Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Mediterranean Diet

Mediterranean diet and reduction in the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: an operational healthy dietary score.

Abstract Title: Mediterranean diet and reduction in the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: an operational healthy dietary score. Abstract Source: Antiviral Res. 2005 Apr;66(1):9-12. PMID: 12242583 Abstract Author(s): Miguel A Martínez-González, Elena Fernández-Jarne, Manuel Serrano-Martínez, Amelia Marti, J Alfredo Martinez, José M Martín-Moreno Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although an important secondary prevention trial reported an impressive protection by a Mediterranean dietary pattern on reinfarction and cardiovascular death, scarce direct epidemiologic evidence is currently available regarding the role of the Mediterranean diet in the aetiology of coronary heart disease. AIMS: The aim of the study was to quantify the risk reduction of incident myocardial infarction provided by a Mediterranean dietary pattern. METHODS: We included 342 subjects (171 patients who suffered their first acute myocardial infarction and 171 matched controls) in a case-control study. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (136 items) was used. We defined an a priori Mediterranean dietary pattern. We assessed six food items that we considered protective: 1) olive oil, 2) fiber, 3) fruits, 4)vegetables, 5) fish and 6) alcohol. For each of these six dietary factors, we calculated the distribution according to quintiles within the study and assigned each participant a score of 1 to 5 corresponding to the quintile of intake, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest quintile. We also estimated the quintiles of two other elements assumed to be associated with a higher risk: 7) meat/meat products and 8) some items with high glycaemic load (white bread, pasta and rice). For these two elements we inversely ranked the score, with 1 representing the highest and 5 representing the lowest quintile. Finally, we summed up the eight quintile values for each participant.A second score ( post hoc pattern) was built using only a single cut-off point for these eight elements. The cut-off points for each element in this post hoc pattern were decided according to the dose-response relationships between the consumption of each food item and the risk of myocardial infarction observed in the analyses that used quintiles of each food item. RESULTS: For both patterns, we found that the higher the score, the lower the odds ratio of myocardial infarction. A significant linear trend was apparent after adjustment for the main cardiovascular risk factors. For each additional point in the a priori Mediterranean pattern (observed range: 9-38) the odds ratio (95 % confidence intervals) was 0.92 (0.86-0.98). This estimate was 0.55 (0.42-0.73) when we used the post hoc pattern (range: 0-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that a Mediterranean diet (that emphasizes olive oil, fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish and alcohol and reduces meat/meat products) can be an effective measure for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction. However, our results support the exclusion of refined cereals with a high glycaemic load as healthy elements of this pattern. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2005

Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics.

Abstract Title: Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics. Abstract Source: Nutrients. 2016 ;8(9). Epub 2016 Sep 6. PMID: 27608040 Abstract Author(s): Andrea J Braakhuis, Peta Campion, Karen S Bishop Article Affiliation: Andrea J Braakhuis Abstract: Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli), and fruit (apples, citrus). At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5-10 g daily) and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

High adherence to a Mediterranean diet and lower risk of frailty among French older adults community-dwellers: Results from the Three-City-Bordeaux Study.

Abstract Title: High adherence to a Mediterranean diet and lower risk of frailty among French older adults community-dwellers: Results from the Three-City-Bordeaux Study. Abstract Source: Clin Nutr. 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31. PMID: 28629899 Abstract Author(s): Berna Rahi, Soufiane Ajana, Maturin Tabue-Teguo, Jean-François Dartigues, Karine Peres, Catherine Feart Article Affiliation: Berna Rahi Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is considered as a key component for healthy aging, including prevention of age-related disability, while its association with frailty, independent of disability has never been assessed. Our objective was to investigate the relation between MeDi adherence and frailty incidence among persons aged≥75 years participating at the prospective population-based French Three-City Study. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 560 initially non-frail participants of the Three-City-Bordeaux center, seen at the 2009-2010 follow-up, and re-examined two years later. Adherence to MeDi was computed from a food frequency questionnaire (scored as 0-9). Frailty was defined as having at least three out of the following five slightly modified Fried frailty criteria: involuntary weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness and low physical activity. Logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates, including cognitive performance and depressive symptomatology, were used to assess the association between MeDi score and subsequent frailty risk. RESULTS: Over the 2-year follow-up, 79 participants (14%) became frail. Older adults with the highest MeDi adherence (score 6-9) had a significantly 68% frailty risk reduction (95% CI: 28-86%, p = 0.006) compared to those in the lowest MeDi category (score 0-3). Regarding the frailty criterion separately, the highest MeDi adherence was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident slowness (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.20-0.99, p = 0.04), poor muscle strength (OR = 0.44; 95% CI:0.20-0.98, p = 0.04) and low physical activity (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.82, p = 0.01), compared to the lowest MeDi adherence. CONCLUSION: In addition to its well-documented beneficial effects on health, adherence to MeDi might contribute to prevent the onset of frailty, even at late stages of life. Article Published Date : May 30, 2017

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric cancer: results of a case-control study in Italy.

