The effects of physical therapy with neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with septic shock: Study protocol for a randomized cross-over design.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Feb;97(6):e9736
Authors: Lago AF, de Oliveira AS, de Souza HCD, da Silva JS, Basile-Filho A, Gastaldi AC
INTRODUCTION: Septic shock is a potentially fatal organ dysfunction caused by an imbalance of the host response to infection. The changes in microcirculation during sepsis can be explained by the alterations in the endothelial barrier function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a potential recovery index of endothelial function and it an increase in response to neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was demonstrated. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of NMES in patients with septic shock.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: It is a study protocol for a randomized cross-over design in an intensive care unit of a tertiary University hospital. Thirty-one patients aged 18 to 65 years. The study will be divided in 2 phases: the phase one will be held in the first 72 hours of septic shock and the phase two after 3 days of first assessment. Patients will be randomly selected to the intervention protocol (decubitus position with the limbs raised and NMES) and control protocol (decubitus position with the limbs raised without NMES). After this procedure, the patients will be allocated in group 1 (intervention and control protocol) or group 2 (control and intervention protocol) with a wash-out period of 4 to 6 hours between them. The main outcome is mobilization of EPCs. The secondary outcome is metabolic and hemodynamic data. A linear mixed model will be used for analysis of dependent variables and estimated values of the mean of the differences of each effect.
PMID: 29419665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comparative Study of Electrical Stimulation of the Heart with VDD and DDD Pacemakers as to the Evolution to Atrial Fibrillation.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 Sep-Oct;32(5):347-353
Authors: Campos NLKL, Andrade RR, Fellicio ML, Martins AS, Garzesi AM, Garcia LR, Takeda TB
INTRODUCTION: The pacemaker implantation VDD is considered simpler, faster, less expensive and causes fewer complications compared to DDD. However, the VDD pacemaker has not been widely used in many centers, perhaps for fear of dysfunction of the sinus node and the reduction of atrial sensitivity by the pacemaker during follow-up after implantation.
OBJECTIVE: To compare patients with DDD and VDD pacemakers regarding the evolution of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and length of stay outside this postoperative arrhythmia.
METHODS: It was included 158 patients with dual chamber pacemakers, 48 DDD and 110 VDD. Follow-up period: between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2015. The mean follow-up of patients with DDD was 5.35 years and the VDD, 4.74 years. The percentage of each group (DDD and VDD) which evolved to AF during follow-up was assessed. Also, it was made an actuarial study with the respective curves indicating the time free from AF for each group. Patients were classified according to the diagnosis that led to pacemaker implantation and the degree of heart failure.
RESULTS: The percentage of patients who developed AF was higher in DDD group (10.42%) than in VDD group (6.36%), but without statistical significance. Patients with DDD and VDD remained free of AF for similar period.
CONCLUSION: Considering the results, the VDD pacemaker continues to be a good option to the DDD for routine use in cases properly indicated.
PMID: 29211212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Electromyographic bridge for promoting the recovery of hand movements in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.
J Rehabil Med. 2017 Aug 31;49(8):629-636
Authors: Zhou YX, Xia Y, Huang J, Wang HP, Bao XL, Bi ZY, Chen XB, Gao YJ, Lü XY, Wang ZG
OBJECTIVE: The electromyographic bridge (EMGB) detects surface electromyographic signals from a non-paretic limb. It then generates electric pulse trains according to the electromyographic time domain features, which can be used to stimulate a paralysed or paretic limb in real time. This strategy can be used for the contralateral control of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to improve motor function after stroke. The aim of this study was to compare the treat-ment effects of EMGB vs cyclic NMES on wrist and finger impairments in subacute stroke patients.
METHODS: A total of 42 hemiplegic patients within 6 months of their cerebrovascular accidents were randomly assigned to 4-week treatments with EMGB or cyclic NMES. Each group underwent a standard rehabilitation programme and 10 sessions per week of hand training with EMGB or cyclic NMES. Outcome measures were: Brunnstrom stage, upper extremity components of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, voluntary surface electromyographic ratio and active range of motion of the wrist and finger joints.
RESULTS: The EMGB group showed significantly greater improvements than the cyclic NMES group on the following measures: Brunnstrom stages for the hand, upper extremity - Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the voluntary surface electromyographic ratio of wrist and finger extensors. Eleven and 4 participants of the EMGB group who had no active wrist and finger movements, respectively, at the start of the treatment could perform measurable wrist and finger extensions after EMGB training. The corresponding numbers in the cyclic NMES group were only 4 and 1.
