Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Caloric Restriction

Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity. 📎

Abstract Title: Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2015 ;10(10):e0140431. Epub 2015 Oct 16. PMID: 26473740 Abstract Author(s): Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan Franks, Nathalie Sumien, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Frank Filipetto, Michael Forster Article Affiliation: Marjana Rahman Sarker Abstract: Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR), a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i) a base diet (Ain93M) fed ad libitum (AL), (ii) the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR) or (iii) the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL). Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio), were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze) and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance). The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: binge eating and drug abuse. 📎

Abstract Title: Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: binge eating and drug abuse. Abstract Source: Physiol Behav. 2011 Jul 25 ;104(1):162-7. Epub 2011 Apr 28. PMID: 21530562 Abstract Author(s): Kenneth D Carr Article Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Millhauser Laboratories, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: In the laboratory, food restriction has been shown to induce neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry which are likely to be among those that facilitate survival during periods of food scarcity in the wild. However, the upregulation of mechanisms that promote foraging and reward-related learning may pose a hazard when food restriction is self-imposed in an ecology of abundant appetitive rewards. For example, episodes of loss of control during weight-loss dieting, use of drugs with addictive potential as diet aids, and alternating fasting with alcohol consumption in order to avoid weight gain, may induce synaptic plasticity that increases the risk of enduring maladaptive reward-directed behavior. In the present mini-review, representative basic research findings are outlined which indicate that food restriction alters the function of mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons, potentiates cellular and behavioral responses to D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptor stimulation, and increases stimulus-induced synaptic insertion of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens. Possible mechanistic underpinnings of increased drug reward magnitude, drug-seeking, and binge intake of sucrose in food-restricted animal subjects are discussed and possible implications for human weight-loss dieting are considered. Article Published Date : Jul 25, 2011

Long-term intermittent feeding, but not caloric restriction, leads to redox imbalance, insulin receptor nitration, and glucose intolerance. 📎

Abstract Title: Long-term intermittent feeding, but not caloric restriction, leads to redox imbalance, insulin receptor nitration, and glucose intolerance. Abstract Source: Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jul 21. Epub 2011 Jul 21. PMID: 21816219 Abstract Author(s): Fernanda M Cerqueira, Fernanda M da Cunha, Camille C Caldeira da Silva, Bruno Chausse, Renato L Romano, Camila C M Garcia, Pio Colepicolo, Marisa H G Medeiros, Alicia J Kowaltowski Abstract: Calorie restriction is a dietary intervention known to improve redox state, glucose tolerance, and animal life span. Other interventions have been adopted as study models for caloric restriction, including nonsupplemented food restriction and intermittent, every-other-day feedings. We compared the short- and long-term effects of these interventions to ad libitum protocols and found that, although all restricted diets decrease body weight, intermittent feeding did not decrease intra-abdominal adiposity. Short-term calorie restriction and intermittent feeding presented similar results relative to glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, long-term intermittent feeding promoted glucose intolerance, without a loss in insulin receptor phosphorylation. Intermittent feeding substantially increased insulin receptor nitration in both intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle, a modification associated with receptor inactivation. All restricted diets enhanced nitric oxide synthase levels in the insulin-responsive adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. However, whereas calorie restriction improved tissue redox state, food restriction and intermittent feedings did not. In fact, long-term intermittent feeding resulted in largely enhanced tissue release of oxidants. Overall, our results show that restricted diets are significantly different in their effects on glucose tolerance and redox state when adopted long-term. Furthermore, we show that intermittent feeding can lead to oxidative insulin receptor inactivation and glucose intolerance. Article Published Date : Jul 21, 2011

Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. 📎

Abstract Title: Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Diabet Med. 2011 May;28(5):549-59. PMID: 21480966 Abstract Author(s): H Kahleova, M Matoulek, H Malinska, O Oliyarnik, L Kazdova, T Neskudla, A Skoch, M Hajek, M Hill, M Kahle, T Pelikanova Article Affiliation: Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine Charles University, 1st Faculty of Medicine Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic. Abstract: Diabet. Med. 28, 549-559 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of calorie-restricted vegetarian and conventional diabetic diets alone and in combination with exercise on insulin resistance, visceral fat and oxidative stress markers in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Methods  A 24-week, randomized, open, parallel design was used. Seventy-four patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 37), which received a vegetarian diet, or the control group (n = 37), which received a conventional diabetic diet. Both diets were isocaloric, calorie restricted(-500 kcal/day). All meals during the study were provided. The second 12 weeks of the diet were combined with aerobic exercise. Participants were examined at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were: insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinaemic isoglycaemic clamp; volume of visceral and subcutaneous fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging; and oxidative stress measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Analyses were by intention to treat. Results  Forty-three per cent of participants in the experimental group and 5% of participants in the control groupreduced diabetes medication (P < 0.001). Body weight decreased more in the experimental group than in the control group [-6.2 kg (95% CI -6.6 to -5.3) vs. -3.2 kg (95% CI -3.7 to -2.5); interaction group × time P = 0.001]. An increase in insulin sensitivity was significantly greater in the experimental groupthan in the control group [30% (95% CI 24.5-39) vs. 20% (95% CI 14-25), P = 0.04]. A reduction in both visceral and subcutaneous fat was greater in the experimental group than in the control group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). Plasma adiponectin increased (P = 0.02) and leptin decreased (P = 0.02) in the experimental group, with no change in the control group. Vitamin C, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione increased in the experimental group (P = 0.002, P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Differences between groups were greater after the addition of exercise training. Changes in insulin sensitivity and enzymatic oxidative stress markers correlated with changes in visceral fat. Conclusions  A calorie-restricted vegetarian diet had greater capacity to improve insulin sensitivity compared with a conventional diabetic diet over 24 weeks. The greater loss of visceral fat and improvements in plasma concentrations of adipokines and oxidative stress markers with this diet may be responsible for the reduction of insulin resistance. The addition of exercise training further augmented the improved outcomes with the vegetarian diet. Article Published Date : May 01, 2011

Low calorie dieting increases cortisol. 📎

Abstract Title: Low calorie dieting increases cortisol. Abstract Source: Psychosom Med. 2010 May;72(4):357-64. Epub 2010 Apr 5. PMID: 20368473 Abstract Author(s): A Janet Tomiyama, Traci Mann, Danielle Vinas, Jeffrey M Hunger, Jill Dejager, Shelley E Taylor Article Affiliation: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholars Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94118, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting--monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake--on psychological and biological stress indicators. METHODS: In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) x 2 (restricting vs. not) fully crossed, controlled experiment, 121 female participants were assigned randomly to one of four dietary interventions for 3 weeks. The monitoring + restricting condition tracked their caloric intake and restricted their caloric intake (1200 kcal/day); the monitoring only condition tracked their caloric intake but ate normally; the restricting only condition was provided 1200 kcal/day of food but did not track their calories, and the control group ate normally and did not track their intake. Before and after the interventions, participants completed measures of perceived stress and 2 days of diurnal saliva sampling to test for cortisol. RESULTS: Restricting calories increased the total output of cortisol, and monitoring calories increased perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning, and changes in clinical recommendations may be in order. Article Published Date : May 01, 2010
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Caloric Restriction

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Intestinal Fork Head Regulates Nutrient Absorption and Promotes Longevity.

