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Assessment of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Toxoplasma gondii. 📎

Abstract Title: Assessment of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Toxoplasma gondii. Abstract Source: Iran J Parasitol. 2016 Apr-Jun;11(2):159-167. PMID: 28096849 Abstract Author(s): Sercin Ozlem-Caliskan, Hatice Ertabaklar, Mehmet Dincer Bilgin, Sema Ertug Article Affiliation: Sercin Ozlem-Caliskan Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on Toxoplasma gondii have not been explained yet. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of ELF-EMF on growth, survival time and viability of Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the life span of Toxoplasma infected animals was investigated. METHODS: Sixty adult male BALB/c mice were used for in vivo and in vivo experiments in Laboratory of Biopyhsics and Parasitology of Medical Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey, in 2010. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMFs were applied for 5 d to the infected mice. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMF was applied to the tachyzoites within peritoneal exudates for 8 h/d at 4°C and the tachyzoites were then injected to mice. In both experiments, the number of T. gondii in peritoneal exudates was counted and T. gondii protein bands patterns were investigated with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western Blotting. RESULTS: Pulsed and continuous EMF exposure reduced the number of T. gondii tachyzoites in comparison to controls. However, no statistically significant differences were observed at the patterns of protein bands among the samples. CONCLUSION: EMF exposure induces a decrease in the number of T. gondii. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of EMF on intracellular parasites. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2016

A clinical study of acupuncture and SSP (silver spike point) electro-therapy for dry eye syndrome.

Abstract Title: A clinical study of acupuncture and SSP (silver spike point) electro-therapy for dry eye syndrome. Abstract Source: Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(2):197-206. PMID: 16552832 Abstract Author(s): Kuo-Lieh Tseng, Hsu-Jan Liu, Kam-Yuen Tso, Lin-Chung Woung, Yi-Chang Su, Jaung-Geng Lin Article Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Integration Chinese and Western Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Abstract: The present study was designed as a clinical trial to assess the efficacy of acupuncture and silver spike point (SSP) electro-therapy on dry eye syndrome. A total of 43 dry eye syndrome patients participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into control, acupuncture and SSP electro-therapy groups. The three groups were all given artificial tears treatment. Patients in the treatment groups were given two 20-minute treatments of either acupuncture or SSP. Assessment was carried out using the Basal Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), visual analog scale (VAS) and an overall score of eye condition. After four weeks of treatment, both the acupuncture and SSP treatment groups showed improvements over the control group, in Schirmer tests of the left eye and average tearing of both eyes. After 8 weeks of treatment, both treatment groups showed improvements over the control group both in Schirmer tests and VAS. For the right eye, treatment groups showed significant improvements in Schirmer test and VAS versus the control group averages for both eyes. There was no significant difference in BUT at any time. Comparing scores before and after treatment, the acupuncture and SSP groups showed a significant improvement compared to the control group. The acupuncture group showed a greater 8-week improvement in Schirmer tests scores compared to the SSP group. However, the SSP group patients used fewer applications of artificial tears. Acupuncture and SSP electro-therapy were effective in increasing tear secretion in patients with dry eye syndrome. The SSP electro-therapy not only alleviated dry eye syndrome, but also reduced the number of applications of artificial tears necessary. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2006
Therapeutic Actions Electrotherapy

NCBI pubmed

A Study on the Feasibility of the Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Electrode Localization Based on Scalp Electric Potential Recordings.

