CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions IInfrared Light

Low infra red laser light irradiation on cultured neural cells: effects on mitochondria and cell viability after oxidative stress. 📎

Abstract Title: Low infra red laser light irradiation on cultured neural cells: effects on mitochondria and cell viability after oxidative stress. Abstract Source: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009;9:8. Epub 2009 Apr 15. PMID: 19368718 Abstract Author(s): Alessandro Giuliani, Luca Lorenzini, Michele Gallamini, Alessandro Massella, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà Article Affiliation: BioPharmaNet-DIMORFIPA, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia, Bologna, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Considerable interest has been aroused in recent years by the well-known notion that biological systems are sensitive to visible light. With clinical applications of visible radiation in the far-red to near-infrared region of the spectrum in mind, we explored the effect of coherent red light irradiation with extremely low energy transfer on a neural cell line derived from rat pheochromocytoma. We focused on the effect of pulsed light laser irradiation vis-à-vis two distinct biological effects: neurite elongation under NGF stimulus on laminin-collagen substrate and cell viability during oxidative stress. METHODS: We used a 670 nm laser, with extremely low peak power output (3 mW/cm2) and at an extremely low dose (0.45 mJ/cm2). Neurite elongation wasmeasured over three days in culture. The effect of coherent red light irradiation on cell reaction to oxidative stress was evaluated through live-recording of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) using JC1 vital dye and laser-confocal microscopy, in the absence (photo bleaching) and in the presence(oxidative stress) of H2O2, and by means of the MTT cell viability assay. RESULTS: We found that laser irradiation stimulates NGF-induced neurite elongation on a laminin-collagen coated substrate and protects PC12 cells against oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that red light radiation protects the viability of cell culture in case of oxidative stress, as indicated by MMP measurement and MTT assay. It also stimulates neurite outgrowth, and this effect could also have positive implications for axonal protection. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2009
Therapeutic Actions Infrared Light

NCBI pubmed

Anisotropic Flow Control and Gate Modulation of Hybrid Phonon-Polaritons.

Anisotropic Flow Control and Gate Modulation of Hybrid Phonon-Polaritons. Nano Lett. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Maia FCB, O'Callahan B, Cadore AR, Barcelos ID, Campos LC, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Deneke C, Belyanin A, Raschke MB, Freitas RO Abstract Light-matter interaction in two-dimensional photonic materials allows for confinement and manipulation of free-space radiation in sub-wavelength scales. Most notably, the van der Waals heterostructure comprising graphene (G) and hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) provides for gate-tunable hybrid hyperbolic plasmon phonon-polaritons (HP3). Here, we present anisotropic flow control and gate voltage modulation of HP3 modes in G-hBN lying on air-Au microstructured substrate. Using broadband infrared synchrotron radiation coupled to a scattering-type near-field optical microscope, we launch HP3 waves in both hBN Reststrahlen bands and observe directional propagation across in-plane heterointerfaces created at the air-Au junction. HP3 hybridization is modulated by varying the gate voltage between graphene and Au. In this case, we induce modifications to the coupling of continuum graphene plasmons with the discrete hBN hyperbolic phonon polaritons, which is interpreted as an extended Fano model. This is the first demonstration of control of polariton propagation, including a theoretical approach for a break of the reflection/transmission symmetry for HP3 modes. Our findings augment the degree of control of polaritons in G-hBN and related hyperbolic metamaterial nanostructures bringing novel insights to on-chip nano-optics communication and computing. PMID: 30668122 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Rod-like [email protected] Nanohybrids modified supermolecular photosensitizer for NIRF/MSOT/CT/MR Quadmodal Imaging Guided Photothermal/Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

