CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low Carbohydrate

Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer.

Abstract Title: Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer. Abstract Source: Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jun ;111(6):891-6. Epub 2016 Mar 29. PMID: 27021191 Abstract Author(s): Susanna C Larsson, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk Article Affiliation: Susanna C Larsson Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. METHODS: We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997. Incident cancer cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years (1,010,777 person-years), we identified 140 extrahepatic BTC cases (including 77 gallbladder cancers) and 23 intrahepatic BTC cases. A high dietary GL was associated with an increased risk of BTC. The multivariable relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of dietary GL were 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-2.63) for extrahepatic BTC, 2.14 (95% CI, 1.06-4.33) for gallbladder cancer, and 3.46 (95% CI, 1.22-9.84) for intrahepatic BTC. Dietary GI was statistically significantly positively associated with risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between carbohydrate intake and BTC risk, although all associations were positive. CONCLUSION: Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that high-GL and high-GI diets are associated with an increased risk of BTC. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016

Metabolic Correction as a tool to improve diabetes type 2 management.

Abstract Title: Metabolic Correction as a tool to improve diabetes type 2 management. Abstract Source: Bol Asoc Med P R. 2015 Apr-Jun;107(2):54-9. PMID: 26434085 Abstract Author(s): Jorge R Miranda-Massari, Michael J Gonzalez, Alvarez-Soto Fernando, Carlos Cidre, Iván M Paz, Jorge Charvel, Viridiana Martínez, Jorge Duconge, Aileen Aponte, Carlos M Ricart Article Affiliation: Jorge R Miranda-Massari Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) is a metabolic disease that develops by a decrease in sensitivity of insulin receptors as an effect of the disruption certain metabolic functions in the processing of glucose. DM2 patients have, uncontrolled glucose levels, and commonly have problems with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Patients are treated with standard diet, insulin, diabetic oral agents and antihypertensive drugs, but this approach does not completely stops tissue deterioration since it does not address the metabolic root of the disease. Metabolic correction is proposed as a suitable adjunct treatment to improve clinical outcomes. Metabolic correction is based on diet modification, proper hydration and scientific supplementation directed to improve cellular biochemistry and metabolic efficiency. In addition, other possible benefits may include reduction in medication use, disease complications and medical costs. To test the results of a metabolic correction program, 25 patients with DM2 participated in an education program about adequate food consumption that promoted control of blood glucose levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood tests were performed during a 13 week program based on a low carbohydrate diet, proper hydration and magnesium supplementation. The metabolic correction program implemented by a proprietary educational system resulted in significant reductions in glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, weight and waist circumference. Improvements in these values could represent an important reduction of coronary heart disease risk factors as well as other chronic degenerative diseases. In addition there was medication dosage reduction in one or more medications in 21 of the 25 participating patients, which suggest that the program has the potential to improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1. 📎

Abstract Title: Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1. Abstract Source: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015 Mar 19. Epub 2015 Mar 19. PMID: 25747515 Abstract Author(s): Jong Doo Lee, Min-Ah Choi, Simon Weonsang Ro, Woo Ick Yang, Arthur E H Cho, Hye-Lim Ju, Sinhwa Baek, Sook In Chung, Won Jun Kang, Mijin Yun, Jeon Han Park Article Affiliation: Jong Doo Lee Abstract: Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD withphytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a tumor suppressor under a low-glucose condition.This is an open-access article distributedunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0. Article Published Date : Mar 18, 2015

Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2011 ;4:167-74. Epub 2011 Apr 29. PMID: 21779148 Abstract Author(s): Tae Sasakabe, Hajime Haimoto, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Kenji Wakai Article Affiliation: Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; Abstract: BACKGROUND: Reports have shown that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is more closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We aimed to elucidate preferential abdominal fat loss and the correlations between abdominal fat reductions and changes in CRFs achieved with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two outpatients (28 men and 24 women, mean age± SD: 60.0 ± 10.5 years) with hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(lc)) levels ≥ 6.5% were on an LCD for 6 months. Over a 6-month period, we measured their abdominal fat distribution (using CT) and assessed CRFs, including body mass index (BMI), HbA(1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, high-densitylipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride levels. RESULTS: The patients showed good compliance with the LCD (1812± 375 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 35:40:19 for men; 1706 ± 323 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 41:36:21 for women). Significant decreases (P = 0.05) in BMI and HbA(1c) levels were observed, along with an increase in HDL-C (P = 0.021) in men and a decrease in LDL-C (P = 0.001) inwomen. VAT (-21.6 cm(2), P<0.001 in men; -19.6 cm(2), P<0.001 in women) and SAT (-13.5 cm(2), P = 0.004 in men; -19.1 cm(2), P = 0.003 in women) significantly decreased. The loss of VAT (%ΔVAT) was greater than that of SAT (%ΔSAT) in women (P = 0.022). A similar but not significant predominance of VAT loss was detected in men (P = 0.111). In women, the %ΔSAT significantly correlated with changes in FBG (ΔFBG) (r = 0.417) and HDL-C (ΔHDL) (r = -0.720), as was %ΔVAT with changesin triglyceride (ΔTG) (r = 0.591). CONCLUSION: Six months of a moderate LCD resulted in preferential VAT loss only in women, with significant correlations between %ΔSAT and both ΔHDL and ΔFBG, as well as between %ΔVAT and ΔTG. Our results suggest that an LCD has the potential to reduce abdominal fat in patients with T2DM and deterioration of serum lipid profiles. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Low-carbohydrate diet disrupts the association between insulin resistance and weight gain.

Abstract Title: Low-carbohydrate diet disrupts the association between insulin resistance and weight gain. Abstract Source: Metabolism. 2009 Aug;58(8):1116-22. Epub 2009 Jun 18. PMID: 19439329 Abstract Author(s): Jose O Leite, Ryan DeOgburn, Joseph C Ratliff, Randy Su, Jeff S Volek, Mary M McGrane, Alan Dardik, Maria Luz Fernandez Article Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Abstract: The cornerstone to treat metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance is dietary intervention. Both low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and low-fat diet (LFD) have been reported to induce weight loss and improve these conditions. One of the factors associated with a subject's adherence to the diet is satiety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LCD and LFD on body weight, appetite hormones, and insulin resistance. Twenty guinea pigs were randomly assigned to LCD or LFD (60%:10%:30% or 20%:55%:25% of energy from fat/carbohydrate/protein, respectively) for 12 weeks. Weight and food intake were recorded every week. After this period, animals were killed and plasma was obtained to measure plasma glucose and insulin, appetite hormones, and ketone bodies. Guinea pigs fed LCD gained more weight than those fed LFD. The daily amount of food intake in grams was not different between groups, suggesting that food density and gastric distension played a role in satiety. There was no difference in leptin levels, which excludes the hypothesis of leptin resistance in the LCD group. However, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 was 47.1% lower in animals fed LCD (P<.05). Plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and insulin sensitivity were not different between groups. However, the heavier animals that were fed LFD had impairment in insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in those fed LCD. These findings suggest that satiety was dependent on the amount of food ingested. The weight gain in animals fed LCD may be related to their greater caloric intake, lower levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, and higher protein consumption. The adoption of LCD promotes a unique metabolic state that prevents insulin resistance, even in guinea pigs that gained more weight. The association between weight gain and insulin resistance seems to be dependent on high carbohydrate intake. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2009
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Carbohydrate

NCBI pubmed

A lifestyle intervention of weight loss via a low-carbohydrate diet plus walking to reduce metabolic disturbances caused by androgen deprivation therapy among prostate cancer patients: carbohydrate and prostate study 1 (CAPS1) randomized controlled trial.

