Therapeutic Actions Light Therapy

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The Turkish Neonatal Jaundice Online Registry: A national root cause analysis.

The Turkish Neonatal Jaundice Online Registry: A national root cause analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0193108 Authors: Erdeve O, Okulu E, Olukman O, Ulubas D, Buyukkale G, Narter F, Tunc G, Atasay B, Gultekin ND, Arsan S, Koc E, Turkish Neonatal Jaundice Registry Collabolators Abstract BACKGROUND: Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is common, but few root cause analyses based on national quality registries have been performed. An online registry was established to estimate the incidence of NNJ in Turkey and to facilitate a root cause analysis of NNJ and its complications. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was conducted on otherwise healthy newborns born at ≥35 weeks of gestation and hospitalized for only NNJ in 50 collaborator neonatal intensive care units across Turkey over a 1-year period. Patients were analyzed for their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment options, and complications. RESULTS: Of the 5,620 patients enrolled, 361 (6.4%) had a bilirubin level ≥25 mg/dL on admission and 13 (0.23%) developed acute bilirubin encephalopathy. The leading cause of hospital admission was hemolytic jaundice, followed by dehydration related to a lack of proper feeding. Although all infants received phototherapy, 302 infants (5.4%) received intravenous immunoglobulin in addition to phototherapy and 132 (2.3%) required exchange transfusion. The infants who received exchange transfusion were more likely to experience hemolytic causes (60.6% vs. 28.1%) and a longer duration of phototherapy (58.5 ± 31.7 vs. 29.4 ± 18.8 h) compared to infants who were not transfused (p < 0.001). The incidence of short-term complications among discharged patients during follow-up was 8.5%; rehospitalization was the most frequent (58%), followed by jaundice for more than 2 weeks (39%), neurological abnormality (0.35%), and hearing loss (0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Severe NNJ and bilirubin encephalopathy are still problems in Turkey. Means of identifying at-risk newborns before discharge during routine postnatal care, such as bilirubin monitoring, blood group analysis, and lactation consultations, would reduce the frequency of short- and long-term complications of severe NNJ. PMID: 29474382 [PubMed - in process]

Can re-cTURBT be useful in pT1HG disease as a risk indicator of recurrence and progression? A single centre experience.

