 Mar ;10(2):166-71. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25010539
Martin J Barwood, Jo Corbett, Christopher R D Wagstaff, Dan McVeigh, Richard C Thelwell
Martin J Barwood
PURPOSE: Unpleasant physical sensations during maximal exercise may manifest themselves as negative cognitions that impair performance, alter pacing, and are linked to increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE). This study examined whether motivational self-talk (M-ST) could reduce RPE and change pacing strategy, thereby enhancing 10-km time-trial (TT) cycling performance in contrast to neutral self-talk (N-ST).
METHODS: Fourteen men undertook 4 TTs, TT1-TT4. After TT2, participants were matched into groups based on TT2 completion time and underwent M-ST (n=7) or N-ST (n=7) after TT3. Performance, power output, RPE, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were compared across 1-km segments using ANOVA. Confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for performance data.
RESULTS: After TT3 (ie, before intervention), completion times were not different between groups (M-ST, 1120±113 s; N-ST, 1150±110 s). After M-ST, TT4 completion time was faster (1078±96 s); the N-ST remained similar (1165±111 s). The M-ST group achieved this through a higher power output and VO2 in TT4 (6th-10th km). RPE was unchanged. CI data indicated the likely true performance effect lay between13- and 71-s improvement (TT4 vs TT3).
CONCLUSION: M-ST improved endurance performance and enabled a higher power output, whereas N-ST induced no change. The VO2 response matched the increase in power output, yet RPE was unchanged, thereby inferring a perceptual benefit through M-ST. The valence and content of self-talk are important determinants of the efficacy of this intervention. These findings are primarily discussed in the context of the psychobiological model of pacing.
Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2015
Talking yourself out of exhaustion: the effects of self-talk on endurance performance.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014 ;46(5):998-1007. PMID: 24121242
Anthony William Blanchfield, James Hardy, Helma Majella De Morree, Walter Staiano, Samuele Maria Marcora
Anthony William Blanchfield
PURPOSE: The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that the perception of effort is the ultimate determinant of endurance performance. Therefore, any physiological or psychological factor affecting the perception of effort will affect endurance performance. Accordingly, this novel study investigated the effects of a frequently used psychological strategy, motivational self-talk (ST), on RPE and endurance performance.
METHODS: In a randomized between-group pretest-posttest design, 24 participants (mean± SD age = 24.6 ± 7.5 yr, VO2max = 52.3 ± 8.7 mL·kg·min) performed two constant-load (80% peak power output) cycling time-to-exhaustion (TTE) tests, punctuated by a 2-wk ST intervention or a control phase.
RESULTS: A group (ST vs Control)× test (pretest vs posttest) mixed-model ANOVA revealed that ST significantly enhanced TTE test from pretest to posttest (637 ± 210 vs 750 ± 295 s, P<0.05) with no change in the control group (486± 157 vs 474 ± 169 s). Moreover, a group × test × isotime (0%, 50%, and 100%) mixed-model ANOVA revealed a significant interaction for RPE, with follow-up tests showing that motivational self-talk significantly reduced RPE at 50% isotime (7.3 ± 0.6 vs 6.4 ± 0.8, P<0.05), with no significant difference in the control group (6.9± 1.9 vs 7.0 ± 1.7).
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to demonstrate that ST significantly reduces RPE and enhances endurance performance. The findings support the psychobiological model of endurance performance and illustrate that psychobiological interventions designed to specifically target favorable changes in the perception of effort are beneficial to endurance performance. Consequently, this psychobiological model offers an important and novel perspective for future research investigations.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013
Self-Talk and Sports Performance: A Meta-Analysis.
Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011 Jul ;6(4):348-56. PMID: 26167788
Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Zourbanos, Evangelos Galanis, Yiannis Theodorakis
Based on the premise that what people think influences their actions, self-talk strategies have been developed to direct and facilitate human performance. In this article, we present a meta-analytic review of the effects of self-talk interventions on task performance in sport and possible factors that may moderate the effectiveness of self-talk. A total of 32 studies yielding 62 effect sizes were included in the final meta-analytic pool. The analysis revealed a positive moderate effect size (ES = .48). The moderator analyses showed that self-talk interventions were more effective for tasks involving relatively fine, compared with relatively gross, motor demands, and for novel, compared with well-learned, tasks. Instructional self-talk was more effective for fine tasks than was motivational self-talk; moreover, instructional self-talk was more effective for fine tasks rather than gross tasks. Finally, interventions including self-talk training were more effective than those not including self-talk training. The results of this study establish the effectiveness of self-talk in sport, encourage the use of self-talk as a strategy to facilitate learning and enhance performance, and provide new research directions.
Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2011
Goal-directed self-talk used to self-regulate in male basketball competitions.
J Sports Sci. 2019 Jan 07;:1-5
Authors: Latinjak AT, Torregrossa M, Comoutos N, Hernando-Gimeno C, Ramis Y
This study examined how goal-directed self-talk may help basketball players to self-regulate in stereotypical competitive situations: seconds before a challenging game, while clearly winning or clearly losing, and at the close of a tight game. Participants were recruited in groups of three to four, until preliminary inspection of the data indicated that data saturation was reached. In the end, 34 basketball players voluntarily took part in individual interviews, writing up to three self-instructions they had used in each of the four competitive situations to self-regulate. Content analyses revealed that self-talk in competitive basketball situations serves cognitive functions (e.g., regulating cognition and behaviour), motivational functions (e.g., promoting mastery goals) and emotion and activation-regulating functions (e.g., creating activated states). More specifically, the results also indicated that athletes' self-talk may serve functions specific to the psychological demands experienced in each situation. It is argued that knowing how athletes counsel themselves, could prove important for applied sport psychologists to design psychological skill training.
PMID: 30616448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]