Rod-like [email protected] Nanohybrids modified supermolecular photosensitizer for NIRF/MSOT/CT/MR Quadmodal Imaging Guided Photothermal/Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Yang S, You Q, Yang L, Li P, Lu Q, Wang S, Tan F, Ji Y, Li N Abstract Recently, rod-like nanomaterials with specific aspect ratio (AR) for efficient cellular uptake have received enormous attention. For functional nanomaterials, such as photothermal agents, large surface areas for their rod-shape exterior that increase the amount of light absorbed would lead to the higher absorption coefficient as well as drug loading property. In this project, we coated rod-like mesoporous silica with gold nanoshell ([email protected] hybrid), modifying with ultrasmall gadolinium (Gd) chelated supramolecular photosensitizers TPPS4 ([email protected](Gd)), which could be applied to near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) / multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) / computed tomography (CT) / magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and imaging guided remotely controlled PTT/PDT combined antitumor therapy. Gold nanoshell, as a perfect PTT agent, was used to assemble the rod-like mesoporous silica nanoparticles with larger superficial area and higher drug loading, thus obtaining [email protected] hybrid. HS-β-CD, which was used as the host, was adsorbed on gold nanoshell ([email protected]β-CD) to link TPPS4(Gd) through host-guest reaction, thus forming CD-TPPS4 supramolecular PSs (supraPSs). Compared with conventional PSs, supraPSs had the host screens, which could reduce the self-aggregation of the TPPS4, and consequently generate 1O2 with high-efficiency. The quad-modal imaging in vivo of [email protected](Gd) nanoparticles revealed that an intensive tumor uptake effect after injection. In vivo antitumor efficacy further testified that the synergistic therapy, which was more efficient than any other mono-therapy, exhibited an excellent tumor inhibition therapeutic effect. As a result, it's encouraged to further explore multifunctional theranostic nanoparticles based of gold shells for cancer combination therapy. PMID: 30668088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Differential photothermal and photodynamic performance behaviors of gold nanorods, nanoshells and nanocages under identical energy conditions.

Differential photothermal and photodynamic performance behaviors of gold nanorods, nanoshells and nanocages under identical energy conditions. Biomater Sci. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Feng Y, Chang Y, Sun X, Cheng Y, Zheng R, Wu X, Wang L, Ma X, Li X, Zhang H Abstract Various gold (Au) nanostructures have shown promising near infrared (NIR) light-activated phototherapeutic effects; however, their reported photothermal or photodynamic performance behavior is usually inconsistent or even conflicted, dramatically limiting the improvement of phototherapeutic Au nanostructures. The potential reason for this uncertainty is mainly because the photoactivities of Au nanostructures are not evaluated under identical energy conditions. Herein, three Au nanostructures, Au nanorods (NRs), nanoshells (NSs), and nanocages (NCs), were prepared to provide the same localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks at 808 nm. All these Au nanostructures (at the same optical density) could fully exert their photoactivities under the identical and optimal energy conditions of 808 nm laser irradiation. It was found that these Au nanostructures could induce similar levels of temperature elevation but different levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, where Au NCs exhibited the highest ROS production, followed by Au NSs and NRs. In vitro and in vivo phototherapeutic assessments further supported that Au NCs could cause the most severe cell death and tumor growth regression. This means that the identical incident energy has different contributions to the photothermal and photodynamic performance of Au nanostructures, and the corner angle structures of Au NCs compared with NSs and NCs could more efficiently convert the photon energy into photodynamic properties. Altogether, Au NCs hold great potential for phototherapy due to their efficient energy utilization capability. PMID: 30666994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Enhancing the antibacterial efficacy of low-dose gentamicin with 5 minute assistance of photothermy at 50 °C.

Enhancing the antibacterial efficacy of low-dose gentamicin with 5 minute assistance of photothermy at 50 °C. Biomater Sci. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Ma M, Liu X, Tan L, Cui Z, Yang X, Liang Y, Li Z, Zheng Y, Yeung KWK, Wu S Abstract Implant materials are prone to bacterial infections and cause serious consequences, while traditional antibiotic therapy has a long treatment cycle and even causes bacterial resistance. In this work, a photothermal therapy (PTT) assisted drug release system has been developed on the implant surface for in situ rapid disinfection under 808 nm light irradiation within a short time, in which gentamicin (Gent) is loaded by polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) on Ti surface, and then encapsulated with chitosan (CS) (CS/Gent/PEG/MoS2-Ti). The hyperthermia produced by the coatings irradiated by 808 nm near-infrared (NIR) light can not only accelerate the local release of Gent, but also reduce the activity of bacteria, which makes it easy for these locally released drugs to enter the interior of the bacteria to inhibit the protein synthesis and destroy the cell membrane. When maintained at 50 °C for 5 min under NIR irradiation, this system can achieve an antibacterial efficacy of 99.93% and 99.19% against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. By contrast, even after treatment for 120 min, only a 93.79% antibacterial ratio can be obtained for Gent alone. This is because hyperthermia produced from the coatings during irradiation can assist antibiotics in killing bacteria in a short time. Even under a low dose of 2 μg mL-1, the photothermal effect assisted gentamicin can achieve an antibacterial efficacy of 96.86% within 5 min. In vitro cell culture shows that the modified surface can facilitate cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation. The 7 day subcutaneous infection model confirms that the prepared surface system can exhibit a much faster sterilization and tissue reconstruction than the control group with light assistance. Compared with the traditional drug release system, this photothermy controlled drug-loaded implant surface system can not only provide rapid and high-efficiency in situ sterilization, but also offer long-term prevention of local bacterial infection. PMID: 30666993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