Can re-cTURBT be useful in pT1HG disease as a risk indicator of recurrence and progression? A single centre experience. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2017 Dec 31;89(4):272-276 Authors: Giulianelli R, Gentile BC, Mirabile G, Albanesi L, Tariciotti P, Rizzo G, Buscarini M, Vermiglio M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Understaging after initial transurethral resection is common in patients with high-risk non muscle infiltrating bladder cancer (NMIBC) and can delay accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment. The rate of upstaging from T1 to T2 disease after repeated transurethral resection ranges from 0 to 28%, although the rate of upstaging may be even higher up to 49% when muscularis propria is absent in the first specimen. A restaging classic transurethral resection of bladder tumour (re-cTURBT) is the better predictor of early stage progression. According to some reports, the rate of positivity for tumor in re-cTURBT performed within eight weeks after initial cTURBT was as high as 18-77%, and in about 40% of the patients a change in tumor stage was reported. We aimed to investigate, in high risk group, the presence of residual tumor following white light classical transurethral resection of bladder tumor (WLre-cTURBT) and the different recurrence and progression rate between patients with persistent or negative (pT0) oncological disease after WLre-cTURBT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 285 patients presenting with primitive bladder cancer underwent to WLcTURBT from January 2011 to December 2015; out of them 92 (32.28%) were T1HG. In according to EAU guidelines 2011, after 4-6 weeks all HG bladder cancer patients underwent a WL recTURBT . All patients were submitted to a subsequent followup including cystoscopy every 3 months with multiple biopsies, randomly and in the previous zone of resection; urinary citology on 3 specimens and kidney/bladder ultrasound every 6 months. The average follow-up was 48 months. RESULTS: Following WLre-cTURBT we observed a persistent disease in 18 (15.2%) patients: 14 (77.7%) with a HG-NMIBC and 4 (22.2%) with a high grade (HG) muscle invasive bladder cancer (pT2HG). After follow up of all 92 patients according to the guidelines EAU, we observed recurrence in 36/92 (39.1%) and progression in 14/92 (15.2%). Of 14 NMIBC with persistent disease, 10 patients (71.4%) showed recurrence: 4 patients (40%) were pT1HG with concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), 3 patients (30%) multifocal pTaHG, 2 (20%) patients CIS and one patient (10%) a muscle invasive neoplasm (pT2HG). Instead of the group of 48 patients pT0 following WL recTURBT, we observed recurrence in 26 patients (54.1%) and in two patients (4.1%) progressions, who presented after 3 months in association with CIS. The remaining 22 patients (45.9%) with initial pT1HG are still progression free. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important variable of early progression were persistent neoplasm and histopathological findings at WLre-cTURBt (p = 0.01), followed by the Summary No conflict of interest declared. INTRODUCTION Bladder cancer is a common genito-urinary malignancy, with transitional cell carcinoma comprising nearly 90% of all primary bladder tumours. At the first diagnosis 70% to 80% of urothelial tumours are confined to the epithelium, the remainder is characterized by muscle invasion. A significant number of patients with high risk non-muscle invasive bladder tumours (HG-NMIBT) treated with white light classic transurethral resection of bladder tumours (WLcTURBT) and intravesical BCG will progress to invasive disease (1-3). Progression to muscle invasion (pT2) mandates immediate radical cystectomy (4). WLcTURBT is the standard initial therapy for NMIBT, but the high percentage of recurrence after surgery is still an unresolved problem (5). High grade pT1 bladder neoplasm (pT1HG) really represents a therapeutic challenge due to the high risk of progression (about 15-30%) to muscle-invasive disease, usually within 5 years (6). However, no consensus exists regarding the treatment of patients with recurrent bladder tumours that invade the lamina propria (pT1) (7-9). Recent studies suggested that the first cTURBT may be incomplete in a significant number of cases (10). Understaging at the time of the initial transurethral resection is common for patients with high-risk NMIBC and can delay accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment. It is therefore recommended for patients with high-risk disease and in those with large or multiple tumors or when the initial transurethral resection is incomplete, to repeat WLre-cTURBT within 2-6 DOI: 10.4081/aiua.2017.4.272 result of the first cystoscopy (p = 0.002) and presence of CIS (p = 0.02). DISCUSSION: Following WLre-cTURBt in HG-NMIBC patients we identified in 15% of cases a persistent disease with a 4.3% of MIBC. In the high risk persistent bladder neoplasms group we observed recurrent and progression rate higher than in T0 bladder tumours group (Δ = + 17.3% and = Δ + 62.5%, p < 0.05. PMID: 29473376 [PubMed - in process]

The effects of exercise training associated with low-level laser therapy on biomarkers of adipose tissue transdifferentiation in obese women.

The effects of exercise training associated with low-level laser therapy on biomarkers of adipose tissue transdifferentiation in obese women. Lasers Med Sci. 2018 Feb 23;: Authors: da Silveira Campos RM, Dâmaso AR, Masquio DCL, Duarte FO, Sene-Fiorese M, Aquino AE, Savioli FA, Quintiliano PCL, Kravchychyn ACP, Guimarães LI, Tock L, Oyama LM, Boldarine VT, Bagnato VS, Parizotto NA Abstract Investigations suggest the benefits of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to improve noninvasive body contouring treatments, inflammation, insulin resistance and to reduce body fat. However, the mechanism for such potential effects in association with exercise training (ET) and possible implications in browning adiposity processes remains unclear. Forty-nine obese women were involved, aged between 20 and 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m2. The volunteers were divided into Phototherapy (808 nm) and SHAM groups. Interventions consisted of exercise training and phototherapy applications post exercise for 4 months, with three sessions/week. Body composition, lipid profile, insulin resistance, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), WNT5 signaling, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) were measured. Improvements in body mass, BMI, body fat mass, lean mass, visceral fat, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and ANP in both groups were demonstrated. Only the Phototherapy group showed a reduction in interleukin-6 and an increase in WNT5 signaling. In addition, it was possible to observe a higher magnitude change for the fat mass, insulin, HOMA-IR, and FGF-21 variables in the Phototherapy group. In the present investigation, it was demonstrated that exercise training associated with LLLT promotes an improvement in body composition and inflammatory processes as previously demonstrated. The Phototherapy group especially presented positive modifications of WNT5 signaling, FGF-21, and ANP, possible biomarkers associated with browning adiposity processes. This suggests that this kind of intervention promotes results applicable in clinical practice to control obesity and related comorbidities. PMID: 29473115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Prominent Role of Interleukin-18 in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Advocates Its Blockage for Therapy of Hepatic Necroinflammation.