Related Articles Intestinal Fork Head Regulates Nutrient Absorption and Promotes Longevity. Cell Rep. 2017 Oct 17;21(3):641-653 Authors: Bolukbasi E, Khericha M, Regan JC, Ivanov DK, Adcott J, Dyson MC, Nespital T, Thornton JM, Alic N, Partridge L Abstract Reduced activity of nutrient-sensing signaling networks can extend organismal lifespan, yet the underlying biology remains unclear. We show that the anti-aging effects of rapamycin and reduced intestinal insulin/insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) require the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor homolog Fork Head (FKH). Intestinal FKH induction extends lifespan, highlighting a role for the gut. FKH binds to and is phosphorylated by AKT and Target of Rapamycin. Gut-specific FKH upregulation improves gut barrier function in aged flies. Additionally, it increases the expression of nutrient transporters, as does lowered IIS. Evolutionary conservation of this effect of lowered IIS is suggested by the upregulation of related nutrient transporters in insulin receptor substrate 1 knockout mouse intestine. Our study highlights a critical role played by FKH in the gut in mediating anti-aging effects of reduced IIS. Malnutrition caused by poor intestinal absorption is a major problem in the elderly, and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved will have important therapeutic implications for human aging. PMID: 29045833 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Understanding obesity in the context of an Indigenous population-A qualitative study.

Related Articles Understanding obesity in the context of an Indigenous population-A qualitative study. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2017 Sep - Oct;11(5):558-566 Authors: Bell R, Smith C, Hale L, Kira G, Tumilty S Abstract BACKGROUND: Obesity is a progressive global phenomenon that is disparately prevalent amongst Indigenous populations. While there is a growing body of literature investigating the extrinsic contributors to obesity, there is a lack of evidence to elucidate intrinsic drivers in the context of an Indigenous population. METHODS: Qualitative research theory, inclusive of Indigenous knowledge systems, was applied to the narratives of 15 Indigenous (Māori) people aged between 18 and 65 to contextualise their understandings of obesity. RESULTS: Thematic analysis of the interview data revealed four intrinsic determinants for obesity expression that specifically relate to Indigenous peoples: (1) relationships and social connectedness; (2) holistic health including spiritual beliefs and cultural practices (Indigenous worldview); (3) historical trauma and the impacts of colonisation; and (4) the biomedical model of caloric restriction, diet and exercise were culturally insensitive, non-relatable, and were not significant drivers for engagement in healthier lifestyles. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Similar to non-Indigenous populations, Indigenous understandings of obesity are multi-factorial. What was unique about the findings of this study were insights into the importance of relational aspects and connectedness to each other and the environment, as determinants for obesity expression. This suggests that the current individualistic approaches of western medicine to obesity management are not culturally aligned with Indigenous peoples ways of being. Adopting an ontology of connectedness may represent a more culturally centred approach, and help build epistemological resilience to mitigate rising obesity incidence in Indigenous populations. PMID: 28499848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of A One-week Fasting Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome - A Randomized Controlled Explorative Study.

Related Articles Effects of A One-week Fasting Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome - A Randomized Controlled Explorative Study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017 Oct;125(9):618-624 Authors: Li C, Sadraie B, Steckhan N, Kessler C, Stange R, Jeitler M, Michalsen A Abstract There is increasing experimental evidence for beneficial effects of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In humans, prolonged fasting is established as a health-promoting complementary treatment in Europe and claimed to improve metabolism by a complex hormetic response. We aimed to investigate effects of a one-week fasting period compared to usual care in T2DM by means of a pilot trial. Patients with manifest T2DM medically treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin were randomly assigned to a 7-day fasting program followed by dietary advice or to usual care and dietary advice only. Fasting was performed according to the method of Buchinger with a nutritional energy intake of 300kcal/day by liquids only and stepwise re-introduction of solid food thereafter. Outcomes were assessed baseline and after 4 months. Of 46 enrolled participants, 32 (n=16 each group) completed the trial and were included for final analyses. Fasting was well accepted, there were no serious adverse events. After 4 months mean weight decreased by 3.5 kg and 2.0 kg in the fasting vs. control group (p=0.03) paralleled by greater reduction of abdominal circumference (p=0.001). Fasting led to a significant decrease of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01; p=0.003) and increased quality-of-life (p=0.04), while for HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-index only non-significant improvements were observed. Results of this study suggest that prolonged fasting is feasible and might have beneficial clinical effects. The effectiveness of fasting should be proved in larger confirmatory trials that include intermittent fasting in follow-ups to enable more pronounced and long-term effects. PMID: 28407662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]