New High-Power LED Opens Photochemistry for Near Infrared Sensitized Radical and Cationic Photopolymerization.

Related Articles New High-Power LED Opens Photochemistry for Near Infrared Sensitized Radical and Cationic Photopolymerization. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Schmitz C, Pang Y, Gülz A, Gläser M, Horst J, Jäger M, Strehmel B Abstract Cyanines derived from heptamethines were investigated in combination with iodonium salts regarding their capability to initiate radical polymerization of tripropylene glycol diacrylate and epoxides derived from bisphenol-A-diglycidylether. A new Near Infrared (NIR) LED prototype emitting at 805 nm with an exposure density of 1.2 W·cm-2 facilitated initiation of both radical and cationic polymerization using sensitizers derived from cyanines. This new light-emitting device has brought photochemistry of cyanines with the general structure 1 into a new perspective because a combination of photonic and thermal processes responsibly influences reaction pathways. Particular, cationic cyanines comprising a cyclopentene moiety and diphenylamino group in the center initiated cationic polymerization of epoxides as reported for the first time in this communication. Selective oxidation of this unit to a fulvene pattern explains why particular these derivatives may function as initiator for cationic polymerization because formation of nucleophilic photoproducts occurs with minor efficiency. On the other hand, replacement of the diphenylamino group by a barbital group at the meso-position failed to initiate cationic polymerization of epoxides. PMID: 30666770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Volatile fatty acids impacting phototrophic growth kinetics of purple bacteria: Paving the way for protein production on fermented wastewater.

Related Articles Volatile fatty acids impacting phototrophic growth kinetics of purple bacteria: Paving the way for protein production on fermented wastewater. Water Res. 2018 Dec 27;152:138-147 Authors: Alloul A, Wuyts S, Lebeer S, Vlaeminck SE Abstract Nutrient losses in our food chain severely surpass our planetary boundaries. Resource recovery can contribute to mitigation, for instance through converting wastewater resources to microbial protein for animal feed. Wastewater typically holds a complex mixture of organics, posing a challenge to selectively produce heterotrophic biomass. Ensuring the product's quality could be achieved by anaerobic generation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) followed by photoheterotrophic production of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) with infrared light. This study aimed to determine the most suitable PNSB culture for VFA conversion and map the effect of acetate, propionate, butyrate and a VFA mixture on growth and biomass yield. Six cultures were screened in batch: (i) Rhodopseudomonas palustris, (ii) Rhodobacter sphaeroides, (iii) Rhodospirillum rubrum, (iv) a 3-species synthetic community (i+ii+iii), (v) a community enriched on VFA holding Rb. capsulatus, and (vi) Rb. capsulatus (isolate 'v'). The VFA mixture elevated growth rates with a factor 1.3-2.5 compared to individual VFA. Rb. capsulatus showed the highest growth rates: 1.8-2.2 d-1 (enriched) and 2.3-3.8 d-1 (isolated). In a photobioreactor (PBR) inoculated with the Rb. capsulatus enrichment, decreasing sludge retention time (SRT) yielded lower biomass concentrations, yet increased productivities, reaching 1.7 g dry weight (DW) L-1 d-1, the highest phototrophic rate reported thus far, and a growth rate of up to 5 d-1. PNSB represented 26-57% of the community and the diversity index was low (3-7), with a dominance of Rhodopseudomonas at long SRT and Rhodobacter at short SRT. The biomass yield for all cultures, in batch and reactor cultivation, approached 1 g CODBiomass g-1 CODRemoved. An economic estimation for a two-stage approach on brewery wastewater (load 2427 kg COD d-1) showed that 0.5 d SRT allowed for the lowest production cost (€ 10 kg-1 DW; equal shares for capex and opex). The findings strengthen the potential for a novel two-stage approach for resource recovery from industrial wastewater, enabling high-rate PNSB production. PMID: 30665160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Evidentiary Significance of Automotive Paint from the Northeast: A Study of Red Paint.

