Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Caloric Restriction

Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.

Abstract Title: Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2015 ;10(10):e0140431. Epub 2015 Oct 16. PMID: 26473740 Abstract Author(s): Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan Franks, Nathalie Sumien, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Frank Filipetto, Michael Forster Article Affiliation: Marjana Rahman Sarker Abstract: Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR), a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i) a base diet (Ain93M) fed ad libitum (AL), (ii) the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR) or (iii) the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL). Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio), were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze) and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance). The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: binge eating and drug abuse.

Abstract Title: Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: binge eating and drug abuse. Abstract Source: Physiol Behav. 2011 Jul 25 ;104(1):162-7. Epub 2011 Apr 28. PMID: 21530562 Abstract Author(s): Kenneth D Carr Article Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Millhauser Laboratories, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: In the laboratory, food restriction has been shown to induce neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry which are likely to be among those that facilitate survival during periods of food scarcity in the wild. However, the upregulation of mechanisms that promote foraging and reward-related learning may pose a hazard when food restriction is self-imposed in an ecology of abundant appetitive rewards. For example, episodes of loss of control during weight-loss dieting, use of drugs with addictive potential as diet aids, and alternating fasting with alcohol consumption in order to avoid weight gain, may induce synaptic plasticity that increases the risk of enduring maladaptive reward-directed behavior. In the present mini-review, representative basic research findings are outlined which indicate that food restriction alters the function of mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons, potentiates cellular and behavioral responses to D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptor stimulation, and increases stimulus-induced synaptic insertion of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens. Possible mechanistic underpinnings of increased drug reward magnitude, drug-seeking, and binge intake of sucrose in food-restricted animal subjects are discussed and possible implications for human weight-loss dieting are considered. Article Published Date : Jul 25, 2011

Long-term intermittent feeding, but not caloric restriction, leads to redox imbalance, insulin receptor nitration, and glucose intolerance.

Abstract Title: Long-term intermittent feeding, but not caloric restriction, leads to redox imbalance, insulin receptor nitration, and glucose intolerance. Abstract Source: Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jul 21. Epub 2011 Jul 21. PMID: 21816219 Abstract Author(s): Fernanda M Cerqueira, Fernanda M da Cunha, Camille C Caldeira da Silva, Bruno Chausse, Renato L Romano, Camila C M Garcia, Pio Colepicolo, Marisa H G Medeiros, Alicia J Kowaltowski Abstract: Calorie restriction is a dietary intervention known to improve redox state, glucose tolerance, and animal life span. Other interventions have been adopted as study models for caloric restriction, including nonsupplemented food restriction and intermittent, every-other-day feedings. We compared the short- and long-term effects of these interventions to ad libitum protocols and found that, although all restricted diets decrease body weight, intermittent feeding did not decrease intra-abdominal adiposity. Short-term calorie restriction and intermittent feeding presented similar results relative to glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, long-term intermittent feeding promoted glucose intolerance, without a loss in insulin receptor phosphorylation. Intermittent feeding substantially increased insulin receptor nitration in both intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle, a modification associated with receptor inactivation. All restricted diets enhanced nitric oxide synthase levels in the insulin-responsive adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. However, whereas calorie restriction improved tissue redox state, food restriction and intermittent feedings did not. In fact, long-term intermittent feeding resulted in largely enhanced tissue release of oxidants. Overall, our results show that restricted diets are significantly different in their effects on glucose tolerance and redox state when adopted long-term. Furthermore, we show that intermittent feeding can lead to oxidative insulin receptor inactivation and glucose intolerance. Article Published Date : Jul 21, 2011

Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes.