A Prominent Role of Interleukin-18 in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Advocates Its Blockage for Therapy of Hepatic Necroinflammation. Front Immunol. 2018;9:161 Authors: Bachmann M, Pfeilschifter J, Mühl H Abstract Acetaminophen [paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)]-induced acute liver injury (ALI) not only remains a persistent clinical challenge but likewise stands out as well-characterized paradigmatic model of drug-induced liver damage. APAP intoxication associates with robust hepatic necroinflammation the role of which remains elusive with pathogenic but also pro-regenerative/-resolving functions being ascribed to leukocyte activation. Here, we shine a light on and put forward a unique role of the interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-18 in experimental APAP-induced ALI. Indeed, amelioration of disease as previously observed in IL-18-deficient mice was further substantiated herein by application of the IL-18 opponent IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BPd:Fc) to wild-type mice. Data altogether emphasize crucial pathological action of this cytokine in APAP toxicity. Adding recombinant IL-22 to IL-18BPd:Fc further enhanced protection from liver injury. In contrast to IL-18, the role of prototypic pro-inflammatory IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α is controversially discussed with lack of effects or even protective action being repeatedly reported. A prominent detrimental function for IL-18 in APAP-induced ALI as proposed herein should relate to its pivotal role for hepatic expression of interferon-γ and Fas ligand, both of which aggravate APAP toxicity. As IL-18 serum levels increase in patients after APAP overdosing, targeting IL-18 may evolve as novel therapeutic option in those hard-to-treat patients where standard therapy with N-acetylcysteine is unsuccessful. Being a paradigmatic experimental model of ALI, current knowledge on ill-fated properties of IL-18 in APAP intoxication likewise emphasizes the potential of this cytokine to serve as therapeutic target in other entities of inflammatory liver diseases. PMID: 29472923 [PubMed]

Regenerative endodontic therapy for managing immature non-vital teeth: a national survey of UK paediatric dental specialists and trainees.

Regenerative endodontic therapy for managing immature non-vital teeth: a national survey of UK paediatric dental specialists and trainees. Br Dent J. 2018 Feb 23;224(4):247-254 Authors: Nazzal H, Tong H, Nixon P, Duggal M Abstract Background Several guidelines have been published advocating the use of regenerative endodontic therapy (RET) in managing non-vital immature permanent teeth. It is unclear, however, how many UK paediatric dental specialists routinely use this technique and their opinion of its outcomes, and barriers to its use.Aim To assess the knowledge, experience and the opinion of UK based paediatric dental specialists/trainees (UKPDS/T) and practitioners working in the capacity of paediatric dental specialists on the use of RET.Design A cross-sectional study using a 22-item questionnaire was developed using the Bristol Online Survey tool and circulated electronically to members of the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry between August and November 2016.Results Ninety-eight UKPDS/T completed the survey. A quarter of respondents (N = 24, 24.5%) reported using RET. Reasons cited for not using RET included lack of: training (N = 48, 45%), materials (N = 28, 26%), evidence (N = 17, 16%) and suitable cases (N = 6, 6%). Different protocols in terms of disinfection, medicaments, scaffolds, and obturation material were identified.Conclusions This survey highlights a low uptake of RET by current UKPDS and trainees with several barriers identified. Deviations from the current RET guidelines were identified. Recommendations addressing the use of RET in light of the findings of this survey were made. PMID: 29472688 [PubMed - in process]

Inhibitory modulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity with specific near-infrared light wavelengths attenuates brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Inhibitory modulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity with specific near-infrared light wavelengths attenuates brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 22;8(1):3481 Authors: Sanderson TH, Wider JM, Lee I, Reynolds CA, Liu J, Lepore B, Tousignant R, Bukowski MJ, Johnston H, Fite A, Raghunayakula S, Kamholz J, Grossman LI, Przyklenk K, Hüttemann M Abstract The interaction of light with biological tissue has been successfully utilized for multiple therapeutic purposes. Previous studies have suggested that near infrared light (NIR) enhances the activity of mitochondria by increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, which we confirmed for 810 nm NIR. In contrast, scanning the NIR spectrum between 700 nm and 1000 nm revealed two NIR wavelengths (750 nm and 950 nm) that reduced the activity of isolated COX. COX-inhibitory wavelengths reduced mitochondrial respiration, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), attenuated mitochondrial superoxide production, and attenuated neuronal death following oxygen glucose deprivation, whereas NIR that activates COX provided no benefit. We evaluated COX-inhibitory NIR as a potential therapy for cerebral reperfusion injury using a rat model of global brain ischemia. Untreated animals demonstrated an 86% loss of neurons in the CA1 hippocampus post-reperfusion whereas inhibitory NIR groups were robustly protected, with neuronal loss ranging from 11% to 35%. Moreover, neurologic function, assessed by radial arm maze performance, was preserved at control levels in rats treated with a combination of both COX-inhibitory NIR wavelengths. Taken together, our data suggest that COX-inhibitory NIR may be a viable non-pharmacologic and noninvasive therapy for the treatment of cerebral reperfusion injury. PMID: 29472564 [PubMed - in process]

Fork Protection and Therapy Resistance in Hereditary Breast Cancer.