Related Articles The Evidentiary Significance of Automotive Paint from the Northeast: A Study of Red Paint. J Forensic Sci. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Kruglak KJ, Dubnicka M, Kammrath B, Maxwell V, Reffner JA Abstract This population study was conducted to assess the frequency of physical, microscopical, and chemical properties of automotive paint chips. Population studies of trace evidence provide valuable analytical data for criminalists to assess evidentiary significance. Two-hundred automotive paint chips were collected from auto body shops from the Northeastern United States. All samples were analyzed using stereomicroscopy, brightfield, and polarized light microscopy. Red paints were targeted for further analysis using a sequence of modern instrumental techniques commonly used by forensic paint examiners: Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) microspectroscopy. The discrimination potential of each analytical method was evaluated by inter-comparing the paint samples. Results demonstrated that macroscopic and microscopic properties were able to differentiate 99.995% of the population (one undifferentiated pair out of 19,900). When combined with either FT-IR or UV-Vis microspectroscopy, all paints were differentiated. The results of this research lead to the conclusion that one would not expect to encounter two indistinguishable paint chips originating from different sources during the investigation of a single event. PMID: 30664796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Observation of ballistic avalanche phenomena in nanoscale vertical InSe/BP heterostructures.

Related Articles Observation of ballistic avalanche phenomena in nanoscale vertical InSe/BP heterostructures. Nat Nanotechnol. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Gao A, Lai J, Wang Y, Zhu Z, Zeng J, Yu G, Wang N, Chen W, Cao T, Hu W, Sun D, Chen X, Miao F, Shi Y, Wang X Abstract Impact ionization, which supports carrier multiplication, is promising for applications in single photon detection1 and sharp threshold swing field effect devices2. However, initiating the impact ionization of avalanche breakdown requires a high applied electric field in a long active region, which hampers carrier multiplication with a high gain, low bias and superior noise performance3,4. Here we report the observation of ballistic avalanche phenomena in sub-mean free path (MFP) scaled vertical InSe/black phosphorus (BP)5-9 heterostructures10. We use these heterojunctions to fabricate avalanche photodetectors (APDs) with a sensitive mid-infrared light detection (4 μm wavelength) and impact ionization transistors with a steep subthreshold swing (<0.25 mV dec-1). The devices show a low avalanche threshold (<1 V), low noise figure and distinctive density spectral shape. Our transport measurements suggest that the breakdown originates from a ballistic avalanche phenomenon, where the sub-MFP BP channel support the lattice impact ionization by electrons and holes and the abrupt current amplification without scattering from the obstacles in a deterministic nature. Our results provide new strategies for the development of advanced photodetectors1,11,12 via efficient carrier manipulation at the nanoscale. PMID: 30664752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Photothermal Controlled Generation of Alkyl Radical from Organic Nanoparticles for Tumor Treatment.

Related Articles Photothermal Controlled Generation of Alkyl Radical from Organic Nanoparticles for Tumor Treatment. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Xia R, Zheng X, Hu X, Liu S, Xie Z Abstract The therapeutic properties of light are well known for photodynamic or photothermal therapy, which could cause irreversible photodamage to tumor tissues. Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proved in the clinic, the efficacy is not satisfactory because of complicated tumor microenvironments. For example, the hypoxia in solid tumor has a negative effect on the generation of singlet oxygen. In order to address the hypoxia issues in PDT, leveraging alkyl radical is an available option due to the oxygen-independent feature. In this work, a new kind of organic nanoparticles (TPP-NN NPs) from porphyrin and radical initiator is developed. Under near infrared light irradiation, TPP-NN NPs will splitting and release alkyl radical, which could induce the obvious cytotoxicity whether in normal or hypoxia environment. The photothermal controlled generation of alkyl radical could significantly inhibit the growth of cervical cancer, and show the ignorable systemic toxicity. This activatable radical therapy opens up new possibilities for application of PDT in hypoxia condition. PMID: 30663874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Metabolizable Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles for Second Near-Infrared Photoacoustic Imaging.