Related Articles A Study on the Feasibility of the Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Electrode Localization Based on Scalp Electric Potential Recordings. Front Physiol. 2018;9:1788 Authors: Iacono MI, Atefi SR, Mainardi L, Walker HC, Angelone LM, Bonmassar G Abstract Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for patients disabling motor symptoms from Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and other motor disorders. Precise, individualized placement of DBS electrodes is a key contributor to clinical outcomes following surgery. Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely used to identify the sources of intracerebral signals from the potential on the scalp. EEG is portable, non-invasive, low-cost, and it could be easily integrated into the intraoperative or ambulatory environment for localization of either the DBS electrode or evoked potentials triggered by stimulation itself. In this work, we studied with numerical simulations the principle of extracting the DBS electrical pulse from the patient's EEG - which normally constitutes an artifact - and localizing the source of the artifact (i.e., the DBS electrodes) using EEG localization methods. A high-resolution electromagnetic head model was used to simulate the EEG potential at the scalp generated by the DBS pulse artifact. The potential distribution on the scalp was then sampled at the 256 electrode locations of a high-density EEG Net. The electric potential was modeled by a dipole source created by a given pair of active DBS electrodes. The dynamic Statistical Parametric Maps (dSPM) algorithm was used to solve the EEG inverse problem, and it allowed localization of the position of the stimulus dipole in three DBS electrode bipolar configurations with a maximum error of 1.5 cm. To assess the accuracy of the computational model, the results of the simulation were compared with the electric artifact amplitudes over 16 EEG electrodes measured in five patients. EEG artifacts measured in patients confirmed that simulated data are commensurate to patients' data (0 ± 6.6 μV). While we acknowledge that further work is necessary to achieve a higher accuracy needed for surgical navigation, the results presented in this study are proposed as the first step toward a validated computational framework that could be used for non-invasive localization not only of the DBS system but also brain rhythms triggered by stimulation at both proximal and distal sites in the human central nervous system. PMID: 30662407 [PubMed]

A randomized controlled trial of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for chronic urinary retention following traumatic brain injury.

Related Articles A randomized controlled trial of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for chronic urinary retention following traumatic brain injury. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jan;98(2):e14106 Authors: Zhang YB, Cheng YN Abstract BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy for chronic urinary retention (CUR) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: This 2-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) enrolled 86 eligible patients with CUR following TBI. All included patients were randomly allocated to a treatment group (n = 43) or a sham group (n = 43). The administration of NMES or sham NMES, as intervention, was performed for an 8-week period treatment, and 4-week period follow-up. In addition, all subjects were required to undergo indwelling urinary catheter throughout the study period. The primary outcome was assessed by the post-voiding residual urine volume (PV-VRU). The secondary outcomes were evaluated by the voided volume, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and quality of life, as assessed by Barthel Index (BI) scale. In addition, adverse events were also recorded during the study period. All primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline, at the end of 8-week treatment, and 4-week follow-up. RESULTS: At the end of 8-week treatment, the patients in the treatment group did not achieve better outcomes in PV-VRU (P = .66), voided volume (P = .59), Qmax (P = .53), and BI scores (P = .67), than patients in the control group. At the end of 4-week follow-up, there were also no significant differences regarding the PV-VRU (P = .42), voided volume (P = .71), Qmax (P = .24), and BI scores (P = .75) between 2 groups. No adverse events occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the findings of this study showed that NMES therapy may not benefit patients with CUR following TBI. PMID: 30633223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cognitive improvement effects of electro-acupuncture for the treatment of MCI compared with Western medications: a systematic review and Meta-analysis.

