The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.
J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 ;17(1):38-41. Epub 2016 Jan 1. PMID: 27084861
Mamta Kaushik, Pallavi Reddy, Roshni Sharma, Pooja Udameshi, Neha Mehra, Aditya Marwaha
OBJECTIVES: Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A:
STUDY GROUP: Oil pulling, Group B:
STUDY GROUP: Chlorhexidine, and Group C:
CONTROL GROUP: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water.
RESULTS: Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group.
CONCLUSION: Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015
Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report.
Niger Med J. 2015 Mar-Apr;56(2):143-7. PMID: 25838632
Faizal C Peedikayil, Prathima Sreenivasan, Arun Narayanan
Faizal C Peedikayil
BACKGROUND: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test.
RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study.
CONCLUSION: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.
Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2015
Effect of oil pulling on halitosis and microorganisms causing halitosis: a randomized controlled pilot trial.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2011 Apr-Jun;29(2):90-4. PMID: 21911944
Sharath Asokan, R Saravana Kumar, Pamela Emmadi, R Raghuraman, N Sivakumar
BACKGROUND: Oil pulling therapy has been used extensively as a traditional Indian folk remedy for many years for strengthening teeth, gums, and jaws and to prevent decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums and dryness of throat, and cracked lips.
AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on halitosis and the microorganisms that could be responsible for it and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine mouthwash.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Group I (oil pulling) and group II (chlorhexidine) included 10 adolescents each. The following parameters were assessed: marginal gingival index, plaque index, organoleptic breath assessment (ORG 1), self-assessment of breath (ORG 2), and BANA test from tongue coating samples on days 0 and 14 of the experimental period.
RESULTS: The comparisons of the pre and post therapy values of plaque and modified gingival index score showed a statistically significant difference (P = 0.005 and 0.007, respectively) in group I and II. There was a definite reduction in the ORG 1, ORG 2, scores and BANA test score in both groups I and II.
CONCLUSIONS: Oil pulling therapy has been equally effective like chlorhexidine on halitosis and organisms, associated with halitosis.
Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2011
Tooth brushing, oil pulling and tissue regeneration: A review of holistic approaches to oral health.
J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2011 Apr ;2(2):64-8. PMID: 21760690
Abhinav Singh, Bharathi Purohit
Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, India.
Even though dentistry was not a specialized branch of Ayurveda, it is included in its Shalakya Tantra (system of surgery). Problems such as deformities of the oral cavity, plaques and infections were managed in ancient India. Traditional medicine can treat various infectious and chronic conditions. Research has shown that all kinds of chewing sticks described in ancient Ayurveda texts have medicinal and anti-cariogenic properties. Its oil pulling (Kaval, Gandush) practice is claimed to cure about 30 systemic diseases. Amla (Emblic myrobalan), is a general rebuilder of oral health. Bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus) and hawthorn berry (Crateagus oxycanthus) stabilize collagen, strengthening the gum tissue. Liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabral) promotes anti-cavity action, reduces plaque, and has an antibacterial effect. Use of safe, quality products and practices should be ensured based on available evidence if traditional medicine is to be acknowledged as part of primary health care. Scientific validations of the Ayurveda dental health practices could justify their incorporation into modern dental care. Publicity of these techniques using appropriate media would benefit the general population by giving more confidence in the ancient practices, thus preventing tooth decay and loss.
Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2011
Mechanism of oil-pulling therapy - in vitro study.
Indian J Dent Res. 2011 Jan-Feb;22(1):34-7. PMID: 21525674
Sharath Asokan, T K Rathinasamy, N Inbamani, Thangam Menon, S Senthil Kumar, Pamela Emmadi, R Raghuraman
BACKGROUND: Oil pulling has been used extensively as a traditional Indian folk remedy without scientific proof for many years for strengthening teeth, gums and jaws and to prevent decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums and dryness of throat and cracked lips.
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of sesame oil and lignans isolated from sesame oil on oral microorganisms and to check whether saponification or emulsification occurs during oil-pulling therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro study was carried out in three different phases: (1) Antibacterial activity of the lignans and sesame oil were tested by minimum inhibitory concentration assay by agar dilution method and agar well diffusion method, respectively. (2) Increase in free fatty acid level of oil and the quantity of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used up in the titration are good indicators of saponification process. This was assessed using analytical tests for vegetable oils. (3) Swished oil was observed under light microscope to assess the status of the oil, presence of microorganisms, oral debris and foreign bodies.
RESULTS: Sesamin and sesamolin isolated from sesame oil did not have any antibacterial effect against oral microorganisms like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus viridans. Emulsification of sesame oil occurs during oil-pulling therapy. Increased consumption of NaOH in titration is a definite indication of a possible saponification process.