Abstract Title: Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Diabet Med. 2011 May;28(5):549-59. PMID: 21480966 Abstract Author(s): H Kahleova, M Matoulek, H Malinska, O Oliyarnik, L Kazdova, T Neskudla, A Skoch, M Hajek, M Hill, M Kahle, T Pelikanova Article Affiliation: Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine Charles University, 1st Faculty of Medicine Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic. Abstract: Diabet. Med. 28, 549-559 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of calorie-restricted vegetarian and conventional diabetic diets alone and in combination with exercise on insulin resistance, visceral fat and oxidative stress markers in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Methods  A 24-week, randomized, open, parallel design was used. Seventy-four patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 37), which received a vegetarian diet, or the control group (n = 37), which received a conventional diabetic diet. Both diets were isocaloric, calorie restricted(-500 kcal/day). All meals during the study were provided. The second 12 weeks of the diet were combined with aerobic exercise. Participants were examined at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were: insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinaemic isoglycaemic clamp; volume of visceral and subcutaneous fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging; and oxidative stress measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Analyses were by intention to treat. Results  Forty-three per cent of participants in the experimental group and 5% of participants in the control groupreduced diabetes medication (P < 0.001). Body weight decreased more in the experimental group than in the control group [-6.2 kg (95% CI -6.6 to -5.3) vs. -3.2 kg (95% CI -3.7 to -2.5); interaction group × time P = 0.001]. An increase in insulin sensitivity was significantly greater in the experimental groupthan in the control group [30% (95% CI 24.5-39) vs. 20% (95% CI 14-25), P = 0.04]. A reduction in both visceral and subcutaneous fat was greater in the experimental group than in the control group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). Plasma adiponectin increased (P = 0.02) and leptin decreased (P = 0.02) in the experimental group, with no change in the control group. Vitamin C, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione increased in the experimental group (P = 0.002, P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Differences between groups were greater after the addition of exercise training. Changes in insulin sensitivity and enzymatic oxidative stress markers correlated with changes in visceral fat. Conclusions  A calorie-restricted vegetarian diet had greater capacity to improve insulin sensitivity compared with a conventional diabetic diet over 24 weeks. The greater loss of visceral fat and improvements in plasma concentrations of adipokines and oxidative stress markers with this diet may be responsible for the reduction of insulin resistance. The addition of exercise training further augmented the improved outcomes with the vegetarian diet. Article Published Date : May 01, 2011

Low calorie dieting increases cortisol.

Abstract Title: Low calorie dieting increases cortisol. Abstract Source: Psychosom Med. 2010 May;72(4):357-64. Epub 2010 Apr 5. PMID: 20368473 Abstract Author(s): A Janet Tomiyama, Traci Mann, Danielle Vinas, Jeffrey M Hunger, Jill Dejager, Shelley E Taylor Article Affiliation: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholars Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94118, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting--monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake--on psychological and biological stress indicators. METHODS: In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) x 2 (restricting vs. not) fully crossed, controlled experiment, 121 female participants were assigned randomly to one of four dietary interventions for 3 weeks. The monitoring + restricting condition tracked their caloric intake and restricted their caloric intake (1200 kcal/day); the monitoring only condition tracked their caloric intake but ate normally; the restricting only condition was provided 1200 kcal/day of food but did not track their calories, and the control group ate normally and did not track their intake. Before and after the interventions, participants completed measures of perceived stress and 2 days of diurnal saliva sampling to test for cortisol. RESULTS: Restricting calories increased the total output of cortisol, and monitoring calories increased perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning, and changes in clinical recommendations may be in order. Article Published Date : May 01, 2010
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Caloric Restriction

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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of the intrauterine growth-restricted rat offspring exhibit enhanced adipogenic phenotype.