Related Articles Cognitive improvement effects of electro-acupuncture for the treatment of MCI compared with Western medications: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 Jan 08;19(1):13 Authors: Kim H, Kim HK, Kim SY, Kim YI, Yoo HR, Jung IC Abstract BACKGROUND: Almost half of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progress to dementia, which is associated with decreased quality of life and obstacles to independent living. Relevant management is expected to prevent MCI patients from progressing to dementia. In recent years, electroacupuncture (EA) has been used to treat various kinds of neurological disorders including MCI. This study evaluates the use of EA for MCI patients to increase cognitive function through a comparison with Western medications. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematical reviews (SR) of EA versus Western medications for MCI were searched using the following 10 databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), National Digital Science Library (NDSL), Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry (JON), Korean Medical Database (KMBASE), KoreaMed, and OASIS, from October 2007 to August 2017, without language restriction. A methodological quality assessment of RCTs or SRs that met inclusion criteria was conducted using Cochrane Risk of bias (RoB) tool and a meta-analysis by RevMan (Review Manager) 5.3.5 version of Cochrane collaboration. RESULTS: Five RCTs with 257 patients met inclusion criteria and those were randomly divided into two groups: the EA group (n = 103) and Western medications group (n = 154). The methodological quality of the included studies showed high risk or/and unclear of risk of bias. The meta-analysis of five studies reported that the EA group was better than the Western medications group, improving the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score by 0.65 [95% CI 0.28~1.01] higher mean difference, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score by 0.66 [95% CI 0.00~1.32] higher mean difference. Adverse effects were not reported in the selected studies. CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture was an effective treatment for MCI patients by improving cognitive function. However, the included studies presented a low methodological quality and no adverse effects were reported. Thus, further comprehensive studies with a design in depth are needed to derive significant results. PMID: 30621676 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Outcome of resynchronization therapy on superficial and endocardial electrophysiological findings.

Related Articles Outcome of resynchronization therapy on superficial and endocardial electrophysiological findings. Physiol Res. 2018 Dec 31;67(Supplementum 4):S601-S610 Authors: Kittnar O, Riedlbauchová L, Adla T, Suchánek V, Tomis J, Ložek M, Valeriánová A, Hrachovina M, Popková M, Veselka J, Janoušek J, Lhotská L Abstract Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has proven efficacious in the treatment of patients with heart failure and dyssynchronous activation. Currently, we select suitable CRT candidates based on the QRS complex duration (QRSd) and morphology with left bundle branch block being the optimal substrate for resynchronization. To improve CRT response rates, recommendations emphasize attention to electrical parameters both before implant and after it. Therefore, we decided to study activation times before and after CRT on the body surface potential maps (BSPM) and to compare thus obtained results with data from electroanatomical mapping using the CARTO system. Total of 21 CRT recipients with symptomatic heart failure (NYHA II-IV), sinus rhythm, and QRSd >/=150 ms and 7 healthy controls were studied. The maximum QRSd and the longest and shortest activation times (ATmax and ATmin) were set in the BSPM maps and their locations on the chest were compared with CARTO derived time interval and site of the latest (LATmax) and earliest (LATmin) ventricular activation. In CRT patients, all these parameters were measured during both spontaneous rhythm and biventricular pacing (BVP) and compared with the findings during the spontaneous sinus rhythm in the healthy controls. QRSd was 169.7+/-12.1 ms during spontaneous rhythm in the CRT group and 104.3+/-10.2 ms after CRT (p<0.01). In the control group the QRSd was significantly shorter: 95.1+/-5.6 ms (p<0.01). There was a good correlation between LATmin(CARTO) and ATmin(BSPM). Both LATmin and ATmin were shorter in the control group (LATmin(CARTO) 24.8+/-7.1 ms and ATmin(BSPM) 29.6+/-11.3 ms, NS) than in CRT group (LATmin(CARTO) was 48.1+/-6.8 ms and ATmin(BSPM) 51.6+/-10.1 ms, NS). BVP produced shortening compared to the spontaneous rhythm of CRT recipients (LATmin(CARTO) 31.6+/-5.3 ms and ATmin(BSPM) 35.2+/-12.6 ms; p<0.01 spontaneous rhythm versus BVP). ATmax exhibited greater differences between both methods with higher values in BSPM: in the control group LATmax(CARTO) was 72.0+/-4.1 ms and ATmax (BSPM) 92.5+/-9.4 ms (p<0.01), in the CRT candidates LATmax(CARTO) reached only 106.1+/-6.8 ms whereas ATmax(BSPM) 146.0+/-12.1 ms (p<0.05), and BVP paced rhythm in CRT group produced improvement with LATmax(CARTO) 92.2+/-7.1 ms and ATmax(BSPM) 130.9+/-11.0 ms (p<0.01 before and during BVP). With regard to the propagation of ATmin and ATmax on the body surface, earliest activation projected most often frontally in all 3 groups, whereas projection of ATmax on the body surface was more variable. Our results suggest that compared to invasive electroanatomical mapping BSPM reflects well time of the earliest activation, however provides longer time-intervals for sites of late activation. Projection of both early and late activated regions of the heart on the body surface is more variable than expected, very likely due to changed LV geometry and interposed tissues between the heart and superficial ECG electrode. PMID: 30607967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Left Ventricular End-Systolic Volume Can Predict 1-Year Hierarchical Clinical Composite End Point in Patients with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

