Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.
Int J Yoga. 2017 May-Aug;10(2):73-80. PMID: 28546677
Jocelyn N García-Sesnich, Mauricio Garrido Flores, Marcela Hernández Ríos, Jorge Gamonal Aravena
Jocelyn N García-Sesnich
CONTEXT: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress.
AIMS: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P<0.05.
RESULTS: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found.
CONCLUSIONS: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.
Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2017
A randomized controlled trial of Kundalini yoga in mild cognitive impairment.
Int Psychogeriatr. 2017 Jan 16:1-11. Epub 2017 Jan 16. PMID: 28088925
Harris A Eyre, Prabha Siddarth, Bianca Acevedo, Kathleen Van Dyk, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie St Cyr, Hongyu Yang, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Harris A Eyre
BACKGROUND: Global population aging will result in increasing rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, effective, low-cost, and low side-effect interventions for the treatment and prevention of cognitive decline are urgently needed. Our study is the first to investigate the effects of Kundalini yoga (KY) training on mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
METHODS: Older participants (≥55 years of age) with MCI were randomized to either a 12-week KY intervention or memory enhancement training (MET; gold-standard, active control). Cognitive (i.e. memory and executive functioning) and mood (i.e. depression, apathy, and resilience) assessments were administered at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks.
RESULTS: At baseline, 81 participants had no significant baseline group differences in clinical or demographic characteristics. At 12 weeks and 24 weeks, both KY and MET groups showed significant improvement in memory; however, only KY showed significant improvement in executive functioning. Only the KY group showed significant improvement in depressive symptoms and resilience at week 12.
CONCLUSION: KY group showed short- and long-term improvements in executive functioning as compared to MET, and broader effects on depressed mood and resilience. This observation should be confirmed in future clinical trials of yoga intervention for treatment and prevention of cognitive decline (NCT01983930).
Article Published Date : Jan 15, 2017
Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.
World J Clin Cases. 2016 Apr 16 ;4(4):99-102. PMID: 27099859
Kirtigandha Salwe Carter, Robert Carter
Kirtigandha Salwe Carter
Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural"technological"solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for beginning practitioners when compared to other forms of meditation more research is needed to elucidate these observations. A breath-based meditation sequence such as Sudarshan Kriya has the potential to help develop an individual's self-awareness and support better integration of the brain (i.e., mind) with other organ systems (i.e., body) for enhanced human performance.
Article Published Date : Apr 15, 2016
Improvements in well-being and vagal tone following a yogic breathing-based life skills workshop in young adults: Two open-trial pilot studies.
Int J Yoga. 2016 Jan-Jun;9(1):20-6. PMID: 26865767
Michael R Goldstein, Gregory F Lewis, Ronnie Newman, Janice M Brown, Georgiy Bobashev, Lisa Kilpatrick, Emma M Seppälä, Diana H Fishbein, Sreelatha Meleth
Michael R Goldstein
BACKGROUND: While efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) has been demonstrated in a number of prior studies, little is known about the effects of SKY taught as part of the Your Enlightened Side (YES+) workshop designed for college students and other young adults.
AIMS: This study aimed to assess the effects of YES+, a yogic breathing-based life skills workshop, on multiple measures of well-being and physiological stress response.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two nonrandomized open-trial pilot studies were conducted with a total of 74 young adults (age 25.4± 6.6 years; 55% female). Study 1 collected a variety of self-report questionnaires at baseline, postworkshop, and 1-month follow-up. Study 2 collected self-report questionnaires in addition to electrocardiography with a stationary cycling challenge at baseline and 1-month follow-up.
RESULTS: Study 1: Improvements in self-reported depression (P's≤ 0.010), perceived stress (P's ≤ 0.002), life satisfaction (P's ≤ 0.002), social connectedness (P's ≤ 0.004), and gratitude (P's ≤ 0.090) were observed at postworkshop and 1-month after workshop relative to baseline. Study 2: Improvements in self-reported emotion regulation were observedat 1-month follow-up relative to baseline (P = 0.019). Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form positive affect increased (P = 0.021), while fatigue and sadness decreased (P's ≤ 0.005). During the stationary cycling challenge, rate to recovery of electrocardiography inter-beat intervalalso increased from baseline to 1-month follow-up (P = 0.077).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a life skills workshop integrating yogic breathing techniques may provide self-empowering tools for enhancing well-being in young adults. Future research is indicated to further explore these effects, particularly in regards to vagal tone and other aspects of stress physiology.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015
Meditation-Induced Coherence and Crucial Events.
Front Physiol. 2018;9:626
Authors: Tuladhar R, Bohara G, Grigolini P, West BJ
In this paper we emphasize that 1/f noise has two different origins, one compatible with Laplace determinism and one determined by unpredictable crucial events. The dynamics of heartbeats, manifest as heart rate variability (HRV) time series, are determined by the joint action of these different memory sources with meditation turning the Laplace memory into a strongly coherent process while exerting an action on the crucial events favoring the transition from the condition of ideal 1/f noise to the Gaussian basin of attraction. This theoretical development affords a method of statistical analysis that establishes a quantitative approach to the evaluation of the stress reduction realized by the practice of Chi meditation and Kundalini Yoga.
PMID: 29896114 [PubMed]