CONCLUSION: In the present group of subacute stroke patients, the results favour EMGB over cyclic NMES for augmenting the recovery of volitional wrist and finger motion.
PMID: 28792587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Electrical Stimulation of Denervated Rat Skeletal Muscle Retards Capillary and Muscle Loss in Early Stages of Disuse Atrophy.
Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:5695217
Authors: Nakagawa K, Tamaki H, Hayao K, Yotani K, Ogita F, Yamamoto N, Onishi H
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of low-frequency electrical muscle stimulation (ES) on the decrease in muscle mass, fiber size, capillary supply, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) immunoreactivity in the early stages of denervation-induced limb disuse. Direct ES was performed on the tibialis anterior muscle following denervation in seven-week-old male rats. The rats were divided into the following groups: control (CON), denervation (DN), and denervation with direct ES (DN + ES). Direct ES was performed at an intensity of 16 mA and a frequency of 10 Hz for 30 min per day, six days a week, for one week. We performed immunohistochemical staining to determine the expression of dystrophin, CD34, and MMP-2 in transverse sections of TA muscles. The weight, myofiber cross-sectional area (FCSA), and capillary-to-fiber (C/F) ratio of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were significantly reduced in the DN group compared to the control and DN + ES groups. The MMP-2 positive area was significantly greater in DN and DN + ES groups compared to the control group. These findings suggest beneficial effects of direct ES in reducing muscle atrophy and capillary regression without increasing MMP-2 immunoreactivity in the early stages of DN-induced muscle disuse in rat hind limbs.
PMID: 28497057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Electrical Stimulation for Wound-Healing: Simulation on the Effect of Electrode Configurations.
Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:5289041
Authors: Sun YS
Endogenous electric field is known to play important roles in the wound-healing process, mainly through its effects on protein synthesis and cell migration. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that electrical stimulation (ES) with steady direct currents is beneficial to accelerating wound-healing, even though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, a three-dimensional finite element wound model was built to optimize the electrode configuration in ES. Four layers of the skin, stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and subcutis, with defined thickness and electrical properties were modeled. The main goal was to evaluate the distributions of exogenous electric fields delivered with direct current (DC) stimulation using different electrode configurations such as sizes and positions. Based on the results, some guidelines were obtained in designing the electrode configuration for applications of clinical ES.
PMID: 28497054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Perioperative antibiotic use in vagus nerve stimulator implantation: a clinical series.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2017 May;33(5):801-804
Authors: Raskin JS, Hansen D, Mohan A, Pan IW, Curry DJ, Lam S
PURPOSE: Preoperative antibiosis contributes up to one third of total antibiotic use in major hospitals. Choice of antibiotic is not uniformly standardized, and polypharmacy regimens may be used without knowing the effect on rates of surgical site infection, nonsurgical infections, or antibiotic resistance. Careful examination of trends in surgical prophylaxis is warranted. In this study, we aimed to examine our institution's experience with vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation, focusing on association between perioperative antibiotic practices and postoperative infectious outcomes.
METHODS: We conducted a single-center case-control study using a retrospective chart review of 50 consecutively operated patients undergoing VNS implantation over 24 months by two experienced surgeons at our institution from April 2014 to March 2016. In each surgery, the technical procedure, operating room, and surgical team were the same, while surgeon's preference in antibiotic prophylaxis differed. Group 1 received a single dose of intravenous (IV) cefazolin (n = 26), and Group 2 received IV cefazolin, paired with one or both of gentamicin/vancomycin, in addition to a 10-day outpatient oral course of clindamycin (n = 24). Patient demographics, perioperative details, and minimum 3-month follow-up for infection and healthcare utilization were recorded. Student t tests were computed for significance.
RESULTS: Group 1 patients on average were older than group 2 patients (10.2, 7.1 years, p = 0.01), and length of surgery was longer (115.5, 91.9 min, p = 0.007). There were no differences in number of surgeons gowned (p = 0.11), presence of tracheostomy (p = 0.43) or gastrostomy (p = 0.20) tube, nonsurgical infections (p = 0.32), and number of postoperative emergency department (ED) visits (p = 0.22) or readmissions (p = 0.23). Neither group had VNS infections in the follow-up period.
CONCLUSION: Single preoperative dosing of one antibiotic appropriately chosen to cover typical skin flora conferred equal benefit to perioperative prophylactic polypharmacy in this study. There were no differences in postoperative infection events or ED visits/readmissions. Restraint with preoperative antibiosis shows equipoise in postoperative infection and overall resource utilization.