Related Articles Left Ventricular End-Systolic Volume Can Predict 1-Year Hierarchical Clinical Composite End Point in Patients with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. Yonsei Med J. 2019 Jan;60(1):48-55 Authors: Uhm JS, Oh J, Cho IJ, Park M, Kim IS, Jin MN, Bae HJ, Yu HT, Kim TH, Pak HN, Lee MH, Joung B, Kang SM Abstract PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate which echocardiographic criteria at three time points, for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response, are accurate in discriminating the hierarchical clinical composite end point (HCCEP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 120 patients (age, 66.1±12.6 years; men, 54.2%) who underwent CRT implantation for heart failure (HF). Echocardiography was performed before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after CRT implantation. The 1-year HCCEP included all-cause mortality, hospitalization for HF, and New York Heart Association functional class for 12 months. CRT response criteria were decrease in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV) >15%, decrease in LV end-diastolic volume >15%, absolute increase in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥5%, relative increase in LVEF ≥15%, and decrease in mitral regurgitation ≥1 grade. Temporal changes in CRT response rates, accuracy of CRT response criteria at each time and cutoff value for the discrimination of improvement in HCCEP, and agreements with improvement in HCCEP were analyzed. RESULTS: HCCEP improvement rates were 65.8% in total group. In nonischemic group, CRT response rates according to all echocardiographic criteria significantly increased with time. In ischemic group, CRT response rate did not significantly change with time. In total group, ΔLVESV at 6 months (ΔLVESV6) had the most significant accuracy for the discrimination of HCCEP (area under the curve=0.781). The optimal cutoff value of ΔLVESV6 was 13.5% (sensitivity=0.719, specificity=0.719). ΔLVESV6 had fair agreement with HCCEP (κ=0.391, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: ΔLVESV6 is the most useful echocardiographic CRT response criterion for the prediction of 1-year HCCEP. PMID: 30554490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Exploring the Potential Effectiveness of Combining Optimal Nutrition With Electrical Stimulation to Maintain Muscle Health in Critical Illness: A Narrative Review.

Related Articles Exploring the Potential Effectiveness of Combining Optimal Nutrition With Electrical Stimulation to Maintain Muscle Health in Critical Illness: A Narrative Review. Nutr Clin Pract. 2018 Dec;33(6):772-789 Authors: Parry SM, Chapple LS, Mourtzakis M Abstract Muscle wasting occurs rapidly within days of an admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Concomitant muscle weakness and impaired physical functioning can ensue, with lasting effects well after hospital discharge. Early physical rehabilitation is a promising intervention to minimize muscle weakness and physical dysfunction. However, there is an often a delay in commencing active functional exercises (such as sitting on the edge of bed, standing and mobilizing) due to sedation, patient alertness, and impaired ability to cooperate in the initial days of ICU admission. Therefore, there is high interest in being able to intervene early through nonvolitional exercise strategies such as electrical muscle stimulation (EMS). Muscle health characterized as the composite of muscle quantity, as well as functional and metabolic integrity, may be potentially maintained when optimal nutrition therapy is provided in complement with early physical rehabilitation in critically ill patients; however, the type, dosage, and timing of these interventions are unclear. This article explores the potential role of nutrition and EMS in maintaining muscle health in critical illness. Within this article, we will evaluate fundamental concepts of muscle wasting and evaluate the effects of EMS, as well as the effects of nutrition therapy on muscle health and the clinical and functional outcomes in critically ill patients. We will also highlight current research gaps in order to advance the field forward in this important area. PMID: 30358183 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Accuracy of different three-dimensional subcortical human brain atlases for DBS -lead localisation.

