Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Mind-Body Therapies

The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

Abstract Title: The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review. Abstract Source: J Alzheimers Dis. 2017 ;56(1):275-286. PMID: 27983555 Abstract Author(s): Nicole Last, Emily Tufts, Leslie E Auger Article Affiliation: Nicole Last Abstract: The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat. 📎

Abstract Title: Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat. Abstract Source: Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 ;11:315. Epub 2017 Jun 26. PMID: 28694775 Abstract Author(s): B Rael Cahn, Matthew S Goodman, Christine T Peterson, Raj Maturi, Paul J Mills Article Affiliation: B Rael Cahn Abstract: Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old) participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation in the retreat was found to be associated with decreases in self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. As hypothesized, increases in the plasma levels of BDNF and increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were also observed. The normalized change in BDNF levels was inversely correlated with BSI-18 anxiety scores at both the pre-retreat (r = 0.40, p<0.05) and post-retreat (r = 0.52, p<0.005) such that those with greater anxiety scores tended to exhibit smaller pre- to post-retreat increases in plasma BDNF levels. In line with a hypothesized decrease in inflammatory processes resulting from the yoga and meditation practices, we found that the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 was increased and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-12 was reduced after the retreat. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, plasma levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, including Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were increased after the retreat. Given evidence from previous studies of the positive effects of meditative practices on mental fitness, autonomic homeostasis and inflammatory status, we hypothesize that these findings are related to the meditative practices throughout the retreat; however, some of the observed changes may also be related to other aspects of the retreat such as physical exercise-related components of the yoga practice and diet. We hypothesize that the patterns of change observed here reflect mind-body integration and well-being. The increased BDNF levels observed is a potential mediator between meditative practices and brain health, the increased CAR is likely a reflection of increased dynamic physiological arousal, and the relationship of the dual enhancement of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine changes to healthy immunologic functioning is discussed. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Mind-body therapies and control of inflammatory biology: A descriptive review. 📎

Abstract Title: Mind-body therapies and control of inflammatory biology: A descriptive review. Abstract Source: Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Jun 23. Epub 2015 Jun 23. PMID: 26116436 Abstract Author(s): Julienne E Bower, Michael R Irwin Article Affiliation: Julienne E Bower Abstract: The use of mind-body therapies, including Tai Chi, Qigong, yoga, and meditation, has grown steadily in recent years. These approaches have been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life, and research has begun to examine the impact of these therapies on biological processes, including inflammation. A review of 26 randomized controlled trials was conducted to describe the effects of mind-body therapies (MBTs) on circulating, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation. This qualitative evaluation showed mixed effects of MBTs on circulating inflammatory markers, including CRP and IL-6, and on measures of stimulated cytokine production. More consistent findings were seen for genomic markers, with trials showing decreased expression of inflammation-related genes and reduced signaling through the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed, including alterations in neuroendocrine, neural, and psychological and behavioral processes. Article Published Date : Jun 22, 2015

The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system: meta-analysis. 📎

Abstract Title: The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system: meta-analysis. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2014 ;9(7):e100903. Epub 2014 Jul 2. PMID: 24988414 Abstract Author(s): Nani Morgan, Michael R Irwin, Mei Chung, Chenchen Wang Article Affiliation: Nani Morgan Abstract: IMPORTANCE: Psychological and health-restorative benefits of mind-body therapies have been investigated, but their impact on the immune system remain less defined. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first comprehensive review of available controlled trial evidence to evaluate the effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system, focusing on markers of inflammation and anti-viral related immune responses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO through September 1, 2013. Randomized controlled trials published in English evaluating at least four weeks of Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, or Yoga that reported immune outcome measures were selected. Studies were synthesized separately by inflammatory (n = 18), anti-viral related immunity (n = 7), and enumerative (n = 14) outcomes measures. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean difference when appropriate. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies published in 39 articles (total 2, 219 participants) met inclusion criteria. For inflammatory measures, after 7 to 16 weeks of mind-body intervention, there was a moderate effect on reduction of C-reactive protein (effect size [ES], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 1.12), a small but not statistically significant reduction of interleukin-6 (ES, 0.35; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.75), and negligible effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (ES, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.58). For anti-viral related immune and enumerative measures, there were negligible effects on CD4 counts (ES, 0.15; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.34) and natural killer cell counts (ES, 0.12, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.45). Some evidence indicated mind-body therapies increase immune responses to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Mind-body therapies reduce markers of inflammation and influence virus-specific immune responses to vaccination despite minimal evidence suggesting effects on resting anti-viral or enumerative measures. These immunomodulatory effects, albeit incomplete, warrant further methodologically rigorous studies to determine the clinical implications of these findings for inflammatory and infectious disease outcomes. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013

Mind-Body Medicine Therapies for a Range of Depression Severity: A Systematic Review.