A lifestyle intervention of weight loss via a low-carbohydrate diet plus walking to reduce metabolic disturbances caused by androgen deprivation therapy among prostate cancer patients: carbohydrate and prostate study 1 (CAPS1) randomized controlled trial. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Freedland SJ, Howard L, Allen J, Smith J, Stout J, Aronson W, Inman BA, Armstrong AJ, George D, Westman E, Lin PH Abstract PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to test a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) plus walking to reduce androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-induced metabolic disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized multi-center trial of prostate cancer (PCa) patients initiating ADT was designed to compare an LCD (≤20g carbohydrate/day) plus walking (≥30 min for ≥5 days/week) intervention vs. control advised to maintain usual diet and exercise patterns. Primary outcome was change in insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment at 6 months. To detect 20% reduction in insulin resistance, 100 men were required. The study was stopped early after randomizing 42 men due to slow accrual. Secondary outcomes included weight, body composition, lipids, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Changes from baseline were compared between arms using rank-sum tests. RESULTS: At 6 months, LCD/walking reduced insulin resistance by 4% vs. 36% increase in control (p = 0.13). At 3 months, vs. control, LCD/walking arm significantly lost weight (7.8kg; p<0.001), improved insulin resistance (↑36%; p = 0.015), hemoglobin A1c (↓3.3%; p = 0.01), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (↑13%; p = 0.004), and triglyceride (↓37%; p = 0.036). At 6 months, weight loss (10.6kg; p<0.001) and HDL (↑27%; p = 0.003) remained significant. LCD/walking preserved total body bone mineral count (p = 0.025), reduced fat mass (p = 0.002), lean mass (p = 0.036), and percent body fat (p = 0.004). There were no differences in PSA. Limitations include the effect of LCD, weight loss vs. walking instruction are indistinguishable, and small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: In an underpowered study, LCD/walking did not improve insulin sensitivity at 6 months. Given most secondary outcomes were improved at 3 months with some remaining improved at 6 months and a secondary analysis showed that LCD/walking reduced insulin resistance over the study, supporting future larger studies of LCD/walking intervention to reduce ADT-induced disturbances. PMID: 30664736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Short-Term Effects of Healthy Eating Pattern Cycling on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Pooled Results from Two Randomized Controlled Trials.

Related Articles Short-Term Effects of Healthy Eating Pattern Cycling on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Pooled Results from Two Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2018 11 10;10(11): Authors: O'Connor LE, Li J, Sayer RD, Hennessy JE, Campbell WW Abstract Adherence to healthy eating patterns (HEPs) is often short-lived and can lead to repetitive attempts of adopting-but not maintaining-HEPs. We assessed effects of adopting, abandoning, and readopting HEPs (HEP cycling) on cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RF). We hypothesized that HEP cycling would improve, worsen, and again improve CVD-RF. Data were retrospectively pooled for secondary analyses from two randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trials (n = 60, 52 ± 2 years, 30.6 ± 0.6 kg/m²) which included two 5⁻6 week HEP interventions (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style or Mediterranean-style) separated by a four-week unrestricted eating period. Ambulatory and fasting blood pressures (BP), fasting serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin were measured before and during the last week of HEP interventions. Fasting systolic BP and total cholesterol decreased (-6 ± 1 mm Hg and -19 ± 3 mg/dL, respectively, p < 0.05), returned to baseline, then decreased again (-5 ± 1 mm Hg and -13 ± 3 mg/dL, respectively, p < 0.05) when adopting, abandoning, and readopting a HEP; magnitude of changes did not differ. Ambulatory and fasting diastolic BP and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations followed similar patterns; glucose and insulin remained unchanged. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased with initial adoption but not readoption (-13 ± 3 and -6 ± 3, respectively, interaction p = 0.020). Healthcare professionals should encourage individuals to consistently consume a HEP for cardiovascular health but also encourage them to try again if a first attempt is unsuccessful or short-lived. PMID: 30423846 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Non-ketogenic combination of nutritional strategies provides robust protection against seizures.

Related Articles Non-ketogenic combination of nutritional strategies provides robust protection against seizures. Sci Rep. 2017 07 14;7(1):5496 Authors: Dallérac G, Moulard J, Benoist JF, Rouach S, Auvin S, Guilbot A, Lenoir L, Rouach N Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects 1% of the world population. Conventional treatments of epilepsy use drugs targeting neuronal excitability, inhibitory or excitatory transmission. Yet, one third of patients presents an intractable form of epilepsy and fails to respond to pharmacological anti-epileptic strategies. The ketogenic diet is a well-established non-pharmacological treatment that has been proven to be effective in reducing seizure frequency in the pharmaco-resistant patients. This dietary solution is however extremely restrictive and can be associated with complications caused by the high [fat]:[carbohydrate + protein] ratio. Recent advances suggest that the traditional 4:1 ratio of the ketogenic diet is not a requisite for its therapeutic effect. We show here that combining nutritional strategies targeting specific amino-acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids with a low [fat]:[proteins + carbohydrates] ratio also reduces excitatory drive and protects against seizures to the same extent as the ketogenic diet. Similarly, the morphological and molecular correlates of temporal lobe seizures were reduced in animals fed with the combined diet. These results provide evidence that low-fat dietary strategies more palatable than the ketogenic diet could be useful in epilepsy. PMID: 28710408 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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