Related Articles Accuracy of different three-dimensional subcortical human brain atlases for DBS -lead localisation. Neuroimage Clin. 2018;20:868-874 Authors: Nowacki A, Nguyen TA, Tinkhauser G, Petermann K, Debove I, Wiest R, Pollo C Abstract BACKGROUND: Accurate interindividual comparability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead locations in relation to the surrounding anatomical structures is of eminent importance to define and understand effective stimulation areas. The objective of the current work is to compare the accuracy of the DBS lead localisation relative to the STN in native space with four recently developed three-dimensional subcortical brain atlases in the MNI template space. Accuracy is reviewed by anatomical and volumetric analysis as well as intraoperative electrophysiological data. METHODS: Postoperative lead localisations of 10 patients (19 hemispheres) were analysed in each individual patient based on Brainlab software (native space) and after normalization into the MNI space and application of 4 different human brain atlases using Lead-DBS toolbox within Matlab (template space). Each patient's STN was manually segmented and the relation between the reconstructed lead and the STN was compared to the 4 atlas-based STN models by applying the Dice coefficient. The length of intraoperative electrophysiological STN activity along different microelectrode recording tracks was measured and compared to reconstructions in native and template space. Descriptive non-parametric statistical tests were used to calculate differences between the 4 different atlases. RESULTS: The mean STN volume of the study cohort was 153.3 ± 40.3 mm3 (n = 19). This is similar to the STN volume of the DISTAL atlas (166 mm3; p = .22), but significantly larger compared to the other atlases tested in this study. The anatomical overlap of the lead-STN-reconstruction was highest for the DISTAL atlas (0.56 ± 0.18) and lowest for the PD25 atlas (0.34 ± 0.17). A total number of 47 MER trajectories through the STN were analysed. There was a statistically significant discrepancy of the electrophysiogical STN activity compared to the reconstructed STN of all four atlases (p < .0001). CONCLUSION: Lead reconstruction after normalization into the MNI template space and application of four different atlases led to different results in terms of the DBS lead position relative to the STN. Based on electrophysiological and imaging data, the DISTAL atlas led to the most accurate display of the reconstructed DBS lead relative to the DISTAL-based STN. PMID: 30282063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The effect of tDCS on functional connectivity in primary progressive aphasia.

Related Articles The effect of tDCS on functional connectivity in primary progressive aphasia. Neuroimage Clin. 2018;19:703-715 Authors: Ficek BN, Wang Z, Zhao Y, Webster KT, Desmond JE, Hillis AE, Frangakis C, Vasconcellos Faria A, Caffo B, Tsapkini K Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an innovative technique recently shown to improve language outcomes even in neurodegenerative conditions such as primary progressive aphasia (PPA), but the underlying brain mechanisms are not known. The present study tested whether the additional language gains with repetitive tDCS (over sham) in PPA are caused by changes in functional connectivity between the stimulated area (the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)) and the rest of the language network. We scanned 24 PPA participants (11 female) before and after language intervention (written naming/spelling) with a resting-state fMRI sequence and compared changes before and after three weeks of tDCS or sham coupled with language therapy. We correlated changes in the language network as well as in the default mode network (DMN) with language therapy outcome measures (letter accuracy in written naming). Significant tDCS effects in functional connectivity were observed between the stimulated area and other language network areas and between the language network and the DMN. TDCS over the left IFG lowered the connectivity between the above pairs. Changes in functional connectivity correlated with improvement in language scores (letter accuracy as a proxy for written naming) evaluated before and after therapy. These results suggest that one mechanism for anodal tDCS over the left IFG in PPA is a decrease in functional connectivity (compared to sham) between the stimulated site and other posterior areas of the language network. These results are in line with similar decreases in connectivity observed after tDCS over the left IFG in aging and other neurodegenerative conditions. PMID: 30009127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Echocardiographic assessment of ventricular contraction and synchrony in children with isolated complete atrioventricular block and epicardial pacing: Implications of interventricular mechanical delay.

