Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice.
Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 4 ;7(40):65669-65675. PMID: 27582541
Sneha Sundaram, Lin Yan
The objective of this study was to determine whether a reduction in energy intake ameliorated the high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet with a 5% restriction of the intake. Energy restriction reduced body adiposity and body weight, but maintained growth similar to mice fed the AIN93G diet. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of metastases formed in lungs. Restricted feeding reduced the number of metastases by 23%, metastatic cross-sectional area by 32% and volume by 45% compared to the high-fat diet. The high-fat diet elevated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin), angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and insulin. Restricted feeding significantly reduced the high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin. These results demonstrated that a reduction in diet intake by 5% reduced high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis, which may be associated with the mitigation of adiposity and down-regulation of cancer-promoting proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors.
Article Published Date : Oct 03, 2016
Effect of diet and exercise intervention on the growth of prostate epithelial cells.
1: Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11(4):362-6. Epub 2008 Feb 19. PMID: 18283296
R J Barnard, N Kobayashi, W J Aronson
Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between nutrient intake, hyperinsulinemia and risk of Benign prostatic hyperplasis (BPH). This study tests the hypothesis that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise would lower serum insulin and reduce the growth of serum-stimulated primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Serum samples were obtained from eight overweight men before and after the Pritikin residential, 2-week diet and exercise intervention and from seven men who were long-term followers of the low-fat, high-fiber diet and regular exercise lifestyle. The serum was used to stimulate primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Growth was measured after 48 and 96 h and apoptosis after 96 h. At 48 h there was no significant difference in growth within the Pre, 2-week or Long-Term groups. At 96 h growth was significantly reduced in the 2-week (13%) and in the Long-Term (14%) groups compared to the Pre data. At 96 h, apoptosis was not significantly different among the three groups. Fasting insulin was reduced by 30% in the 2-week group and by 52% in the Long-Term group compared to the Pre data. Testosterone was unchanged in the 2-week group. The results of this study indicate that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise lowers insulin and reduces growth of prostate primary epithelial cells and suggests that lifestyle may be an important factor in the development or progression of BPH. Future prospective trials should address the effects of this lifestyle modification on BPH symptomatology and progression.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2008
Dietary fat and meat intake and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case-control study in Japan.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Mar;10(3):333-9. PMID: 16562716
Y Miyake, S Sasaki, T Yokoyama, K Chida, A Azuma, T Suda, S Kudoh, N Sakamoto, K Okamoto, G Kobashi, M Washio, Y Inaba, H Tanaka,
SETTING: There is sparse epidemiologic information regarding the role of dietary factors in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between specific types of fatty acids and selected foods high in fat and IPF in Japan. DESIGN: Included were 104 cases aged>or = 40 years who had been diagnosed in the last 2 years in accordance with the most recent criteria. Controls aged>or = 40 years consisted of 56 hospitalised patients diagnosed as having acute bacterial pneumonia and four out-patients with common cold. RESULTS: Intake of saturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and meat was independently associated with an increased risk of IPF. Specifically, the multivariate OR for comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of intake of saturated fatty acids was 6.26 (95%CI 1.79-24.96, P for trend = 0.01) and for meat it was 7.19 (95%CI 2.15-27.07, P for trend = 0.02). Intake of cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish, eggs and dairy products was not related to the risk. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that consumption of saturated fatty acids and meat may increase the risk of IPF.
Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2006
A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro.
Prostate. 2003 Aug 1;56(3):201-6. PMID: 12772189
R James Barnard, Tung H Ngo, Pak-Shan Leung, William J Aronson, Lawrence A Golding
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common solid-tumor cancer in US males but is rare in Asian males. When Asian men adopt the US lifestyle, clinical prostate cancer increases greatly. Epidemiological data from men in the US indicate that regular activity may reduce the risk for prostate cancer. METHODS: Serum was obtained from three groups of similar-aged men, Control, Diet and Exercise, and Exercise alone were used to stimulate LNCaP cells in culture. Growth and apoptosis of tumor cells were measured. Serum samples were also used to measure insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-1. RESULTS: The Diet and Exercise and the Exercise alone groups had lower serum insulin and IGF-1 but higher IGFBP-1 compared to Controls. LNCaP cell growth was reduced in both groups compared to Control and there was a major increase in apoptosis of tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: A low-fat diet and/or intensive exercise results in change in serum hormones and growth factors in vivo that can reduce growth and induce apoptosis of LNCaP prostate tumor cells in vitro. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2003
Effects of a very low fat, high fiber diet on serum hormones and menstrual function. Implications for breast cancer prevention.