Fork Protection and Therapy Resistance in Hereditary Breast Cancer. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2018 Feb 22;: Authors: Cantor SB, Calvo JA Abstract The BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway preserves the genome and suppresses cancer and is a main determinant of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The hereditary breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 function in DNA double-strand break repair mediating distinct steps of homologous recombination (HR). More recently, independent of DNA repair, functions in the replication stress response have come to light, providing insight as to how the BRCA-FA pathway also balances genome preservation with proliferation. The BRCA-FA proteins associate with the replisome and contribute to the efficiency and recovery of replication following perturbations that slow or arrest DNA replication. Although the full repertoire of functions in the replication stress response remains to be elucidated, the function of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in protecting stalled replication forks contributes along with HR to the sensitivity of BRCA-associated tumors to chemotherapy. Moreover, chemoresistance evolves from restoration of either HR and/or fork protection. Although mechanisms underlying the restoration of HR have been characterized, it remains less clear how restoration of fork protection is achieved. Here, we outline mechanisms of "rewired" fork protection and chemotherapy resistance in BRCA cancer. We propose that mechanisms are linked to permissive replication that limits fork remodeling and therefore opportunities for fork degradation. Combating this chemoresistance mechanism will require drugs that inactivate replication bypass mechanisms. PMID: 29472318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Luminal A Breast Cancer and Molecular Assays: A Review.

Luminal A Breast Cancer and Molecular Assays: A Review. Oncologist. 2018 Feb 22;: Authors: Gao JJ, Swain SM Abstract PURPOSE: Chemotherapy has been the historical mainstay of treatment for patients with breast cancer, with immunohistochemical markers and tumor characteristics driving treatment decisions. The discovery of different intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding of breast cancer, with gene-based assays shedding further light on tumor behavior and response to treatment. DESIGN: This review focuses on the landscape of the luminal A subtype, its definition based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene assays, the prognostic and predictive value of these assays, guideline recommendations, and treatment implications. RESULTS: Clinical studies of the prognostic value of gene-based and IHC-based assays in patients with luminal A-subtype breast cancers suggest a better prognosis for these patients compared with those with breast cancers of other subtypes. CONCLUSION: In today's era of precision medicine, the best treatment regimen for patients with luminal A-subtype tumors is still undetermined, but available data raise the question whether chemotherapy can be omitted and endocrine therapy alone is sufficient for this patient population. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Immunohistochemical markers have traditionally guided treatment decisions in breast cancer. However, advances in gene-expression profiling and availability of gene-based assays have launched these newer tests into everyday clinical practice. Luminal A-subtype tumors are a unique subset that may have favorable tumor biology. Properly defining this tumor subtype is important and may identify a subset of patients for whom endocrine therapy alone is sufficient. PMID: 29472313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Blistering During Phototherapy.

Blistering During Phototherapy. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2018 Feb 19;: Authors: de Argila D PMID: 29471967 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Plasmodium falciparum diagnostic tools in HIV-positive under-5-year-olds in two ART clinics in Ghana: are there missed infections?

Plasmodium falciparum diagnostic tools in HIV-positive under-5-year-olds in two ART clinics in Ghana: are there missed infections? Malar J. 2018 Feb 23;17(1):92 Authors: Owusu EDA, Djonor SK, Brown CA, Grobusch MP, Mens PF Abstract BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum, the most dominant species in sub-Saharan Africa, causes the most severe clinical malaria manifestations. In resource-limited Ghana, where malaria and HIV geographically overlap, histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is a faster, easier and cheaper alternative to clinical gold standard light microscopy. However, mutations in parasite hrp2 gene may result in missed infections, which have severe implications for malaria control. METHODS: The performance of a common HRP2-based RDT and expert light microscopy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children under 5 years old was compared with PCR as laboratory gold standard. Finger-prick capillary blood was tested with First Response® Malaria Ag P. falciparum (HRP2). Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined with ≥ 200 high power fields and parasites counted per 200 white blood cells. Nested PCR species identification of P. falciparum was performed and resolved on agarose gel. False negatives from RDT were further tested for deleted pfhrp2/3 and flanking genes, using PCR. The study was performed in two anti-retroviral therapy clinics in Accra and Atibie. RESULTS: Out of 401 participants enrolled, 150 were HIV positive and 251 HIV negative. Malaria was more prevalent in children without HIV. Microscopy had a higher sensitivity [100% (99-100)] than RDT [83% (53.5-100)]. Parasites with pfhrp2/3 deletions contributed to missed infections from RDT false negatives. CONCLUSION: Circulation of malaria parasites with pfrhp2/3 deletions in this population played a role in missed infections with RDT. This ought to be addressed if further strides in malaria control are to be made. PMID: 29471833 [PubMed - in process]