Related Articles Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of the intrauterine growth-restricted rat offspring exhibit enhanced adipogenic phenotype. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Nov;40(11):1768-1775 Authors: Gong M, Antony S, Sakurai R, Liu J, Iacovino M, Rehan VK Abstract OBJECTIVE: Although intrauterine nutritional stress is known to result in offspring obesity and the metabolic phenotype, the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that compared with the controls, the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring exhibit a more adipogenic phenotype. METHODS: A well-established rat model of maternal food restriction (MFR), that is, 50% global caloric restriction during the later-half of pregnancy and ad libitum diet following birth that is known to result in an obese offspring with a metabolic phenotype was used. BMSCs at 3 weeks of age were isolated, and then molecularly and functionally profiled. RESULTS: BMSCs of the intrauterine nutritionally-restricted offspring demonstrated an increased proliferation and an enhanced adipogenic molecular profile at miRNA, mRNA and protein levels, with an overall up-regulated PPARγ (miR-30d, miR-103, PPARγ, C/EPBα, ADRP, LPL, SREBP1), but down-regulated Wnt (LRP5, LEF-1, β-catenin, ZNF521 and RUNX2) signaling profile. Following adipogenic induction, compared with the control BMSCs, the already up-regulated adipogenic profile of the MFR BMSCs, showed a further increased adipogenic response. CONCLUSIONS: Markedly enhanced adipogenic molecular profile and increased cell proliferation of MFR BMSCs suggest a possible novel cellular/mechanistic link between the intrauterine nutritional stress and offspring metabolic phenotype. This provides new potential predictive and therapeutic targets against these conditions in the IUGR offspring. PMID: 27599633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

No effect of 24 h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in overweight and obese males.

Related Articles No effect of 24 h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in overweight and obese males. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Nov;40(11):1662-1670 Authors: Clayton DJ, Creese M, Skidmore N, Stensel DJ, James LJ Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Long-term success of weight loss diets might depend on how the appetite regulatory system responds to energy restriction (ER). This study determined the effect of 24 h severe ER on subjective and hormonal appetite regulation, subsequent ad libitum energy intake and metabolism. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In randomised order, eight overweight or obese males consumed a 24 h diet containing either 100% (12105 (1174 kJ; energy balance; EB) or 25% (3039 (295) kJ; ER) of estimated daily energy requirements (EER). An individualised standard breakfast containing 25% of EER (3216 (341) kJ) was consumed the following morning and resting energy expenditure, substrate utilisation and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36), glucose-dependant insulinotropic peptide (GIP1-42), glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were determined for 4 h after breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed in the laboratory on day 2 and via food records on day 3. Subjective appetite was assessed throughout. RESULTS: Energy intake was not different between trials for day 2 (EB: 14946 (1272) kJ; ER: 15251 (2114) kJ; P=0.623), day 3 (EB: 10580 (2457) kJ; 10812 (4357) kJ; P=0.832) or day 2 and 3 combined (P=0.693). Subjective appetite was increased during ER on day 1 (P<0.01), but was not different between trials on day 2 (P>0.381). Acylated ghrelin, GLP-17-36 and insulin were not different between trials (P>0.104). Post-breakfast area under the curve (AUC) for NEFA (P<0.05) and GIP1-42 (P<0.01) were greater during ER compared with EB. Fat oxidation was greater (P<0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation was lower (P<0.01) during ER, but energy expenditure was not different between trials (P=0.158). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that 24 h severe ER does not affect appetite regulation or energy intake in the subsequent 48 h. This style of dieting may be conducive to maintenance of a negative EB by limiting compensatory eating behaviour, and therefore may assist with weight loss. PMID: 27339607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Adiponectin mediates the additive effects of combining daily exercise with caloric restriction for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver.