Cancer. 1995 Dec 15;76(12):2491-6. PMID: 8625075
D Bagga, J M Ashley, S P Geffrey, H J Wang, R J Barnard, S Korenman, D Heber
BACKGROUND. Low fat, high fiber dietary interventions that decrease blood estrogen levels may reduce breast cancer risk. Asian women consuming their traditional low fat, high fiber diets have lower blood estrogen levels before and after menopause and lower rates of breast cancer compared with Western women. The current controlled feeding study of premenopausal women was designed to determine the effects of a very low fat (10% of calories) and high fiber (35-45 g/day) diet on blood estrogen levels and menstrual function. METHOD. Twelve healthy premenopausal women with regular ovulatory cycles were followed for 3 months. Subjects consumed a diet providing 30% of their energy from fat and 15-25 g of dietary fiber per day for 1 month, and they consumed a very low fat, high fiber and libitum diet providing 10% of their energy from fat and 25-35 g of dietary fiber per day for 2 months. RESULTS. At the end of the second month of the very low fat, high fiber diet, there was a significant reduction in serum estrone and estradiol levels during the early follicular and late luteal phases. There were no significant changes observed in serum estrone sulfate, sex hormone binding globulin, or progesterone. Despite a significant decrease in serum estradiol and estrone levels after 2 months of a very low fat, high fiber diet, there was no interference with ovulation or the magnitude of the mid-cycle leuteinizing hormone surge. Small changes in menstrual cycle length of up to 3 days were not ruled out due to the small sample size of the study. CONCLUSIONS. A very low fat, high fiber diet in healthy premenopausal women can reduce estradiol and estrone levels without affecting ovulation, thereby providing a rationale for the prevention of breast cancer through a very low fat, high fiber diet.
Article Published Date : Dec 15, 1995
Effect of a low-fat diet on the incidence of actinic keratosis.
N Engl J Med. 1994 May 5;330(18):1272-5. PMID: 8145782
H S Black, J A Herd, L H Goldberg, J E Wolf, J I Thornby, T Rosen, S Bruce, J A Tschen, J P Foreyt, L W Scott
BACKGROUND. Actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions and are a sensitive and important manifestation of sun-induced skin damage. Studies in animals have shown that dietary fat influences the incidence of sun-induced skin cancer, but the effect of diet on the incidence of actinic keratosis in humans is not known. METHODS. We randomly assigned 76 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer either to continue their usual diet (control group) or to eat a diet with 20 percent of total caloric intake as fat (dietary-intervention group). For 24 months, the patients were examined for the presence of new actinic keratoses by physicians unaware of their assigned diets. RESULTS. At base line, the mean (+/- SD) percentage of caloric intake as fat was 40 +/- 4 percent in the control group and 39 +/- 3 percent in the dietary-intervention group. After 4 months of dietary therapy the percentage of calories as fat had decreased to 21 percent in the dietary-intervention group, and it remained below this level throughout the 24-month study period. The percentage of calories as fat in the control group did not fall below 36 percent at any time. The cumulative number of new actinic keratoses per patient from months 4 through 24 was 10 +/- 13 in the control group and 3 +/- 7 in the dietary-intervention group (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. In patients with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, a low-fat diet reduces the incidence of actinic keratosis.