Probing Light Chain Mutation Effects on Thrombin via Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Machine Learning.

Probing Light Chain Mutation Effects on Thrombin via Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Machine Learning. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2018 Feb 22;:1-55 Authors: Xiao J, Melvin RL, Salsbury FR Abstract Thrombin is a key component for chemotherapeutic and antithrombotic therapy development. As the physiologic and pathologic roles of the light chain still remain vague, here, we continue previous efforts to understand the impacts of the disease-associated single deletion of LYS9 in the light chain. By combining supervised and unsupervised machine learning methodologies and more traditional structural analyses on data from 10 μs molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the conformational ensemble of the ΔK9 mutant is significantly perturbed. Our analyses consistently indicate that LYS9 deletion destabilizes both the catalytic cleft and regulatory functional regions and result in some conformational changes that occur in tens to hundreds of nanosecond scaled motions. We also reveal that the two forms of thrombin each prefer a distinct binding mode of a Na+ ion. We expand our understanding of previous experimental observations and shed light on the mechanisms of the LYS9 deletion associated bleeding disorder by providing consistent but more quantitative and detailed structural analyses than early studies in literature. With a novel application of supervised learning, i.e. the decision tree learning on the hydrogen bonding features in the wild-type and ΔK9 mutant forms of thrombin, we predict that seven pairs of critical hydrogen bonding interactions are significant for establishing distinct behaviors of wild-type thrombin and its ΔK9 mutant form. Our calculations indicate the LYS9 in the light chain has both localized and long-range allosteric effects on thrombin, supporting the opinion that light chain has an important role as an allosteric effector. PMID: 29471734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Aeromonas Salmonicida as a Causative Agent for Postoperative Endophthalmitis.

Related Articles Aeromonas Salmonicida as a Causative Agent for Postoperative Endophthalmitis. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2017 Oct-Dec;24(4):213-215 Authors: Varshney A, Das M, Chaudhary P, Kumari R, Yadav K Abstract We report a case of a 55-year-old female who presented with pain, redness, and profound visual loss in her right eye 2 weeks after cataract surgery. An ophthalmic examination showed light perception vision, corneal edema with severe anterior chamber reaction and hypopyon, exudative membranes on the anterior lens surface, and dense vitreous exudates. Under the impression of acute postoperative exogenous endophthalmitis, immediate pars plana vitrectomy with culture of vitreous aspirate and intravitreal antibiotic injections were performed. Bacterial growth was observed on culture plates and broths which were identified as Aeromonas salmonicida by VITEK 2 compact system. So far, no report has been published regarding endophthalmitis due to A. salmonicida. Here, we present the first report of A. salmonicida isolated from the ocular specimen. PMID: 29422757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gd³⁺ Tethered Gold Nanorods for Combined Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photo-Thermal Therapy.

Related Articles Gd³⁺ Tethered Gold Nanorods for Combined Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photo-Thermal Therapy. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2017 Apr;13(4):417-26 Authors: Pitchaimani A, Duong T, Nguyen T, Maurmann L, Key J, Bossmann SH, Aryal S Abstract Near infrared (NIR) mediated photothermal therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are promising treatment and imaging modalities in the field of cancer theranostics. Gold nanorods are the first choice of materials for NIR-mediated photothermal therapy due to their strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at NIR region. Similarly, gadolinium based MRI contrast agents have an ability to increase the ionic and molecular relaxivity, thereby enhancing the solvent proton relaxation rate resulting in contrast enhancement. Herein, the effort has been made to engineer a dual front theranostic agent with combined photothermal and magnetic resonance imaging capacity using gadolinium tethered gold nanorods (Gd3+-AuNR). NIR-responsive gold nanorods were surface fabricated by means of Au-thiol interaction using a thiolated macrocyclic chelator that chelates Gd3+ ions, and further stabilized by thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH). The magnetic properties of the Gd3+-AuNR displayed an enhanced r 1 relaxivity of 12.1 mM–1s–1, with higher biological stability, and contrast enhancement in both solution state and in cell pellets. In-vitro (cell-free) and ex-vivo (on pig skin) analysis of the Gd3+-AuNR shows enhanced photothermal properties as equivalent to that of the raw AuNR. Furthermore, Gd3+-AuNR showed competent cellular entry and intracellular distribution as revealed by hyperspectral microscopy. In addition, Gd3+-AuNR also exhibits significant thermal ablation of B16–F10 cells in the presence of NIR. Thus, Gd3+-AuNR features a significant theranostic potential with combined photothermal and imaging modality, suggesting a great potential in anticancer therapy. PMID: 29384618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sulforaphene Enhances The Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy In Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Through Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK Pathway Suppression.