PMID: 28321533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of an NMDA antagonist on the auditory mismatch negativity response to transcranial direct current stimulation.
J Psychopharmacol. 2017 May;31(5):614-624
Authors: Impey D, de la Salle S, Baddeley A, Knott V
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a weak constant current to alter cortical excitability and activity temporarily. tDCS-induced increases in neuronal excitability and performance improvements have been observed following anodal stimulation of brain regions associated with visual and motor functions, but relatively little research has been conducted with respect to auditory processing. Recently, pilot study results indicate that anodal tDCS can increase auditory deviance detection, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases auditory processing, as measured by a brain-based event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN). As evidence has shown that tDCS lasting effects may be dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity, the current study investigated the use of dextromethorphan (DMO), an NMDA antagonist, to assess possible modulation of tDCS's effects on both MMN and working memory performance. The study, conducted in 12 healthy volunteers, involved four laboratory test sessions within a randomised, placebo and sham-controlled crossover design that compared pre- and post-anodal tDCS over the auditory cortex (2 mA for 20 minutes to excite cortical activity temporarily and locally) and sham stimulation (i.e. device is turned off) during both DMO (50 mL) and placebo administration. Anodal tDCS increased MMN amplitudes with placebo administration. Significant increases were not seen with sham stimulation or with anodal stimulation during DMO administration. With sham stimulation (i.e. no stimulation), DMO decreased MMN amplitudes. Findings from this study contribute to the understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating tDCS sensory and memory improvements.
PMID: 27624152 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Interventions for Improving Upper Limb Function after Stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,11:CD010820].
Acta Med Port. 2015 Sep-Oct;28(5):551-3
Authors: Sousa Nanji L, Torres Cardoso A, Costa J, Vaz-Carneiro A
Impairment of the upper limbs is quite frequent after stroke, making rehabilitation an essential step towards clinical recovery and patient empowerment. This review aimed to synthetize existing evidence regarding interventions for upper limb function improvement after Stroke and to assess which would bring some benefit. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Reviews of Effects and PROSPERO databases were searched until June 2013 and 40 reviews have been included, covering 503 studies, 18 078 participants and 18 interventions, as well as different doses and settings of interventions. The main results were: 1- Information currently available is insufficient to assess effectiveness of each intervention and to enable comparison of interventions; 2- Transcranial direct current stimulation brings no benefit for outcomes of activities of daily living; 3- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of constraint-induced movement therapy, mental practice, mirror therapy, interventions for sensory impairment, virtual reality and repetitive task practice; 4- Unilateral arm training may be more effective than bilateral arm training; 5- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of robotics on measures of impairment and ADLs; 6- There is no evidence of benefit or harm for technics such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, music therapy, pharmacological interventions, electrical stimulation and other therapies. Currently available evidence is insufficient and of low quality, not supporting clear clinical decisions. High-quality studies are still needed.
PMID: 26667856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Yield of left ventricular dyssynchrony by gated SPECT MPI in patients with heart failure prior to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator: Characteristics and prediction of cardiac outcome.
J Nucl Cardiol. 2017 Feb;24(1):122-129
Authors: Zafrir N, Bental T, Strasberg B, Solodky A, Mats I, Gutstein A, Kornowski R
BACKGROUND: Mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony (MLVD) might contribute in the therapeutic decision-making in patients with heart failure (HF) prior to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Our aim was to assess MLVD in patients with HF prior to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) compared to patients with CRT-D.
METHODS: In a prospective study, patients with LVEF ≤ 35% who were scheduled for ICD or CRT-D, underwent gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium 99m sestamibi within 3 months prior procedure. MLVD was measured by phase analysis.
RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 143 patients, 71 with ICD and 72 with CRT-D. Age 68.3 ± 11 and LVEF 24 ± 6%. Phase standard deviation (SD) was 62.5 ± 18 and 59.7 ± 20 (P = NS), respectively. During follow-up of 23.7 ± 12.1 months, there were 10 vs 14 cardiac death in ICD and CRT-D, respectively (P = NS), hospitalization for HF, in 34 vs 53 (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, Phase SD was the independent predictor for cardiac death [HR 2.66 (95% CI 1.046-6.768), P = .04]. Kaplan-Meier curves of phase SD of 60° significantly identified ICD patients with and without cardiac deaths and hospitalization for HF exacerbation.
CONCLUSIONS: MLVD by phase SD can identify patients with cardiac events and predict cardiac death in patients treated with ICD.
PMID: 26563336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]