Article Published Date : May 05, 1994
Sustained zero-order delivery of GC-1 from a nanochannel membrane device alleviates metabolic syndrome.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Nov;40(11):1776-1783
Authors: Filgueira CS, Nicolov E, Hood RL, Ballerini A, Garcia-Huidobro J, Lin JZ, Fraga D, Webb P, Sabek OM, Gaber AO, Phillips KJ, Grattoni A
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the sustained, low-dose and constant administration of the thyroid receptor-β (TRβ)-selective agonist GC-1 (sobetirome) from a novel nanochannel membrane device (NMD) for drug delivery. As it known to speed up metabolism, accomplish weight loss, improve cholesterol levels and possess anti-diabetic effects, GC-1 was steadily administered by our NMD, consisting of an implantable nanochannel membrane, as an alternative to conventional daily administration, which is subject to compliance issues in clinical settings.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Diet-induced obese C57BL/J6 male mice were fed a very high-fat diet (VHFD) and received NMD implants subcutaneously. Ten mice per group received capsules containing GC-1 or phosphate-buffered saline (control). Weight, lean and fat mass, as well as cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose, were monitored for 24 days. After treatment, plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine were compared. mRNA levels of a panel of thermogenic markers were examined using real-time PCR in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipose tissue, liver and local inflammatory response to the implant were examined histologically. Pancreatic islet number and β-cell area were assessed.
RESULTS: GC-1 released from the NMD reversed VHFD-induced obesity and normalized serum cholesterol and glycemia. Significant reductions in body weight and fat mass were observed within 10 days, whereas reductions in serum cholesterol and glucose levels were seen within 7 days. The significant decrease in TSH was consistent with TRβ selectivity for GC-1. Levels of transcript for Ucp1 and thermogenic genes PGC1a, Cidea, Dio2 and Cox5a showed significant upregulation in WAT in NMD-GC-1-treated mice, but decreased in BAT. Although mice treated by NMD-GC-1 showed a similar number of pancreatic islets, they exhibited significant increase in β-cell area.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the NMD implant achieves steady administration of GC-1, offering an effective and tightly controlled molecular delivery system for treatment of obesity and metabolic disease, thereby addressing compliance.
PMID: 27460601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mulberry ethanol extract attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice.
Nutr Res. 2016 Jul;36(7):710-8
Authors: Song H, Lai J, Tang Q, Zheng X
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. Mulberry is an important source of phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we developed a hypothesis that mulberry exerted beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and evaluated the influence of the mulberry ethanol extract (MEE) on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into 3 groups and fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplementation with MEE. Our results showed that administration of MEE reduced diet-induced body weight gain, improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, alleviated insulin resistance, and improved glucose homeostasis. Analysis of hepatic gene expression indicated that MEE treatment changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MEE supplementation protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the protective effects of MEE were associated with the induction of fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis.
PMID: 27262537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
DNA methylation regulates hypothalamic gene expression linking parental diet during pregnancy to the offspring's risk of obesity in Psammomys obesus.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Jul;40(7):1079-88
Authors: Khurana I, Kaspi A, Ziemann M, Block T, Connor T, Spolding B, Cooper A, Zimmet P, El-Osta A, Walder K
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The rising incidence of obesity is a major public health issue worldwide. Recent human and animal studies suggest that parental diet can influence fetal development and is implicated with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in offspring. The hypothalamus is central to body energy homoeostasis and appetite by controlling endocrine signals. We hypothesise that offspring susceptibility to obesity is programmed in the hypothalamus in utero and mediated by changes to DNA methylation, which persist to adulthood. We investigated hypothalamic genome-wide DNA methylation in Psammomys obesus diet during pregnancy to the offspring's risk of obesity.
METHODS: Using methyl-CpG binding domain capture and deep sequencing (MBD-seq), we examined the hypothalamus of offspring exposed to a low-fat diet and standard chow diet during the gestation and lactation period.
RESULTS: Offspring exposed to a low-fat parental diet were more obese and had increased circulating insulin and glucose levels. Methylome profiling identified 1447 genomic regions of differential methylation between offspring of parents fed a low-fat diet compared with parents on standard chow diet. Pathway analysis shows novel DNA methylation changes of hypothalamic genes associated with neurological function, nutrient sensing, appetite and energy balance. Differential DNA methylation corresponded to changes in hypothalamic gene expression of Tas1r1 and Abcc8 in the offspring exposed to low-fat parental diet.