Abstract Title: Mind-Body Medicine Therapies for a Range of Depression Severity: A Systematic Review. Abstract Source: Psychosomatics. 2012 Aug 14. Epub 2012 Aug 14. PMID: 22902090 Abstract Author(s): Sahana D'Silva, Cristina Poscablo, Racheline Habousha, Mikhail Kogan, Benjamin Kligler Article Affiliation: Dept. of Psychiatry, George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Of the 34 million adult Americans (17%) using mind-body medicine therapies, 8 million (24%) have anxiety/depression. The evidence for using mind-body therapies to address varying depressive symptoms in populations with and without other chronic comorbidities is reviewed. METHODS: Systematic literature searches of PubMed (Medline), Embase, CINAHL, and the seven databases encompassed by Current Contents, Web of Science, and Web of Knowledge were conducted. Studies designed as prospective control-comparison, adult population, English, at least 2 weeks long, sample size>30, and with primary or secondary outcome as depression measured on an established scale were included. Methodologic quality was evaluated using the modified Scale for Assessing Scientific Quality of Investigations (SASQI) for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). RESULTS: Ninety papers of about 2900 met both inclusion and exclusion criteria; 60% of them scored a SASQI>9 and were deemed of sufficient quality to be included in the review; 74% of these selected quality papers demonstrated positive effects on the improvement of depressive symptoms. All mind-body modalities included in the study had at least one positive study. For cancer patients, several studies noted the positive effects of yoga and combination therapies on depression severity. For both diagnosed depression and fibromyalgia, several studies noted the positive effects of mindfulness on depression severity. CONCLUSION: The use of evidence-based mind-body therapies can alleviate depression severity. They could be used with established psychiatric treatments of therapy and medications. The likely long-term increased cost-effectiveness of integrating these therapies deserves further investigation. Article Published Date : Aug 13, 2012

Mind-body interrelationship in DNA methylation.

Abstract Title: Mind-body interrelationship in DNA methylation. Abstract Source: Chem Immunol Allergy. 2012 ;98:85-99. Epub 2012 Jun 26. PMID: 22767059 Abstract Author(s): Moshe Szyf Article Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sackler Program in Epigenetics and Psychobiology, McGill University, Montreal, Que., Canada. Abstract: DNA methylation is an enzymatic modification of the DNA molecule that confers unique differential identities upon similar DNA sequences. DNA methylation plays a critical role in cellular differentiation by conferring cell-type identity upon differentiated tissues in multicellular organisms by an innate developmentally programmed process. Recent data points to the possibility that DNA methylation plays a role in responding to external cues and conferring environment-context identity to DNA. DNA methylation is implicated in the response to early life social environment and might be playing an important role in setting up stable behavioral phenotypes in response to early-life social environment. The critical question is whether these responses are limited to the brain or involve the immune system as well. Addressing this question has important implications on understanding the mechanisms involved in DNA methylation mediated responses to the environment and how they impact the phenotype as well as on the possibility of studying the associations between DNA methylation and behavior and behavioral pathologies in living humans. A model is presented suggesting that DNA methylation acts as a mechanism of genome adaptation to the environment that is genomewide and systemwide. New data suggesting associations between DNA methylation patterns in white blood cells and the social environment will be discussed. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011
Therapeutic Actions Mind-Body Therapies

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Modulating functional connectivity after stroke with neurofeedback: Effect on motor deficits in a controlled cross-over study.

Related Articles Modulating functional connectivity after stroke with neurofeedback: Effect on motor deficits in a controlled cross-over study. Neuroimage Clin. 2018;20:336-346 Authors: Mottaz A, Corbet T, Doganci N, Magnin C, Nicolo P, Schnider A, Guggisberg AG Abstract Synchronization of neural activity as measured with functional connectivity (FC) is increasingly used to study the neural basis of brain disease and to develop new treatment targets. However, solid evidence for a causal role of FC in disease and therapy is lacking. Here, we manipulated FC of the ipsilesional primary motor cortex in ten chronic human stroke patients through brain-computer interface technology with visual neurofeedback. We conducted a double-blind controlled crossover study to test whether manipulation of FC through neurofeedback had a behavioral effect on motor performance. Patients succeeded in increasing FC in the motor cortex. This led to improvement in motor function that was significantly greater than during neurofeedback training of a control brain area and proportional to the degree of FC enhancement. This result provides evidence that FC has a causal role in neurological function and that it can be effectively targeted with therapy. PMID: 30112275 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Looking forward to the future: Impoverished vividness for positive prospective events characterises low mood in adolescence.

Related Articles Looking forward to the future: Impoverished vividness for positive prospective events characterises low mood in adolescence. J Affect Disord. 2018 10 01;238:269-276 Authors: Pile V, Lau JYF Abstract BACKGROUND: Enhancing positive future imagery offers promise for treatment innovation in adult depression but has been neglected in adolescence. While negative life events are linked with depression-onset in adolescence, mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We investigate whether difficulties in generating vivid positive future imagery characterise depression, compared to anxiety, and examine potential moderation of the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms in adolescence. METHOD: Three hundred and seventy-five young people (11-16 years) completed the Prospective Imagery Task, and self-reported on symptoms of anxiety and depression. They were also asked to describe a past negative life event they had been thinking about or imagining over the last seven days, which was subsequently coded by a clinician over whether it was no, low, moderate or high impact. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression were associated with less vivid positive imagery and more vivid negative imagery whether past or future, whilst symptoms of anxiety were associated with increased vividness for past negative events only. The relationship between life event severity and depression was increased for those with poorer vividness for positive future events. LIMITATIONS: These data were collected at a single time-point only, limiting conclusions on temporal relationships. All measures were also self-reported, increasing shared method variance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the relationship between negative life events and prospective positive imagery are specific to depressive symptoms in adolescence and provide foundations for novel approaches to strengthen psychological interventions. PMID: 29894932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Energetic Modalities as a Self-Care Technique to Reduce Stress in Nursing Students.