Related Articles Metabolizable Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles for Second Near-Infrared Photoacoustic Imaging. Adv Mater. 2019 Jan 21;:e1808166 Authors: Jiang Y, Upputuri PK, Xie C, Zeng Z, Sharma A, Zhen X, Li J, Huang J, Pramanik M, Pu K Abstract Photoacoustic (PA) imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window (1000-1700 nm) holds great promise for deep-tissue diagnosis due to the reduced light scattering and minimized tissue absorption; however, exploration of such a noninvasive imaging technique is greatly constrained by the lack of biodegradable NIR-II absorbing agents. Herein, the first series of metabolizable NIR-II PA agents are reported based on semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs). Such completely organic nanoagents consist of π-conjugated yet oxidizable optical polymer as PA generator and hydrolyzable amphiphilic polymer as particle matrix to provide water solubility. The obtained SPNs are readily degraded by myeloperoxidase and lipase abundant in phagocytes, transforming from nonfluorescent nanoparticles (30 nm) into NIR fluorescent ultrasmall metabolites (≈1 nm). As such, these nanoagents can be effectively cleared out via both hepatobiliary and renal excretions after systematic administration, leaving no toxicity to living mice. Particularly these nanoagents possess high photothermal conversion efficiencies and emit bright PA signals at 1064 nm, enabling sensitive NIR-II PA imaging of both subcutaneous tumor and deep brain vasculature through intact skull in living animals at a low systematic dosage. This study thus provides a generalized molecular design toward organic metabolizable semiconducting materials for biophotonic applications in NIR-II window. PMID: 30663820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Blue perovskite light-emitting diodes: progress, challenges and future directions.

Related Articles Blue perovskite light-emitting diodes: progress, challenges and future directions. Nanoscale. 2019 Jan 21;: Authors: Kumawat NK, Liu XK, Kabra D, Gao F Abstract Metal halide perovskites have excellent optical and electrical properties and can be easily processed via low-cost solution-based techniques like blade-coating and inkjet printing, promising a bright future for various optoelectronic applications. Recently, encouraging progress has been made in perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Green, red, and near-infrared PeLEDs have achieved high external quantum efficiencies of more than 20%. However, as historically blue electroluminescence remains challenging in all previous LED technologies, we are witnessing a similar case with the development of blue PeLEDs, an essential part of displays and solid-state lighting, which lag far behind those of their counterparts. Herein, we review the recent progress of blue PeLEDs and discuss the main challenges including colour instability, poor photoluminescence efficiency and emission quenching by interlayers. Future directions are provided to facilitate the development of efficient blue PeLEDs. PMID: 30663760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Low Intensity Light-Induced Paclitaxel Release from Lipid Based Nano-delivery Systems.

Related Articles Low Intensity Light-Induced Paclitaxel Release from Lipid Based Nano-delivery Systems. J Drug Target. 2019 Jan 19;:1-41 Authors: Meerovich I, Nichols MG, Dash AK Abstract Light-induced drug release has been explored as a strategy for externally modulating the release of drug from delivery systems. This study reports the development of a solid lipid nanoparticulate system (SLN) for paclitaxel (PTX), where photosensitizer-mediated oxidation of lipids was used as a mechanism for controlling the drug release. Low-intensity (23 mW/cm2) near-infrared (around 730 nm) illumination was externally applied as the light source. Paclitaxel release was less than 10% within 4 hrs from these SLN and was 8-fold higher after application of light at time zero. The other advantages of this approach include the use of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant for enhancing the release and storage stability of the delivery system. Antioxidant like ascorbic acid in the SLN decrease the degradation of lipid by 8-fold within 4 months of storage. Presence of ascorbic acid and light illumination of SLN containing PTX further decreased the IC50 by 2 times in A549 cells. The uniqueness of this approach allows the possibility of external modulation to achieve pulsatile release from the delivery system. The light used in the NIR spectral range of 700-850 nm, which has the greatest tissue penetration ability, with a low intensity will be safe for normal tissues. PMID: 30663420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A systematic study and effect of PLA/Al2O3 nanoscaffolds as dental resins: mechanochemical properties.