Related Articles Adiponectin mediates the additive effects of combining daily exercise with caloric restriction for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Nov;40(11):1760-1767 Authors: Cho J, Koh Y, Han J, Kim D, Kim T, Kang H Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known regarding whether or not combining daily exercise (EX) with caloric restriction (CR) additionally alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study investigated the effect of the combination of EX and CR on NAFLD and its underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice (N=50) were fed a standard chow (SC; n=10) or HFD (n=40) for 24 weeks. After 16 weeks, the HFD mice were further assigned to one of the following groups for the remaining 8 weeks: the first group of mice (HFD; n=10) remained to HFD, the second group of mice (HFD-EX; n=10) remained to HFD while subjected to EX, the third group of mice (HFD-CR; n=10) switched their diet from HFD to SC and the fourth group of mice (HFD-EX+CR; n=10) switched their diet from HFD to SC while simultaneously being subjected to EX. RESULTS: HFD resulted in obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolemia and histology-based hepatic steatosis in conjunction with hypoadiponectinemia and downregulation of hepatic adiponectin receptors. However, EX or CR alleviated the fatty liver and its metabolic complications significantly. Compared with EX or CR alone, the combination of EX and CR resulted in further alleviations of NAFLD-associated conditions. The additive benefits of the combined treatment were associated with greater elevations of adiponectin and its hepatic receptors, in conjunction with greater expression of their downstream targets involved in fatty acid oxidation, de novo lipogenesis and anti-inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings provide experimental evidence in favor of the combination of EX and CR as a superior strategy for NAFLD treatment than EX or CR alone. PMID: 27216820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women.

Related Articles Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Nov;40(11):1671-1678 Authors: Jakobsdottir S, van Nieuwpoort IC, van Bunderen CC, de Ruiter MB, Twisk JW, Deijen JB, Veltman DJ, Drent ML Abstract OBJECTIVE: Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An 8-week prospective intervention study of 18 healthy postmenopausal women, with a body mass index of 30-35 kg m-2. The first 2 weeks subjects were on an isocaloric diet and 4 weeks on a 1000 kcal restricted diet followed by 2 weeks on an isocaloric diet. Anthropometric and laboratory analyses were performed weekly during the isocaloric diet and three times a week during the caloric-restricted diet. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before and after the caloric restriction in four separate sessions (fasting or sated). Generalized Estimating Equations analysis was used for data analysis. RESULTS: A mean weight loss of 4.2±0.5 kg (4.8%) and a 4.2±0.4 cm decline in waist circumference were achieved. In the first week of caloric restriction, triglyceride, leptin, resistin and adiponectin levels as well as systolic blood pressure decreased and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 levels increased. During and after weight loss, a significant increase in ghrelin levels was observed. Before weight loss, increased activation of the right amygdala was seen in response to food stimuli, and free fatty acids and glucose correlated with activity in various areas involved in food reward processing. After weight loss, fasting ghrelin and sated leptin levels correlated with activity in these areas. CONCLUSIONS: Already in the first week of caloric restriction in obese postmenopausal women, various favourable metabolic changes occur before clinically relevant weight loss is achieved. Activity in the amygdala region and correlations of metabolic factors with activity in brain areas involved in food reward processing differ substantially before and after weight loss. PMID: 27216819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging of subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolic changes during weight loss.

Related Articles Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging of subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolic changes during weight loss. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Aug;40(8):1292-300 Authors: Ganesan G, Warren RV, Leproux A, Compton M, Cutler K, Wittkopp S, Tran G, O'Sullivan T, Malik S, Galassetti PR, Tromberg BJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) structure and metabolism have been shown to correlate with the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Measurements of AT physiology could provide new insight into metabolic disease progression and response to therapy. An emerging functional imaging technology, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), was used to obtain quantitative measures of near infrared (NIR) AT optical and physiological properties. METHODS: Ten overweight or obese adults were assessed during 3 months on calorie-restricted diets. DOSI-derived tissue concentrations of hemoglobin, water and lipid and the wavelength-dependent scattering amplitude (A) and slope (b) obtained from 30 abdominal locations and three time points (T0, T6, T12) were calculated and analyzed using linear mixed-effects models and were also used to form 3D surface images. RESULTS: Subjects lost a mean of 11.7±3.4% of starting weight, while significant changes in A (+0.23±0.04 mm(-1), adj. P<0.001),b (-0.17±0.04, adj. P<0.001), tissue water fraction (+7.2±1.1%, adj. P<0.001) and deoxyhemoglobin (1.1±0.3 μM, adj. P<0.001) were observed using mixed-effect model analysis. DISCUSSION: Optical scattering signals reveal alterations in tissue structure that possibly correlate with reductions in adipose cell volume, while water and hemoglobin dynamics suggest improved AT perfusion and oxygen extraction. These results suggest that DOSI measurements of NIR optical and physiological properties could be used to enhance understanding of the role of AT in metabolic disorders and provide new strategies for diagnostic monitoring of obesity and weight loss. PMID: 27089996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Weight Loss Mediated Reduction in Xanthine Oxidase Activity and Uric Acid Clearance in Adolescents with Severe Obesity.