Related Articles Sulforaphene Enhances The Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy In Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Through Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK Pathway Suppression. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2018 Feb;179:46-53 Authors: Chatterjee S, Rhee Y, Chung PS, Ge RF, Ahn JC Abstract Sulforaphene (SFE), a natural isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables has shown a potential anticancer effect against cervical and lung cancer. Palliative treatments like photodynamic therapy (PDT) are being implemented for a long time however, the results are still not promising in case of aggressive cancers like anaplastic thyroid cancer. The objective of this work is to establish an alternative method with the combination of photofrin-PDT and sulforaphene, a natural isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, against human anaplastic thyroid cancer to enhance the efficacy of PDT. In this study, cell viability of FRO cells due to combination treatment was analyzed by MTT assay, Cell cycle arrest, MMP depolarization and ROS generation, analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis of various proliferative proteins was performed to assess the activity of combination treatment against FRO cells. From the results, sulforaphene alone showed no cytotoxicity against normal cells, however, combination of sulforaphene and photofrin mediated PDT showed a noticeable decrease in cell proliferation against FRO cells. Combination treatment synergistically caused cell cycle arrest via ROS generation and MMP depolarization. The expressions of Ras, MEK, ERK, B-Raf proteins significantly modulated due to combination treatment. PDT and SFE can induce apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells individually but while treated in combination, it enhanced the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effect, much higher than the individual doses. In summary, our work designates sulforaphene as a unique natural enhancer of efficacy with PDT against anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID: 29331658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

In Vivo Early Corneal Biomechanical Changes After Corneal Cross-linking in Patients With Progressive Keratoconus.

Related Articles In Vivo Early Corneal Biomechanical Changes After Corneal Cross-linking in Patients With Progressive Keratoconus. J Refract Surg. 2017 Dec 01;33(12):840-846 Authors: Vinciguerra R, Romano V, Arbabi EM, Brunner M, Willoughby CE, Batterbury M, Kaye SB Abstract PURPOSE: To report early corneal biomechanical changes after corneal cross-linking (CXL) in patients with keratoconus. METHODS: Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients undergoing CXL for progressive keratoconus were included in this prospective clinical study. Dynamic corneal response (DCR) parameters obtained with the Corvis ST (OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH; Wetzlar, Germany) were assessed at baseline (day of CXL) and after 1 month of follow-up; conversely, corneal tomography with the Pentacam (OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH) was assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after CXL. RESULTS: At the last follow-up visit (123.7 ± 69.6 days), all morphological parameters including steepest point (Kmax) and thinnest corneal thickness (ThCT) indicated stabilization of keratoconus (P > .05). Comparative analyses showed a rise of corneal stiffness demonstrated by a significant increase of Stiffness Parameter A1 (SP-A1) and Highest Concavity (SP-HC) and a significant decrease of Inverse Concave Radius (1/R) and Deformation Amplitude Ratio (DA Ratio) (P < .05). There was a significant correlation between the preoperative keratoconus characteristics (Kmax, Belin/Ambrósio final D value [BAD-D], and ThCT) and the DCR parameters (P < .05). Kmax and BAD-D showed a significant positive correlation with DA Ratio, Deflection Amplitude (DefA), and 1/R and a significant negative correlation with SPA1 and SP-HC. ThCT showed a significant positive correlation with SP-A1 and SP-HC and a significant negative correlation with DA Ratio, DefA, and 1/R. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the new DCR parameters of the Corvis ST are able to detect early changes in biomechanics following CXL and those that are measurable before corneal shape modifications take place. Based on these results, the authors suggest the use of these metrics to assess the early efficacy of cross-linking. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(12):840-846.]. PMID: 29227513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells as quantum dot vehicles to tumors.