Abstract Title: Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric cancer: results of a case-control study in Italy. Abstract Source: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24. PMID: 28542079 Abstract Author(s): Jovana Stojanovic, Luca Giraldi, Dario Arzani, Roberta Pastorino, Alberto Biondi, Roberto Persiani, Stefania Boccia, Emanuele Leoncini Article Affiliation: Jovana Stojanovic Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) and gastric cancer (GC). A case-control study was carried out at the Fondazione Policlinico 'A. Gemelli' (Rome, Italy) from 2003 to 2015. A total of 223 incident cases and 223 controls were interviewed. Dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire that collected information on more than 25 food items. The association between adherence to MD and risk of GC was quantified by calculating Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The analysis reports that a higher adherence to MD is associated with a reduced risk of GC (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.61-0.81). A high consumption of vegetables (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14-0.85), legumes (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.06-0.29), and fish (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15-0.68), as well as low consumption of meat (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.10-0.85) and alcohol (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24-0.90) are consistently related to a lower risk of GC. Our study indicates a protective role of the MD eating pattern and MD individual components against GC. Our results showed a beneficial role of high vegetable, legume, and fish consumption, along with low intake of alcohol and meat in the development of GC. Article Published Date : May 23, 2017

Changes in fatty liver index after consuming a Mediterranean diet: 6-year follow-up of the PREDIMED-Malaga trial.

Abstract Title: Changes in fatty liver index after consuming a Mediterranean diet: 6-year follow-up of the PREDIMED-Malaga trial. Abstract Source: Med Clin (Barc). 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23. PMID: 28126231 Abstract Author(s): Raquel Cueto-Galán, Francisco Javier Barón, Pedro Valdivielso, Xavier Pintó, Emili Corbella, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Julia Wärnberg, Article Affiliation: Raquel Cueto-Galán Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of an intervention with a Mediterranean diet supplemented with either extra virgin olive oil or nuts, on the fatty liver index (FLI), compared to a low-fat control diet. METHODS: Participants of the PREDIMED-Malaga trial, free from cardiovascular disease at baseline, but with a high risk to develop it, were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed and blood samples were taken to calculate participants' FLI at study baseline and after one, 3, 5 and 6 years. Mixed linear models were used to explore the fixed effects of the 3 intervention groups on the FLI as well as their interaction with time. RESULTS: A total of 276 participants were included in the study. Average participant age was 67 years, with 66% of participants being women. The baseline prevalence of NAFL was 57%. The change in the FLI of the control group increased significantly over time (1.13±0.41; P=.006). In the MedDiet+EVOO group, the time trend of the change in the FLI was similar to that of the control group, although it was seen to be lower (-3.90±1.9; P=.038). In the MedDiet+Nuts group, the trend was significantly lower than that of the control group (-1.63±0.62; P=.009). In the MedDiet+Nuts group, the trend of changes in participants' BMI was 0.100 points lower per year compared to the control group (P=.004). In the control group, the change in waist circumference increased significantly over time (0.61±0.16cm/year; P<.001) in contrast to the MedDiet+EVOO group, in which this variable remained stable (-0.51±0.22; P=.019). CONCLUSIONS: A dietary intervention consisting of a Mediterranean diet could delay or slow down the natural progression of NAFL, thus, being beneficial for its prevention and treatment. However, further studies supporting these conclusions have yet to be carried out. Article Published Date : Jan 22, 2017
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Mediterranean Diet

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Association of dietary patterns with five-year degree and progression of coronary artery calcification in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

Related Articles Association of dietary patterns with five-year degree and progression of coronary artery calcification in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Nov;27(11):999-1007 Authors: Frölich S, Lehmann N, Weyers S, Wahl S, Dragano N, Budde T, Kälsch H, Mahabadi AA, Erbel R, Moebus S, Jöckel KH, Schmidt B, Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigators Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As a modifiable lifestyle factor, diet is hypothesized to play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to explore associations of comprehensive dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis with degree and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over five years of follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, 3718 participants (45-75 years; 47.6% men) without coronary heart disease completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified using cluster analysis: "Health-conscious", "Traditional German/Less alcohol", "Mediterranean-like", "Western" and "Animal fat/Alcohol" (used as reference). CAC was measured using electron-beam computed tomography at baseline and five years later. CAC after five years was predicted based on sex- and age-specific baseline percentiles. After comparing observed and predicted CAC Scores, CAC progression was classified as slow, expected, or rapid. Compared to "Animal fat/Alcohol" diet, a "Mediterranean-like" diet was associated with a relative risk (RR) for a rapid CAC progression in both sexes (men: 0.61; 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI]: 0.41; 0.90; women: 0.59; 95%-CI: 0.45; 0.78). Furthermore, reduced RRs were observed in women with a "Health-conscious" and a "Traditional German/Less alcohol" diet (0.63; 95%-CI: 0.47; 0.84, respectively 0.69; 95%-CI: 0.52; 0.90). No association was observed for a "Western" diet for both sexes. Similar results were revealed for degree of CAC. CONCLUSION: The study results support the hypothesis that a "Mediterranean-like" diet is associated with a lower CAC-progression and lower degree of CAC in men and women. PMID: 29074383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Relationship between Mediterranean diet and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in a population of pre-menopausal women.