Related Articles A systematic study and effect of PLA/Al2O3 nanoscaffolds as dental resins: mechanochemical properties. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1):201-209 Authors: Ranjbar M, Dehghan Noudeh G, Hashemipour MA, Mohamadzadeh I Abstract One of the major and important challenges in dental composite resin and restoration is the mechanical performance and property of materials. Nanotechnology can produce nanoscale materials that are used in dentistry to help stabilize and strengthen the dentistry. In this work, we study the synthesis and characterization of PLA/Al2O3 nanoscaffold in different conditions such as concentration, temperature, pH, microwave power and irradiation time. PLA/Al2O3 nanoscaffolds were prepared by a micelle-assisted hydrothermal method. Durability, stability and biodegradable nature of nanopolymers have created the much-applied potential for using this structures in many fields such as dental resin composites. Products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transition electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum (FT-IR), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The synthesis factors were designed by Taguchi technique to control the process systematically. It was found that the intermolecular crosslinks between PLA and Al2O3 nanoparticles cause significant improves in the mechanical properties of PLA/Al2O3 nanoscaffold as dental nanocomposites. The flexural strength (88.0 MPa), modulus (7.5 GPa) and compressive strength (157.2 MPa) were calculated for PLA/Al2O3 nanoscaffolds loaded in Heliomolar Flow composite resins at 80 ppm (wt) concentration. PMID: 30663399 [PubMed - in process]

Development of Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51T-mediated gold nanoparticles for delivery of ginsenoside compound K: in vitro photothermal effects and apoptosis detection in cancer cells.

Related Articles Development of Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51T-mediated gold nanoparticles for delivery of ginsenoside compound K: in vitro photothermal effects and apoptosis detection in cancer cells. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1):30-44 Authors: Kim YJ, Perumalsamy H, Markus J, Balusamy SR, Wang C, Ho Kang S, Lee S, Park SY, Kim S, Castro-Aceituno V, Kim SH, Yang DC Abstract We report a non-covalent loading of ginsenoside compound K (CK) onto our previously reported gold nanoparticles (DCY51T-AuCKNps) through one-pot biosynthesis using a probiotic Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51T isolated from Korean kimchi. The ginsenoside-loaded gold nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, elemental mapping, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Furthermore, drug loading was also determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In addition, DCY51T-AuNps and DCY51T-AuCKNps were resistant to aggregation caused by pH variation or a high ionic strength environment. Cell-based study confirmed that DCY51T-AuCKNps exhibited slightly higher cytotoxicity compared to ginsenoside CK treatment in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) and HT29 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line). Upon laser treatment, DCY51T-AuCKNps showed enhanced cell apoptosis in A549, HT29 and AGS cells (human stomach gastric adenocarcinoma cell line) compared with only DCY51T-AuCKNps treated cells. In conclusion, this preliminary study identified that DCY51T-AuCKNps act as a potent photothermal therapy agents with synergistic chemotherapeutic effects for the treatment of cancer. PMID: 30663395 [PubMed - in process]

Intelligent Photosensitive Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Cell-Derived Microvesicles for Photothermal Therapy of Prostate Cancer.

Related Articles Intelligent Photosensitive Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Cell-Derived Microvesicles for Photothermal Therapy of Prostate Cancer. Nanotheranostics. 2019;3(1):41-53 Authors: Huang L, Xu C, Xu P, Qin Y, Chen M, Feng Q, Pan J, Cheng Q, Liang F, Wen X, Wang Y, Shi Y, Cheng Y Abstract Targeted delivery of nanomedicines into the tumor site and improving the intratumoral distribution remain challenging in cancer treatment. Here, we report an effective transportation system utilizing both of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their secreted microvesicles containing assembled gold nanostars (GNS) for targeted photothermal therapy of prostate cancer. The stem cells act as a cell carrier to actively load and assemble GNS into the lysosomes. Accumulation of GNS in the lysosomes facilitates the close interaction of nanoparticles, which could result in a 20 nm red-shift of surface plasmon resonance of GNS with a broad absorption in the near infrared region. Moreover, the MSCs can behave like an engineering factory to pack and release the GNS clusters into microvesicles. The secretion of GNS can be stimulated via light irradiation, providing an external trigger-assisted approach to encapsulate nanoparticles into cell derived microvesicles. In vivo studies demonstrate that GNS-loaded MSCs have an extensive intratumoral distribution, as monitored via photoacoustic imaging, and efficient antitumor effect under light exposure in a prostate-cancer subcutaneous model by intratumoral and intravenous injection. Our work presents a light-responsive transportation approach for GNS in combination of MSCs and their extracellular microvesicles and holds the promise as an effective strategy for targeted cancer therapy including prostate cancer. PMID: 30662822 [PubMed - in process]

Galactosylated chitosan-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient colon cancer cell-targeted drug delivery.