Related Articles Echocardiographic assessment of ventricular contraction and synchrony in children with isolated complete atrioventricular block and epicardial pacing: Implications of interventricular mechanical delay. Echocardiography. 2018 09;35(9):1370-1377 Authors: Hayashi T, Ono H, Kaneko Y Abstract AIMS: To assess the correlations between interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) and cardiac function in children with isolated complete atrioventricular block and epicardial pacing. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 13 children (six boys) with an epicardial dual-chamber pacemaker due to isolated complete or advanced atrioventricular block. The patients were 9.8 (range, 6.8-15.3) years old, and none had symptomatic heart failure at the follow-up visit. Ventricular pacing sites, which remained the same for 7.2 (1.6-12.3) years, were the left ventricle (LV) in two patients, right ventricle (RV) in four patients, and both ventricles in seven patients. IVMD was ≤40 ms in six patients (short IVMD group) and >40 ms in seven patients (long IVMD group). Compared with the long IVMD group, the short IVMD group was associated with better LV longitudinal strain (-20% [-24% to -18%] vs -16% [-20% to -13%], P < .05). The short IVMD group had superior LV mechanical synchrony than the long IVMD group (septal to lateral delay of the time to peak longitudinal strain 15 [-16-78] ms vs 78 [13-93] ms, P < .05; standard deviation of the time to peak radial strain 13 [9-34] ms vs 35 [18-64] ms, P < .05). CONCLUSION: In children with epicardial pacing at LV, RV, or both ventricles, a left-sided contraction delay was associated with poorer LV contraction and impaired LV synchrony. IVMD will help to stratify patients during follow-up. PMID: 29808935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Re: Effect of Electroacupuncture on Urinary Leakage among Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Related Articles Re: Effect of Electroacupuncture on Urinary Leakage among Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Urol. 2018 01;199(1):34-35 Authors: Wein AJ PMID: 29310197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Role of sacral neuromodulation in modern urogynaecology practice: a review of recent literature.

Related Articles Role of sacral neuromodulation in modern urogynaecology practice: a review of recent literature. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 08;29(8):1081-1091 Authors: Tahseen S Abstract Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) offers promise in the therapy of many pelvic floor disorders. This innovative treatment has slowly gained popularity. A review of recent literature is presented in relation to its efficacy and complications in various pelvic floor conditions: overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence, chronic urinary retention, painful bladder syndrome, pelvic pain and double incontinence. It is a minimally invasive, completely reversible safe procedure with good long-term outcomes. However, the treatment is costly, the revision rate is high and patients require life-long follow-up. SNM should always be considered in suitable patients before offering bladder augmentation procedures or urinary diversion or permanent catheterization for bladder dysfunction. SNM should also be considered in patients with double incontinence, after discussion in a urogynaecology/colorectal multidisciplinary team. PMID: 29302716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal gyrus enhances sentence comprehension.

Related Articles Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal gyrus enhances sentence comprehension. Brain Lang. 2018 01;176:36-41 Authors: Giustolisi B, Vergallito A, Cecchetto C, Varoli E, Romero Lauro LJ Abstract We tested the possibility of enhancing natural language comprehension through the application of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus, a key region for verbal short-term memory and language comprehension. We designed a between subjects sham- and task-controlled study. During tDCS stimulation, participants performed a sentence to picture matching task in which targets were sentences with different load on short-term memory. Regardless of load on short-term memory, the Anodal group performed significantly better than the Sham group, thus providing evidence that a-tDCS over LIFG enhances natural language comprehension. To our knowledge, we apply for the first time tDCS to boost sentence comprehension. This result is of special interest also from a clinical perspective: applying a-tDCS in patients manifesting problems at the sentence level due to brain damage could enhance the effects of behavioral rehabilitation procedures aimed to improve language comprehension. PMID: 29175380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Stopping and slowing manual and spoken responses: Similar oscillatory signatures recorded from the subthalamic nucleus.