Related Articles Weight Loss Mediated Reduction in Xanthine Oxidase Activity and Uric Acid Clearance in Adolescents with Severe Obesity. Child Obes. 2016 Aug;12(4):286-91 Authors: Tam HK, Kelly AS, Fox CK, Nathan BM, Johnson LA Abstract BACKGROUND: Increased xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and uric acid levels are known to be associated with obesity and hypertension; however, it is not known if obesity is directly responsible for these associations in youth. This study investigated the effect of weight loss on XO activity, uric acid, and their relationship to blood pressure change in obese youth to provide greater insight on how obesity increases cardiovascular risk. METHODS: This was an ancillary study in which 16 adolescents (mean age 15 ± 2 years) received meal replacement therapy over a period of four weeks. Outcomes measured at baseline and after intervention included weight, blood pressure, XO activity, plasma uric acid, uric acid clearance, and creatinine clearance. RESULTS: After the meal replacement intervention, participants experienced reductions in body weight (109.2 ± 16 kg vs. 105.2 ± 14 kg, p < 0.0001) and BMI (38.7 ± 4 kg vs. 37.4 ± 3 kg, p < 0.0001). Plasma XO activity was reduced by 9.8% (p = 0.016). Uric acid clearance was decreased by 39% (p = 0.006). SBP (systolic blood pressure) and plasma uric acid concentrations were reduced but did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.34 and 0.38, respectively). DBP (diastolic blood pressure) was unchanged (p = 0.86). No significant relationships were found between changes in blood pressure and changes in either XO activity or plasma uric acid levels. CONCLUSION: Weight loss led to decreases in uric acid production by lowering XO activity and decreases in uric acid clearance by reducing glomerular filtration (GF) and increasing reabsorption. Changes in XO activity and uric acid levels did not correlate with changes in blood pressure. PMID: 26978590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Capsaicinoids: a spicy solution to the management of obesity?

Related Articles Capsaicinoids: a spicy solution to the management of obesity? Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Aug;40(8):1198-204 Authors: Tremblay A, Arguin H, Panahi S Abstract Capsaicin is the molecule that is responsible for the pungency of hot peppers. It stimulates the sympathoadrenal system that mediates the thermogenic and anorexigenic effects of capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids have been found to accentuate the impact of caloric restriction on body weight loss. Some studies have also shown that capsinoids, the non-pungent analogs of capsaicinoids, increase energy expenditure. Capsaicin supplementation attenuates or even prevents the increase in hunger and decrease in fullness as well as the decrease in energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which normally result from energy restriction. These effects may postpone the occurrence of resistance to lose fat during a weight loss program and facilitate the maintenance of body weight in a postobese state. Evidence also highlights the plausibility of an indirect effect of capsaicin on energy balance via its analgesic effects, which may improve sleep and ultimately facilitate the regulation of energy balance. Although capsaicin intake appears to be a safe practice, further studies will be needed to ascertain the safety of regular long-term consumption. Taken together, these observations reinforce the idea that consumption of capsaicinoids and capsinoids may be helpful to facilitate obesity management. PMID: 26686003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

Related Articles Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 05;40(5):754-60 Authors: Reinhardt M, Schlögl M, Bonfiglio S, Votruba SB, Krakoff J, Thearle MS Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. RESULTS: A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism. PMID: 26499440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]