CONCLUSION: The myth that the effect of oil-pulling therapy on oral health was just a placebo effect has been broken and there are clear indications of possible saponification and emulsification process, which enhances its mechanical cleaning action.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011
Effect of oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis: a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study.
Indian J Dent Res. 2009 Jan-Mar;20(1):47-51. PMID: 19336860
Sharath Asokan, Pamela Emmadi, Raghuraman Chamundeswari
BACKGROUND: Oil pulling has been used extensively as a traditional Indian folk remedy for many years for strengthening teeth, gums, and the jaw and to prevent decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums, dryness of the throat, and cracked lips. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on plaque-induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 age-matched adolescent boys with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected for this study. They were divided randomly into the study or oil pulling group (Group I) and the control or chlorhexidine group (Group II) with 10 subjects in each group. Plaque index and modified gingival index scores were recorded for the 20 subjects and baseline plaque samples were also collected. The plaque samples were used to identify the microorganisms and to measure the total colony count of the aerobic microorganisms present. The study group was subjected to oil pulling with sesame oil and the control group was given chlorhexidine mouthwash everyday in the morning before brushing. Reassessment of the index scores and collection of plaque for measuring the colony count of the aerobic microorganisms was done after 10 days. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction of the pre- and post-values of the plaque and modified gingival index scores in both the study and control groups (P < 0.001 in both). There was a considerable reduction in the total colony count of aerobic microorganisms present in both the groups. CONCLUSION: The oil pulling therapy showed a reduction in the plaque index, modified gingival scores, and total colony count of aerobic microorganisms in the plaque of adolescents with plaque-induced gingivitis.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2009
Effect of oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans count in plaque and saliva using Dentocult SM Strip mutans test: a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008 Mar;26(1):12-7. PMID: 18408265
S Asokan, J Rathan, M S Muthu, Prabhu V Rathna, P Emmadi, ,
BACKGROUND: Oil pulling has been used extensively for many years, without scientific evidence or proof, as a traditional Indian folk remedy to prevent teeth decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums, dryness of throat and cracked lips, and for strengthening the teeth, gums, and jaws. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on the count of Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva of children, using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans test, and to compare its efficacy with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty age-matched adolescent boys were selected based on information obtained through a questionnaire. They were divided randomly into two groups: the control or chlorhexidine group (group I) and the study or oil pulling group (group II); there were ten subjects in each group. Plaque and saliva samples were collected from all the 20 subjects on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and, after incubation, the presence of S. mutans was evaluated using the manufacturers' chart. The study group practiced oil pulling with sesame oil and the control group used chlorhexidine mouthwash for 10 min every day in the morning before brushing. Samples were collected from both groups after 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks and the efficacy of oil pulling was compared with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. RESULTS: There was a reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque and saliva samples of both the study and the control groups. The reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque of the study group was statistically significant after 1 and 2 weeks (P=0.01 and P=0.008, respectively); the control group showed significant reduction at all the four time points (P=0.01, P=0.04, P=0.005, and P=0.005, respectively, at 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks). In the saliva samples, significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in the control group at 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks (P=0.02, P=0.02, P=0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Oil pulling can be used as an effective preventive adjunct in maintaining and improving oral health.
Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2008
Health Effects of Coconut Oil-A Narrative Review of Current Evidence.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Nov 05;:1-11
Authors: Wallace TC
Coconut oil is a mainstream edible oil that is extracted from the kernel of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm. The two main types of coconut oil-copra oil and virgin coconut oil-have similar fatty acid profiles; however the latter contains higher amounts of some nutrients (e.g., vitamin E) and dietary bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols). There is increasing popularity for coconut oil products due to perceived health effects of certain medium-chain fatty acids; however, lauric acid (C12:0), the primary fatty acid found in coconut oil, has been suggested to behave as both a medium- and long-chain fatty acid from a metabolic standpoint. Furthermore, research on pure medium-chain fatty acids cannot be directly applied to coconut oil products since it encompasses a large profile of various fatty acids. This narrative review seeks to summarize the current peer-reviewed literature and mechanisms surrounding the health effects of coconut oil products. Limited but consistent evidence supports the topical use for prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis, as well as in "oil pulling" for prevention of dental caries. Coconut oil products may also be useful in preventing hair damage due to protein loss during grooming processes and ultraviolet (UV) exposure; however, more studies are needed to confirm this effect. Limited evidence does not support use for prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease, bone loss, or glycemic control. Evidence on weight loss and cardiovascular disease warrants larger clinical intervention studies. Refined, bleached, and deodorized copra oil seems to have less of an impact on total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as compared to butter fat, but not cis unsaturated vegetable oils. In many instances, human clinical and observational studies are needed to confirm many claims on coconut oil products, which are largely based on animal and/or in vitro studies or studies of purified medium-chain fatty acids.
PMID: 30395784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]