CONCLUSION: Subject to parental low-fat diet, we observe DNA methylation changes of genes associated with obesity in offspring.
PMID: 27108813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mediterranean diet and telomere length in high cardiovascular risk subjects from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA study.
Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;35(6):1399-1405
Authors: García-Calzón S, Martínez-González MA, Razquin C, Arós F, Lapetra J, Martínez JA, Zalba G, Marti A
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A healthy lifestyle has been associated with longer telomeres, but whether Mediterranean Diet (MeDiet) affect telomere length (TL) has not been fully elucidated yet. Our aim was to assess the relationship between MeDiet and TL in high cardiovascular risk subjects in the context of a randomized nutritional intervention trial.
METHODS: We assessed 520 participants (55-80 years, 55% women) from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial. Leukocyte TL was measured by qPCR at baseline and after 5 years of a dietary intervention program where subjects were randomly assigned to a low-fat control diet or to two MeDiets, one supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (MeDiet-EVOO) and the other with mixed nuts (MeDiet-nuts). A validated 14-item questionnaire was used to appraise baseline adherence of participants to the MeDiet.
RESULTS: Better adherence to MeDiet (as appraised by the 14-item score) was associated with longer basal telomeres in women in the baseline cross-sectional analysis, whereas the opposite was observed in men (P interaction = 0.036). Female subjects who scored 10 points had longer basal telomeres (0.27, 95% CI: 0.03-0.52) than women scoring ≤6 points at the beginning of the study (-0.46, 95% CI: -0.85 to -0.7) (P = 0.003). However, allocation to the MeDiet-nuts group (-0.24, 95% CI: -0.38 to -0.01) was associated with a higher risk of telomere shortening after 5 years of intervention, whereas no differences were found for the MeDiet-EVOO group (0.14, 95% CI: 0.02-0.27), in comparison with the Control group (0.07, 95% CI: -0.08 to 0.23) (P = 0.003 and P = 0.537, respectively).
CONCLUSION: A greater baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with longer telomeres only in women. No beneficial effect of the intervention with the MeDiet for the prevention of telomere shortening in comparison with a low-fat diet was observed.
PMID: 27083496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Strong and persistent effect on liver fat with a Paleolithic diet during a two-year intervention.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 05;40(5):747-53
Authors: Otten J, Mellberg C, Ryberg M, Sandberg S, Kullberg J, Lindahl B, Larsson C, Hauksson J, Olsson T
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate changes in liver fat and insulin sensitivity during a 2-year diet intervention. An ad libitum Paleolithic diet (PD) was compared with a conventional low-fat diet (LFD).
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy healthy, obese, postmenopausal women were randomized to either a PD or a conventional LFD. Diet intakes were ad libitum. Liver fat was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and calculated as homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)/liver insulin resistance (Liver IR) index for hepatic insulin sensitivity and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)/Matsuda for peripheral insulin sensitivity. All measurements were performed at 0, 6 and 24 months. Forty-one women completed the examinations for liver fat and were included.
RESULTS: Liver fat decreased after 6 months by 64% (95% confidence interval: 54-74%) in the PD group and by 43% (27-59%) in the LFD group (P<0.01 for difference between groups). After 24 months, liver fat decreased 50% (25-75%) in the PD group and 49% (27-71%) in the LFD group. Weight reduction between baseline and 6 months was correlated to liver fat improvement in the LFD group (rs=0.66, P<0.01) but not in the PD group (rs=0.07, P=0.75). Hepatic insulin sensitivity improved during the first 6 months in the PD group (P<0.001 for Liver IR index and HOMA-IR), but deteriorated between 6 and 24 months without association with liver fat changes.
CONCLUSIONS: A PD with ad libitum intake had a significant and persistent effect on liver fat and differed significantly from a conventional LFD at 6 months. This difference may be due to food quality, for example, a higher content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the PD. Changes in liver fat did not associate with alterations in insulin sensitivity.
PMID: 26786351 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]