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A large-scale field study of bacterial communities in cereal aphid populations across Morocco.

Related Articles A large-scale field study of bacterial communities in cereal aphid populations across Morocco. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 Jan 16;: Authors: Fakhour S, Ambroise J, Renoz F, Foray V, Gala JL, Hance T Abstract Insects are frequently associated with bacteria that can have significant ecological and evolutionary impacts on their hosts. To date, few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors to microbiome composition of aphids. The current work assessed the diversity of bacterial communities of five cereal aphid species (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis, Sipha maydis and Diuraphis noxia) collected across Morocco and covering a wide range of environmental conditions. We aimed to test whether symbiont combinations are host or environment specific. Deep 16S rRNA sequencing enabled us to identify 17 bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). The obligate symbiont Buchnera aphidicola was represented by five OTUs with multiple haplotypes in many single samples. Facultative endosymbionts were present by a high prevalence of R. insecticola and S. symbiotica in S. avenae and S. maydis, respectively. In addition to these symbiotic partners, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Pantoea, Erwinia and Staphyloccocus were also identified in aphids, suggesting that the aphid microbiome is not limited to the presence of endosymbiotic bacteria. Beside a significant association between host species and bacterial communities, an inverse correlation was also found between altitude and α-diversity. Overall, our results support that symbiont combinations are mainly host specific. PMID: 29346623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evolutionary history of the NAM-B1 gene in wild and domesticated tetraploid wheat.

Related Articles Evolutionary history of the NAM-B1 gene in wild and domesticated tetraploid wheat. BMC Genet. 2017 Dec 20;18(1):118 Authors: Lundström M, Leino MW, Hagenblad J Abstract BACKGROUND: The NAM-B1 gene in wheat has for almost three decades been extensively studied and utilized in breeding programs because of its significant impact on grain protein and mineral content and pleiotropic effects on senescence rate and grain size. First detected in wild emmer wheat, the wild-type allele of the gene has been introgressed into durum and bread wheat. Later studies have, however, also found the presence of the wild-type allele in some domesticated subspecies. In this study we trace the evolutionary history of the NAM-B1 in tetraploid wheat species and evaluate it as a putative domestication gene. RESULTS: Genotyping of wild and landrace tetraploid accessions showed presence of only null alleles in durum. Domesticated emmer wheats contained both null alleles and the wild-type allele while wild emmers, with one exception, only carried the wild-type allele. One of the null alleles consists of a deletion that covers several 100 kb. The other null-allele, a one-basepair frame-shift insertion, likely arose among wild emmer. This allele was the target of a selective sweep, extending over several 100 kb. CONCLUSIONS: The NAM-B1 gene fulfils some criteria for being a domestication gene by encoding a trait of domestication relevance (seed size) and is here shown to have been under positive selection. The presence of both wild-type and null alleles in domesticated emmer does, however, suggest the gene to be a diversification gene in this species. Further studies of genotype-environment interactions are needed to find out under what conditions selection on different NAM-B1 alleles have been beneficial. PMID: 29262777 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples.

Related Articles Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples. Anal Chim Acta. 2016 Sep 07;935:231-8 Authors: Peltomaa R, Vaghini S, Patiño B, Benito-Peña E, Moreno-Bondi MC Abstract Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are the major producers of fumonisins which are one of the most common mycotoxins found in maize. Herein, we report the development of specific and sensitive genosensors for detecting these two closely related Fusarium species in food samples. The sensors are based on species-specific capture and detection probes, which bind to the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (IGS). Oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microbeads are used to capture the target DNA which is then detected using biotinylated detection probes and a streptavidin-coupled label. The developed genosensors had detection limits of 1.8 pM and 3.0 pM for F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, respectively, using synthetic DNA targets. Furthermore, the biosensors were used to analyze natural fungal contamination of commercial maize samples. After amplification of the genomic DNA the sensors detected the presence of the fungi, in accordance with previous results obtained with PCR. No cross-reactivity between F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, or other fungi species tested, was observed. The developed biosensors can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin contamination in conditions where detection of mycotoxins directly is challenging. PMID: 27543032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

Related Articles Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw. Carbohydr Polym. 2016 Nov 05;152:679-686 Authors: Candido RG, Gonçalves AR Abstract Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID: 27516319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A nano-silver enzyme electrode for organophosphorus pesticide detection.

Related Articles A nano-silver enzyme electrode for organophosphorus pesticide detection. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016 Aug;408(21):5819-27 Authors: Zheng Q, Yu Y, Fan K, Ji F, Wu J, Ying Y Abstract A nano-silver electrode immobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticides is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface structure of two kinds of electrodes fabricated with different sizes of silver powders and the interface between chitosan layer and nano-silver powder layer. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out to characterize the response of silver/chitosan electrode in the absence and in the presence of thiocholine (TCh). It was also used to evaluate the insulativity of the chitosan layer. An amperometric method was performed to measure the response of the electrode to TCh, which is the product of the enzymatic reaction for detecting organophosphorus pesticides indirectly. Although there are many kinds of nanoparticles, silver was chosen for its internal advantage in detecting TCh at low potential without further modification. The result shows nano-silver powder has better performance than usual silver powder, and the limit of detection of paraoxon is 4 ppb under optimized conditions. One percent (w/v) chitosan solution was used as binder for the immobilization of nano-silver powder and AChE, which made it possible for independent electrode fabrication at room temperature, whereas 3% (w/v) chitosan solution was used as insulating compound for controlling the electrode area. Unlike traditional organic insulating ink, chitosan is safe and environmentally friendly, and it is used as insulating material for the first time. The flexible nano-silver/AChE/chitosan electrode was evaluated in Chinese chives and cabbage, and the recoveries of standard addition were 105.11 and 96.41%, respectively. Owing to the antibacterial property of nano-silver and the biocompatibility, safety, and biodegradability of chitosan, the proposed method is safe, facile, environmentally friendly, and has great potential in organophosphorus pesticide detection for food safety. Graphical Abstract Current response of nano-silver electrode (a) and silver electrode (b) to thiocholine in 0.02 M PBS + KCl at 0.15 V; addition of thiocholine (0.09 mM) every 50 s (↓); inset: calibration curve of nano-silver (▲) and silver (◆) electrode. PMID: 27342792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]