Related Articles Energetic Modalities as a Self-Care Technique to Reduce Stress in Nursing Students. J Holist Nurs. 2018 Dec;36(4):366-373 Authors: Kramer D Abstract This article describes the outcomes of nursing students taking a course in complementary and alternative therapies focusing on energetic modalities that were used as a means of self-care. Students kept journal logs and did a formal presentation for the class. Nursing students reported decreased stress and improved concentration, academic performance, productivity, and problem-solving while experiencing a greater appreciation of their clinical experiences. Using Therapeutic Touch and other subtle energy interactions, the students also cited improved interpersonal relationships, increased feelings of calmness, a higher degree of self-awareness and self-care, reduced physical pain, increased energy, and greater appreciation of the world around them. The theoretical framework was Margret Neuman's theory of health as expanding consciousness. While this is an elective nursing course, the nursing students were primarily juniors and seniors already taking clinical courses. A research study with a wide sample of student participants, especially freshmen, and using quantitative as well as qualitative measures would be beneficial to determine if such a course should be part of the standard nursing curriculum to not only expand nurses' understanding of complementary and alternative therapies but also to help students with their own self-care and influence their practice as clinicians. PMID: 29205082 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pre-operative guided imagery in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery: a randomized trial.

Related Articles Pre-operative guided imagery in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery: a randomized trial. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 08;29(8):1117-1122 Authors: Billquist EJ, Michelfelder A, Brincat C, Brubaker L, Fitzgerald CM, Mueller ER Abstract INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The purpose was to determine if pre-operative guided imagery (GIM) would help women to feel more prepared, less anxious, and have higher satisfaction scores 6 weeks after surgery compared with routine care. METHODS: Eligible women planning to undergo pelvic floor surgery were enrolled and randomized. The GIM group received an institution-specific CD that uses GIM to detail day of surgery (DOS) events and expectations. Participants were asked to listen to the CD once daily during the week before surgery. At three time points (surgical consent visit, DOS, and 6-weeks post-operatively), we measured anxiety using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STADI), in addition to preparedness for surgery and overall satisfaction (ten-point Likert scales). Data were analyzed in SPSS 23 using two-tailed t tests. RESULTS: A total of 38 out of 44 (86%) enrolled participants completed the study (GIM: 18, control: 20). The GIM self-reported compliance rate was 72%, with an average use of 4.8 times (range = 3-8 times). Women in the GIM group reported a significant increase from baseline in preparedness for surgery on both DOS and 6 weeks post-operatively (7.32 ± 1.81 vs 9.11 ± 1.13, p = 0.001) and (7.32 ± 1.81 vs 9.22 ± 0.81, p = 0.001) respectively; a change that was not seen in the control group. Satisfaction was high in both the GIM and the control group (9.55 ± 0.85 and 9.05 ± 1.70, p = 0.263). In all patients, anxiety increased from baseline to DOS and dropped at 6 weeks post-operatively, and was not significantly different in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Guided imagery improved patient preparedness for pelvic floor surgery with an overnight stay on their DOS and 6 weeks post-operatively. PMID: 28884342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effectiveness Evaluation of Real-Time Scalp Signal Separating Algorithm on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Neurofeedback.

Related Articles Effectiveness Evaluation of Real-Time Scalp Signal Separating Algorithm on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Neurofeedback. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform. 2018 07;22(4):1148-1156 Authors: Ung WC, Funane T, Katura T, Sato H, Tang TB, Hani AFM, Kiguchi M, Wei Chun Ung, Funane T, Katura T, Sato H, Tong Boon Tang, Hani AFM, Kiguchi M Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), one of the candidates to be used in a neurofeedback system or brain-computer interface (BCI), measures the brain activity by monitoring the changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentration. However, hemodynamic changes in the scalp may affect the NIRS signals. In order to remove the superficial signals when NIRS is used in a neurofeedback system or BCI, real-time processing is necessary. Real-time scalp signal separating (RT-SSS) algorithm, which is capable of separating the scalp-blood signals from NIRS signals obtained in real-time, may thus be applied. To demonstrate its effectiveness, two separate neurofeedback experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the feedback signal was the raw NIRS signal recorded while in the second experiment, deep signal extracted using RT-SSS algorithm was used as the feedback signal. In both experiments, participants were instructed to control the feedback signal to follow a predefined track. Accuracy scores were calculated based on the differences between the trace controlled by feedback signal and the targeted track. Overall, the second experiment yielded better performance in terms of accuracy scores. These findings proved that RT-SSS algorithm is beneficial for neurofeedback. PMID: 28692996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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