Effect of coitus at term on length of gestation, induction of labor, and mode of delivery.
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul;108(1):134-40. PMID: 16816067
Peng Chiong Tan, Anggeriana Andi, Noor Azmi, M N Noraihan
OBJECTIVE: To determine coital incidence at term and to estimate its effect on labor onset and mode of delivery.
METHODS: Healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies and established gestational age were recruited to keep a diary of coital activity from 36 weeks of gestation until birth and to answer a short questionnaire. Two hundred women with complete coital diaries were available for analysis. Outcome measures include coitus, postdate pregnancy (defined as pregnancy beyond the estimated date of confinement), gestational length of at least 41 weeks, labor induction at 41 weeks of gestation, and mode of delivery
RESULTS: Reported sexual intercourse at term was influenced by a woman's perception of coital safety, her ethnicity, and her partner's age. After multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for the women's ethnicity, education, occupation, perception of coital safety, and partner's age, coitus at term remained independently associated with reductions in postdate pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.58, P = .001), gestational length of at least 41 weeks (AOR 0.10, 95% CI 0.04-0.28, P<.001), and requirement for labor induction at 41 weeks of gestation (AOR 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.26, P<.001). At 39 weeks of gestation, 5 (95% CI 3.3-10.3) couples needed to have intercourse to avoid one woman having to undergo labor induction at 41 weeks of gestation. Coitus at term had no significant effect on operative delivery (adjusted P = .15).
CONCLUSION: Reported sexual intercourse at term was associated with earlier onset of labor and reduced requirement for labor induction at 41 weeks.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.
Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2006
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014 Aug;28(6):835-44
Authors: Li HW, Lo SS, Ho PC
This review summarises the development of emergency contraception (EC) methods, and provides an overview on the currently available options of EC which are effective and safe back-up methods in case of non-use or failure of the regular contraception. The copper intrauterine contraceptive device is currently the most effective method. In most countries, a single dose of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg is the first-line hormonal EC given within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. The oral anti-progestogens such as mifepristone and ulipristal acetate are promising alternatives with better efficacies and a wider treatment window of up to 120 h post coitus, probably resulting from more diverse ancillary mechanisms of actions. Education on EC should be part of any contraceptive counselling. Improving access to EC by providing it over the counter or in advance would not promote its abuse nor encourage risky sexual behaviours, but may further facilitate the timely use so as to achieve the best efficacy.
PMID: 24898437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Contraceptive methods with male participation: a perspective of Brazilian couples.
Int Nurs Rev. 2008 Mar;55(1):103-9
Authors: Marchi NM, de Alvarenga AT, Osis MJ, Bahamondes L
OBJECTIVE: To assess the perspectives of couples who requested vasectomy in a public health service on the use of male participation contraceptive methods available in Brazil: male condoms, natural family planning/calendar, coitus interruptus and vasectomy.
METHODS: A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was held with 20 couples who had requested vasectomy at the Human Reproduction Unit of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil. Data analysis was carried out through thematic content analysis.
FINDINGS: The couples did not, in general, know any effective contraceptive options for use by men and/or participating in their use, except for vasectomy. The few methods with male participation that they knew of were perceived to interfere in spontaneity and in pleasure of intercourse. Men accepted that condom use in extra-conjugal relations offered them protection from sexually transmitted diseases; that their wives might also participate in extra-marital relationships was not considered.
DISCUSSION: The few contraceptive options with male participation lead to difficulty in sharing responsibilities between men and women. On the basis of perceived gender roles, women took the responsibility for contraception until the moment when the situation became untenable, and they faced the unavoidable necessity of sterilization.
CONCLUSIONS: Specific actions are necessary for men to achieve integral participation in relation to reproductive sexual health. These include education and discussions on gender roles, leading to greater awareness in men of the realities of sexual and reproductive health.
PMID: 18275543 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sexual function in menopausal women in Kelantan, Malaysia.
Maturitas. 2005 Nov-Dec;52(3-4):256-63
Authors: Dhillon HK, Singh HJ, Ghaffar NA
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to document sexual function in Kelantanese postmenopausal women.
METHOD: A semi-structured questionnaire in Malay language was administered to 326 women (mean age of 57.1+/-6.58 (S.D.) years) residing in Kelantan. The subjects comprised of naturally menopaused, healthy women.
RESULTS: Of the total respondents, 70% (n=227) were with a spouse at the time of the study. Of these, more than two-thirds reported a decrease in sexual activity following menopause. Varying degree of dyspareunia was reported by 44% of the women. A small fraction (8.8%) reported inability of the vagina to stretch sufficiently to enable the complete penetration of an erect penis. Of the total married respondents, vaginal secretion during sexual intercourse was decreased in 52.4%, did not change in 31% but increased in 1.3% of the women following menopause. Sexual desire was reportedly decreased or absent in two-thirds of the total respondents (n=326).
CONCLUSION: It appears that sexual function significantly decreases during menopause. This may be due to dyspareunia, poor lubrication, loss of sexual desire, and the spouse's health status and ageing itself. Although declining sexual function was recognised by nearly two-thirds of the women, more than half did not take any action to improve their sexual function. Of those who did, they used hormonal therapy, traditional, alternative medicine or practiced healthy lifestyle or a varied combination of above self-help actions.
PMID: 15894440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar;40(3):304-8
Authors: Ratnasooriya WD, Jayakody JR
According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500 mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2 hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6 hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats.
PMID: 12635700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
My guardian angel: a learning exercise for adolescent AIDS education.
AIDS Educ Prev. 1996 Feb;8(1):86-91
Authors: Geiger BF, Tierney MA
This article describes the methods to conduct a simple role-play exercise. The purpose of the exercise is to practice skills to prevent HIV infection and AIDS, including peer communication about personal health decisions among high school and college students. With guidance from the instructor, each student individually prepares a written Personal Prevention Plan for actions they intend to prevent AIDS. Following completion of the Plan, two pairs of students role play using a prepared scenario. The scenario includes a dilemma about a dating couple choosing to have sexual intercourse and the reactions of their closest friends. Other students in the class observe the interactions of their peers. After the role play, all of the students discuss factors that influence dating and intimate behaviors including peer attitudes and beliefs. Students volunteer ideas to counter perceived peer pressure for sexual intercourse.
PMID: 8703643 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
New knowledge in the physiology of hormonal contraceptives.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994 May;170(5 Pt 2):1499-507
Authors: Lobo RA, Stanczyk FZ
The present review addresses some of the new knowledge regarding the physiology and mechanisms of action of hormonal contraceptives. Specific topics that are discussed include oral contraceptives, intravaginal rings, long-term contraception, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, and antiprogestins. It has been shown that in combined oral contraceptives, lower doses of the new progestins (desogestrel, norgestimate, and gestodene) can be used to inhibit ovulation compared with norethindrone and levonorgestrel. In addition, lower doses of ethinyl estradiol are now used with progestins. Estrogen has been added to intravaginal rings containing levonorgestrel or norethindrone acetate to reduce frequency of bleeding. A new ring containing 3-keto-desogestrel is under evaluation. The use of subdermal implants containing levonorgestrel is currently a popular and highly effective method of long-term contraception. Studies show that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists can provide ovarian suppression, and antiprogestins such as RU486 effectively block the midcycle gonadotropin surge. These and other novel methods of hormonal contraception are still years away from general use.
PMID: 8178898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Hermeneutic approach to ideas about conception, pregnancy and birth among the Pilago of the Central Chaco].
Scr Ethnol. 1977;(4):78-98
Authors: Idoyaga Molina A
PMID: 12315104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]