Effects of photobiomodulation therapy and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on skeletal muscle injury induced by contusion in rats-part 1: morphological and functional aspects.
Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Dec;32(9):2111-2120
Authors: Tomazoni SS, Frigo L, Dos Reis Ferreira TC, Casalechi HL, Teixeira S, de Almeida P, Muscara MN, Marcos RL, Serra AJ, de Carvalho PTC, Leal-Junior ECP
Musculoskeletal injuries are very frequent and are responsible for causing pain and impairment of muscle function, as well as significant functional limitations. In the acute phase, the most prescribed treatment is with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), despite their questionable effectiveness. However, the use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in musculoskeletal disorders has been increasing in the last few years, and this therapy appears to be an interesting alternative to the traditional drugs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of PBMT, with different application doses, and topical NSAIDs, under morphological and functional parameters, during an acute inflammatory process triggered by a controlled model of musculoskeletal injury induced via contusion in rats. Muscle injury was induced by means of a single trauma to the animals' anterior tibialis muscle. After 1 h, the rats were treated with PBMT (830 nm; continuous mode, with a power output of 100 mW; 3.57 W/cm2; 1 J-35.7 J/cm2, 3 J-107.1 J/cm2, and 9 J-321.4 J/cm2; 10, 30, and 90 s) or diclofenac sodium for topical use (1 g). Morphological analysis (histology) and functional analysis (muscle work) were performed, 6, 12, and 24 h after induction of the injury. PBMT, with all doses tested, improved morphological changes caused by trauma; however, the 9 J (321.4 J/cm2) dose was the most effective in organizing muscle fibers and cell nuclei. On the other hand, the use of diclofenac sodium produced only a slight improvement in morphological changes. Moreover, we observed a statistically significant increase of muscle work in the PBMT 3 J (107.1 J/cm2) group in relation to the injury group and the diclofenac group (p < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that PBMT, with a dose of 3 J (107.1 J/cm2), is more effective than the other doses of PBMT tested and NSAIDs for topical use as a means to improve morphological and functional alterations due to muscle injury from contusion.
PMID: 28983756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Low-power laser irradiation inhibits PDGF-BB-induced migration and proliferation via apoptotic cell death in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Dec;32(9):2121-2127
Authors: Baek S, Lee KP, Cui L, Ryu Y, Hong JM, Kim J, Jung SH, Bae YM, Won KJ, Kim B
Vascular restenosis after injury of blood vessel has been implicated in various responses including apoptosis, migration, and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by diverse growth factors underlying platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Previous studies evaluated the effects of low-power laser (LPL) irradiation over various wavelength ranges on VSMC events in normal and pathologic states. However, whether VSMC responses are affected by LPL irradiation remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of LPL (green diode laser 532-nm pulsed wave of 300 mW at a spot diameter of 1 mm) irradiation on the responses, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation of VSMCs. The effect of LPL irradiation was tested on VSMCs through cytotoxicity, proliferation, migration, and apoptotic assays. Aortic ring assay was used to assess the effect of LPL irradiation on aortic sprout outgrowth. Protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. LPL irradiation did not affect VSMC viability but slightly attenuated PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in VSMCs. In addition, LPL irradiation inhibited PDGF-BB-evoked migration of VSMCs. Aortic sprout outgrowth in response to PDGF-BB was diminished in cells treated with LPL. In contrast, LPL irradiation evoked apoptosis in VSMCs in the presence of PDGF-BB. Similarly, activation of caspase-3 and Bax, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in VSMCs treated with PDGF-BB was enhanced by exposure to LPL. These findings indicate that LPL irradiation induces vascular apoptosis via p38 MAPK activation and simultaneously inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in response to PDGF-BB.
PMID: 28983687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]