Related Articles Galactosylated chitosan-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient colon cancer cell-targeted drug delivery. R Soc Open Sci. 2018 Dec;5(12):181027 Authors: Liu W, Zhu Y, Wang F, Li X, Liu X, Pang J, Pan W Abstract Targeted drug delivery to colon cancer cells can significantly enhance the therapeutic efficiency. Herein, we developed 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN-NH2)-based galactosylated chitosans (GCs), which are galactose receptor-mediated materials for colon-specific drug delivery systems. Both unmodified and functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption and dynamic light scattering. Drug loading capacity and drug release properties were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. [email protected]/GC showed high loading capacity and possessed much higher cytotoxicity on human colon cancer cells (SW620 cells) than [email protected] and free 5-FU. But, MSN-NH2/GC did not show significant cytotoxicity. Subsequently, [email protected]/GC anti-cancer activity on SW620 cells in vitro was confirmed by cell apoptosis. These results are consistent with the cellular uptake test in which MSN-NH2/GC could specifically recognize and bind to cancer cells by the galectin-receptor recognition. But, it is found that pre-addition of galactose in the medium, leading to competitive binding to the galectin receptor of SW620 cells, resulted in a decrease in the binding of MSN-NH2/GC to the galectin receptor. The results demonstrated the inorganic-organic nanocomposite could be used as a promising drug delivery carrier for the targeted delivery of drug into galectin-positive colon cancer cells to improve therapeutic index while reducing side effects. PMID: 30662725 [PubMed]

Near-infrared light-regulated cancer theranostic nanoplatform based on aggregation-induced emission luminogen encapsulated upconversion nanoparticles.

Related Articles Near-infrared light-regulated cancer theranostic nanoplatform based on aggregation-induced emission luminogen encapsulated upconversion nanoparticles. Theranostics. 2019;9(1):246-264 Authors: Jin G, He R, Liu Q, Lin M, Dong Y, Li K, Tang BZ, Liu B, Xu F Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been widely applied in the clinic for the treatment of various types of cancer due to its precise controllability, minimally invasive approach and high spatiotemporal accuracy as compared with conventional chemotherapy. However, the porphyrin-based photosensitizers (PSs) used in clinics generally suffer from aggregation-caused reductions in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and limited tissue penetration because of visible light activation, which greatly hampers their applications for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. Methods: We present a facile strategy for constructing a NIR-regulated cancer theranostic nanoplatform by encapsulating upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and a luminogen (2-(2,6-bis((E)-4-(phenyl(40-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)-[1,10-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)styryl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)malononitrile, TTD) with aggregation-induced emission (AIEgen) characteristics using an amphiphilic polymer, and further conjugating cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide to yield [email protected] NPs. We then evaluated the bioimaging and anti-tumor capability of the [email protected] NPs under NIR light illumination in an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer spheroid and in a murine tumor model, respectively. Results: With a close match between the UCNP emission and absorption of the AIEgen, the synthesized NPs could efficiently generate ROS, even under excitation through thick tissues. The NIR-regulated [email protected] NPs that were developed could selectively light up the targeted cancer cells and significantly inhibit tumor growth during the NIR-regulated PDT treatment as compared with the cells under white light excitation. Conclusion: In summary, the synthesized [email protected] NPs showed great potential in NIR light-regulated photodynamic therapy of deep-seated tumors. Our study will inspire further exploration of novel theranostic nanoplatforms that combine UCNPs and various AIEgen PSs for the advancement of deep-seated tumor treatments with potential clinical translations. PMID: 30662565 [PubMed - in process]

Self-Luminescing Theranostic Nanoreactors with Intraparticle Relayed Energy Transfer for Tumor Microenvironment Activated Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy.