Related Articles Relationship between Mediterranean diet and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in a population of pre-menopausal women. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Nov;27(11):985-990 Authors: Mattioli AV, Coppi F, Migaldi M, Scicchitano P, Ciccone MM, Farinetti A Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Mediterranean Diet (MedD) is considered a very healthy diet useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The present study aims to evaluate adherence to MedD in unselected premenopausal women and its relation with ankle-brachial index (ABI), an index of preclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A group of 425 patients (age range 45-54 years) was investigated. They were enrolled only if they were asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease. Nutritional parameters were assessed by a self-administered food frequency validated questionnaire (116 items) completed by an interviewer administered 24 h diet recall. They all underwent ABI measurement. The mean MedD Score was 32.2 ± 6.1 (Q1-Q3 range 26-37) comparing with data from Italian population (46 ± 8.3) was significantly lower. Intake of food categories sources of antioxidants was higher in patients with a greater adherence to Med D and was mainly related to fruit and vegetables. Patients were categorized in quartile according to MedD Score and we evaluate the distribution of ABI index within quartile. 31.4% of women in Q1 (lower adherence to MedD) had an ABI lower than 0.9 compared to 18.3% of women in Q4 (higher adherence to MedD): p < 0.01. Obesity was more frequent in Q1 compared to Q4 and in women with lower ABI. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a low MedD Score were more obese and showed instrumental sign of preclinical peripheral atherosclerosis. MedD rich in antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and nuts influenced the development of atherosclerosis and was associated with a lower incidence of asymptomatic atherosclerosis. PMID: 29074382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A systematic review on the relations between pasta consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

Related Articles A systematic review on the relations between pasta consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Nov;27(11):939-948 Authors: Huang M, Li J, Ha MA, Riccardi G, Liu S Abstract AIMS: The traditional Italian dish pasta is a major food source of starch with low glycemic index (GI) and an important low-GI component of the Mediterranean diet. This systematic review aimed at assessing comprehensively and in-depth the potential benefit of pasta on cardio-metabolic disease risk factors. DATA SYNTHESIS: Following a standard protocol, we conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled dietary intervention trials that examined pasta and pasta-related fiber and grain intake in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors of interest. Studies comparing postprandial glucose response to pasta with that to bread or potato were quantitatively summarized using meta-analysis of standardized mean difference. Evidence from studies with pasta as part of low-GI dietary intervention and studies investigating different types of pasta were qualitatively summarized. CONCLUSIONS: Pasta meals have significantly lower postprandial glucose response than bread or potato meals, but evidence was lacking in terms of how the intake of pasta can influence cardio-metabolic disease risk. More long-term randomized controlled trials are needed where investigators directly contrast the cardio-metabolic effects of pasta and bread or potato. Long-term prospective cohort studies with required data available should also be analyzed regarding the effect of pasta intake on disease endpoints. PMID: 28954707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Plant-Based Nutrition: An Essential Component of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management.

Related Articles Plant-Based Nutrition: An Essential Component of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017 Sep 08;19(10):104 Authors: Patel H, Chandra S, Alexander S, Soble J, Williams KA Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and discuss the role of plant-based nutrition as an adjunct to the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Discussion of nutrition and the benefits of a plant-based diet should be highlighted during healthcare provider visits as an essential part of the overall CVD prevention and management care plan. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from prospective cohort studies indicates that a high consumption of predominantly plant-based foods, such as fruit and vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, is associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD. The protective effects of these foods are likely mediated through their multiple beneficial nutrients, including mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, fiber, and plant protein. In addition, minimizing intake of animal proteins has been shown to decrease the prevalence of CVD risk factors. Substantial evidence indicates that plant-based diets can play an important role in preventing and treating CVD and its risk factors. Such diets deserve more emphasis in dietary recommendations. PMID: 28887684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A Heart-Healthy Diet: Recent Insights and Practical Recommendations.

Related Articles A Heart-Healthy Diet: Recent Insights and Practical Recommendations. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017 Aug 24;19(10):95 Authors: Dinu M, Pagliai G, Sofi F Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to review the current evidence on the relationship between diet and heart, giving practical recommendations for cardiovascular prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: A heart-healthy diet should maximize the consumption of whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and legumes and discourage the consumption of meat and meat products as well as refined and processed foods. Plant-based diets fully meet these criteria, and the evidence supporting the protective effect of these dietary patterns evolved rapidly in recent years. Among plant-based diets, the Mediterranean and vegetarian diets gained the greater interest, having been associated with numerous health benefits such as reduced levels of traditional and novel risk factors and lower risk of cardiovascular disease. These positive effects may be explained by their high content of dietary fiber, complex carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phytochemicals. Current evidence suggests that both Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are consistently beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease. PMID: 28840462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]