Short term health impact of a yoga and diet change program on obesity.
Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jan;16(1):CR35-40. PMID: 20037492
Shirley Telles, Visweswaraiah K Naveen, Acharya Balkrishna, Sanjay Kumar
BACKGROUND: Obese persons often find physical activity difficult. The effects of a yoga and diet change program, emphasizing breathing techniques practiced while seated, was assessed in obese persons. MATERIAL/METHODS: A single group of 47 persons were assessed on the first and last day of a yoga and diet change program, with 6 days of the intervention between assessments. The assessments were: body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, mid-arm circumference, body composition, hand grip strength, postural stability, serum lipid profile and fasting serum leptin levels. Participants practiced yoga for 5 hours every day and had a low fat, high fiber, vegetarian diet. Last and first day data were compared using a t-test for paired data. RESULTS: Following the 6-day residential program, participants showed a decrease in BMI (1.6 percent), waist and hip circumferences, fat-free mass, total cholesterol (7.7 percent decrease), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (8.7 percent decrease), fasting serum leptin levels (44.2 percent decrease) and an increase in postural stability and hand grip strength (p<0.05, all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: A 6-day yoga and diet change program decreased the BMI and the fat-free mass. Total cholesterol also decreased due to reduced HDL levels. This suggests that a brief, intensive yoga program with a change in diet can pose certain risks. Benefits seen were better postural stability, grip strength (though a 'practice effect' was not ruled out), reduced waist and hip circumferences and a decrease in serum leptin levels.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
The effect of strict adherence to a high-fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable, and low-fat eating pattern on adenoma recurrence.
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Sep 1;170(5):576-84. Epub 2009 Jul 30. PMID: 19643809
Leah B Sansbury, Kay Wanke, Paul S Albert, Lisa Kahle, Arthur Schatzkin, Elaine Lanza,
Individual differences in dietary intake are thought to account for substantial variation in cancer incidence. However, there has been a consistent lack of effect for low-fat, high-fiber dietary interventions and risk of colorectal cancer. These inconsistencies may reflect the multistage process of cancer as well as the range and timing of dietary change. Another potential reason for the lack of effect is poor dietary adherence among participants in these trials. The authors examined the effect of strict adherence to a low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable intervention over 4 years among participants (n = 1,905) in the US Polyp Prevention Trial (1991-1998) on colorectal adenoma recurrence. There was a wide range of individual variation in the level of compliance among intervention participants. The most adherent participants, defined as "super compliers" (n = 210), consistently reported that they met or exceeded each of the 3 dietary goals at all 4 annual visits. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between dietary adherence and adenoma recurrence. The authors observed a 35% reduced odds of adenoma recurrence among super compliers compared with controls (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.92). Findings suggest that high compliance with a low-fat, high-fiber diet is associated with reduced risk of adenoma recurrence.
Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2009
Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Feb;71(2):234-238
Authors: Vuksan V, Choleva L, Jovanovski E, Jenkins AL, Au-Yeung F, Dias AG, Ho HV, Zurbau A, Duvnjak L
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m2) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology.
RESULTS: Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (P<0.001) and 60.0±19.7 mmol/l (P=0.014), respectively, relative to a glucose control. Salba-chia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.
PMID: 28000689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]