The effects of a hot drink on nasal airflow and symptoms of common cold and flu.
Rhinology. 2008 Dec;46(4):271-5. PMID: 19145994
A Sanu, R Eccles
Common Cold Centre and Healthcare Clinical Trials, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
Hot drinks are a common treatment for common cold and flu but there are no studies reported in the scientific and clinical literature on this mode of treatment. This study investigated the effects of a hot fruit drink on objective and subjective measures of nasal airflow, and on subjective scores for common cold/flu symptoms in 30 subjects suffering from common cold/flu. The results demonstrate that the hot drink had no effect on objective measurement of nasal airflow but it did cause a significant improvement in subjective measures of nasal airflow. The hot drink provided immediate and sustained relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat, chilliness and tiredness, whereas the same drink at room temperature only provided relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough and sneezing. The effects of the drinks are discussed in terms of a placebo effect and physiological effects on salivation and airway secretions. In conclusion the results support the folklore that a hot tasty drink is a beneficial treatment for relief of most symptoms of common cold and flu.
Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2008
What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment.
Foods. 2018 Jun 01;7(6):
Authors: Dirler J, Winkler G, Lachenmeier DW
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates "very hot (>65 °C) beverages" as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as "very hot" or as "too hot". A method for sensory analysis of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally increased in temperature during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated in the form of a pilot study using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.
PMID: 29857570 [PubMed]