Related Articles Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells as quantum dot vehicles to tumors. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:8129-8142 Authors: Dapkute D, Steponkiene S, Bulotiene D, Saulite L, Riekstina U, Rotomskis R Abstract Purpose: Cell-mediated delivery of nanoparticles is emerging as a new method of cancer diagnostics and treatment. Due to their inherent regenerative properties, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are naturally attracted to wounds and sites of inflammation, as well as tumors. Such characteristics enable MSCs to be used in cellular hitchhiking of nanoparticles. In this study, MSCs extracted from the skin connective tissue were investigated as transporters of semiconductor nanocrystals quantum dots (QDs). Materials and methods: Cytotoxicity of carboxylated CdSe/ZnS QDs was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase cell viability assay. Quantitative uptake of QDs was determined by flow cytometry; their intracellular localization was evaluated by confocal microscopy. In vitro tumor-tropic migration of skin-derived MSCs was verified by Transwell migration assay. For in vivo migration studies of QD-loaded MSCs, human breast tumor-bearing immunodeficient mice were used. Results: QDs were found to be nontoxic to MSCs in concentrations no more than 16 nM. The uptake studies showed a rapid QD endocytosis followed by saturating effects after 6 h of incubation and intracellular localization in the perinuclear region. In vitro migration of MSCs toward MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and their conditioned medium was up to nine times greater than the migration toward noncancerous breast epithelial cells MCF-10A. In vivo, systemically administered QD-labeled MSCs were mainly located in the tumor and metastatic tissues, evading most healthy organs with the exception being blood clearance organs (spleen, kidneys, liver). Conclusion: Skin-derived MSCs demonstrate applicability in cell-mediated delivery of nanoparticles. The findings presented in this study promise further development of a cell therapy and nanotechnology-based tool for early cancer diagnostics and therapy. PMID: 29158674 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

New photobiomodulation protocol prevents oral mucositis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients-a retrospective study.

Related Articles New photobiomodulation protocol prevents oral mucositis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients-a retrospective study. Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Dec;32(9):2013-2021 Authors: Weissheimer C, Curra M, Gregianin LJ, Daudt LE, Wagner VP, Martins MAT, Martins MD Abstract Oral mucositis (OM) is an adverse side effect among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the preventive effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) applied three times per week versus seven times per week in patients undergoing HSCT. The risk factors related to the incidence and severity of OM were also assessed. This was a retrospective study that evaluated 99 HSCT recipients who received different PBM protocols. Group I received three sessions per week, and group II received daily treatment. PBM was applied using a continuous-wave diode laser (InGaAlP; MM Optics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) at a wavelength of 660 nm (visible-red) and a total radiant energy of 0.24 J per point. The baseline disease, type of transplant, type of conditioning, prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease, OM grade, absolute leukocyte and platelet counts, and levels of liver and renal function markers were collected from medical records. The patients' age ranged from 13 to 71 years (mean/SD, 40.54 ± 16.45). No significant difference was observed between groups I and II regarding sex, age, ethnic, diagnosis, donor type, and conditioning treatment. Both PBM protocols were equally efficient in preventing OM (p = 0.34, ANOVA). Independent of the PBM protocol used, patients who received allogeneic transplant (p < 0.01-Fischer's exact test), total body irradiation (TBI-12Gy) (p = 0.01-chi-square test), busulfan + cyclophosphamide (p < 0.01-chi-square test), or methotrexate-containing regimens (p < 0.01-Fischer's exact test) demonstrated higher OM incidence and severity. Myelosuppression (p < 0.01-Mann-Whitney test) and impaired renal function (p = 0.02-Mann-Whitney test) were also considered risk factors for OM. Based on this retrospective data, PBM was effective in preventing OM in patients undergoing HSCT even when it was applied three times a week. A prospective study might be necessary to confirm these findings. PMID: 28840382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

How do red and infrared low-level lasers affect folliculogenesis cycle in rat's ovary tissue in comparison with clomiphene under in vivo condition.