Related Articles Stopping and slowing manual and spoken responses: Similar oscillatory signatures recorded from the subthalamic nucleus. Brain Lang. 2018 01;176:1-10 Authors: Ghahremani A, Wessel JR, Udupa K, Neagu B, Zhuang P, Saha U, Kalia SK, Hodaie M, Lozano AM, Aron AR, Chen R Abstract Response control in the forms of stopping and slowing responses is thought to be implemented by a frontal-subcortical network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For manual control, stopping is linked to STN beta (13-30 Hz) and slowing responses are linked to lower frequencies (<12 Hz). Whether similar STN oscillatory activities are associated with the control of spoken responses is not clear. We studied 16 patients with STN LFP recordings during manual and vocal stop signal tasks in two experiments. We found increased beta activities for stopping spoken responses, similar to manual stopping. However, unlike manual stopping, stopping spoken responses elicited a right-lateralized beta power increase, which may be related to previously reported hyperactivity of right-sided motor control regions in stuttering. We additionally studied STN power changes associated with slowing responses in the same stop-signal tasks by comparing slower vs. faster go trials. Now, rather than beta, there was an alpha power increase after Go cues, which remained elevated only in slower Go trials in both the vocal and manual tasks. These data show that different types of response control are generalizable across effectors and relate to different frequencies recorded from the STN. PMID: 29125966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Current practice patterns and knowledge among gynecologic surgeons of InterStim® programming after implantation.

Related Articles Current practice patterns and knowledge among gynecologic surgeons of InterStim® programming after implantation. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 08;29(8):1135-1140 Authors: Hobson DTG, Gaskins JT, Frazier L, Francis SL, Kinman CL, Meriwether KV Abstract INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to describe surgeons' current practices in InterStim® programming after initial implantation and their knowledge of programming parameters. We hypothesized that surgeons performing their own reprogramming would have increased knowledge. METHODS: We administered a written survey to attendees at the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Scientific Meeting and analyzed those on which surgeons indicated they offer InterStim® care. The survey queried surgeon characteristics, experience with InterStim® implantation and programming, and clinical opinions regarding reprogramming and tested six knowledge-based questions about programming parameters. Correct response to all six questions was the primary outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-five of 407 (33%) attendees returned the survey, of which 99 met inclusion criteria. Most respondents (88 of 99; 89%) were between 36 and 60 years, 27 (73%) were women, 76 (77%) practiced in a university setting, and 76 (77%) were trained in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS). Surgeons who had InterStim® programming training were more likely to perform their own programming [15/46 (32%) vs 6/47 (13%), p = 0.03]. Most answered all knowledge-based questions correctly (62/90, 69%); no surgeon characteristics were significantly associated with this outcome. Most surgeons cited patient comfort (71/80, 89%) and symptom relief (64/80, 80%) as important factors when reprogramming, but no prevalent themes emerged on how and why surgeons change certain programming parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons who had formal InterStim® programming training are more likely to perform programming themselves. No surgeon characteristic was associated with improved programming knowledge. We found that surgeons prioritize patient comfort and symptoms when deciding to reprogram. PMID: 28975361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Editorial Comment.

Related Articles Editorial Comment. J Urol. 2017 07;198(1):35 Authors: Abaza R PMID: 28344034 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Editorial Comment.

Related Articles Editorial Comment. J Urol. 2017 07;198(1):35 Authors: Russo P PMID: 28344033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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