Related Articles How do red and infrared low-level lasers affect folliculogenesis cycle in rat's ovary tissue in comparison with clomiphene under in vivo condition. Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Dec;32(9):1971-1979 Authors: Naseri P, Alihemmati A, Rasta SH Abstract Folliculogenesis is a cycle that produces the majority of oocyte. Any disruption to this cycle leads to ovulation diseases, like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Treatments include drugs and surgery; lasers have also been used complementarily. Meanwhile, still there is no definite treatment for PCOS. This study investigated the photo-bio stimulation effect of near-infrared and red low-level laser on producing follicles and compared the result with result of using common drug, clomiphene. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose the use of lasers autonomously treatment. So, there was one question: how do lasers affect folliculogenesis cycle in rat's ovary tissue? In this study, 28 rats were assigned to four groups as follows: control (CT), clomiphene drug (D), red laser (RL), and near-infrared laser (NIRL). Afterwards, 14 rats of RL and NIRL groups received laser on the first 2 days of estrous cycle, each 6 days, for 48 days. During treatment period, each rat received energy density of 5 J/cm2. Seven rats in D group received clomiphene. After the experiment, lasers' effects at two wavelengths of 630 and 810 nm groups have been investigated and compared with clomiphene and CT groups. Producing different follicles to complement folliculogenesis cycle increased in NIRL and RL groups, but this increase was significant only in the NIRL group. This indicates that NIRL increases ovarian activity to produce oocyte that certainly can be used in future studies for finding a cure to ovarian negligence to produce more oocyte and treat diseases caused by it like PCOS. PMID: 28801854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Leishmanicidal effect of antiparasitic photodynamic therapy-ApPDT on infected macrophages.

Related Articles Leishmanicidal effect of antiparasitic photodynamic therapy-ApPDT on infected macrophages. Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Dec;32(9):1959-1964 Authors: de Oliveira S, da Ordem Trahamane EJ, Monteiro J, Santos GP, Crugeira P, Sampaio F, Oliveira C, Neto MB, Pinheiro A Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ApPDT (antiparasitic photodynamic therapy) on the interaction of Leishmania braziliensis with J774 macrophages, used as a photosensitizer, methylene blue associated with red laser. The tests are in triplicate and the samples divided into four groups: control, photosensitizer, laser, and ApPDT. The photosensitizer used was the methylene blue at concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. The parameters of the laser were λ = 660 nm, 40 mW, and 8.4 J/cm2. Samples are analyzed by optical microscopy through the identification and counting of infected and uninfected macrophages, parasite load, infectivity, and infection index. Statistical analysis used ANOVA test with Tukey post-test, being considered statistically significant p < 0.05. The analysis of the interaction tests shows that the infection rate in the ApPDT group in relation to the control group presents a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.0001) of 71% at both 24 and 48 h (p < 0.0001) of 62%. ApPDT reduces the number of macrophages infected by Leishmania braziliensis, as well as the number of intracellular parasites, being a possible alternative therapy in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniosis. PMID: 28752261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation on vertebras in two rat models of experimental osteoporosis.

Related Articles Evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation on vertebras in two rat models of experimental osteoporosis. Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Sep;32(7):1545-1560 Authors: Fredoni M, Ghatrehsamani M, Abdollahifar MA, Bayat S, Bayat M Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) on cancellous bone in rat models of ovariectomized induced osteoporosis (OVX-D) and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The experiment comprised of nine groups. A group of healthy rats was used for baseline evaluations. The OVX-D rats were further divided into groups as follows: control rats with osteoporosis, OVX-D rats that received alendronate (1 mg/kg 60 days), OVX-D rats treated with pulsed wave laser (890 nm, 80 Hz, 900 s, 0.0061 W/cm2, 5.5 J/cm2, three times a week, 60 days), and OVX-D rats treated with alendronate + pulsed laser. Dexamethasone was administered to the remaining rats that were split into four groups: control, alendronate-treated rats, laser-treated rats, and GIOP rats treated with alendronate + laser. T12, L1, L2, and L3 vertebrae were subjected to laser. Results of the current study demonstrated that OVX-D and GIOP significantly decreased some stereological parameters, and type 1 collagen gene expression compared to the healthy group. There was a significant increase in osteoclast number in both OVX-D and glucocorticoid administration compared to the healthy group. However, the detrimental effect of the OVX-D procedure on bone was more serious than glucocorticoid administration. Results showed that laser alone had a detrimental effect on trabecular bone volume, and cortical bone volume in groups GIOP and OVX-D compared to those in the healthy group. Alendronate significantly improved total vertebral bone volume, trabecular bone volume, and cortical bone volume, in GIOP and OVX-D groups compared to the laser-treated groups. Furthermore, the alendronate + laser in OVX-D rats and GIOP rats produced significantly increased osteoblast number and type 1 collagen gene expression and caused a significant decrease in osteoclast number compared to the controls. PMID: 28725994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]