Related Articles Self-Luminescing Theranostic Nanoreactors with Intraparticle Relayed Energy Transfer for Tumor Microenvironment Activated Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy. Theranostics. 2019;9(1):20-33 Authors: Wu M, Wu L, Li J, Zhang D, Lan S, Zhang X, Lin X, Liu G, Liu X, Liu J Abstract The low tissue penetration depth of external excitation light severely hinders the sensitivity of fluorescence imaging (FL) and the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vivo; thus, rational theranostic platforms that overcome the light penetration depth limit are urgently needed. To overcome this crucial problem, we designed a self-luminescing nanosystem (denoted POCL) with near-infrared (NIR) light emission and singlet oxygen (1O2) generation abilities utilizing an intraparticle relayed resonance energy transfer strategy. Methods: Bis[3,4,6-trichloro-2-(pentyloxycarbonyl) phenyl] oxalate (CPPO) as a chemical energy source with high reactivity toward H2O2, poly[(9,9'-dioctyl-2,7-divinylene-fluorenylene)-alt-2-methoxy- 5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene] (PFPV) as a highly efficient chemiluminescence converter, and tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) as a photosensitizer with NIR emission and 1O2 generation abilities were coencapsulated by self-assembly with poly(ethyleneglycol)-co-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) and folate-PEG-cholesterol to form the POCL nanoreactor, with folate as the targeting group. A series of in vitro and in vivo analyses, including physical and chemical characterizations, tumor targeting ability, tumor microenvironment activated imaging and photodynamic therapy, as well as biosafety, were systematically investigated to characterize the POCL. Results: The POCL displayed excellent NIR luminescence and 1O2 generation abilities in response to H2O2. Therefore, it could serve as a specific H2O2 probe to identify tumors through chemiluminescence imaging and as a chemiluminescence-driven PDT agent for inducing tumor cell apoptosis to inhibit tumor growth due to the abnormal overproduction of H2O2 in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, the folate ligand on the POCL surface can further improve the accumulation at the tumor site via a receptor-mediated mechanism, thus enhancing tumor imaging and the therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo but without any observable systemic toxicity. Conclusion: The nanosystem reported here might serve as a targeted, smart, precise, and noninvasive strategy triggered by the tumor microenvironment rather than by an outside light source for cancer NIR imaging and PDT treatment without limitations on penetration depth. PMID: 30662551 [PubMed - in process]

Selective cytotoxicity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against the MCF-7 tumor cell line and their enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

Related Articles Selective cytotoxicity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against the MCF-7 tumor cell line and their enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Int J Nanomedicine. 2018;13:8013-8024 Authors: Khorrami S, Zarrabi A, Khaleghi M, Danaei M, Mozafari MR Abstract Introduction: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of great interest due to their unique and controllable characteristics. Different synthesis methods have been proposed to produce these nanoparticles, which often require elevated temperatures/pressures or toxic solvents. Thus, green synthesis could be a replacement option as a simple, economically viable and environmentally friendly alternative approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Methods: Here, the potential of the walnut green husk was investigated in the production of silver nanoparticles. An aqueous solution extracted from walnut green husk was used as a reducing agent as well as a stabilizing agent. Then, the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with respect of their anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Results: Results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles possessed an average size of 31.4 nm with a Zeta potential of -33.8 mV, indicating high stability. A significant improvement in the cytotoxicity and antioxidant characteristics of the green synthesized Ag nanoparticles against a cancerous cell line was observed in comparison with the walnut green husk extract and a commercial silver nanoparticle (CSN). This could be due to a synergistic effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles and their biological coating. AgNPs and the extract exhibited 70% and 40% cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cancerous cells, respectively, while CSN caused 56% cell death (at the concentration of 60 µg/mL). It was observed that AgNPs were much less cytotoxic when tested against a noncancerous cell line (L-929) in comparison with the control material (CSN). The free radical scavenging analysis demonstrated profound anti-oxidant activity for the synthesized nanoparticles in comparison with the extract and CSN. It was also detected that the synthesized AgNPs possess antibacterial activity against nosocomial and standard strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration =5-30 µg/mL). Conclusion: These findings imply that the synthesized nanoparticles using green nanotechnology could be an ideal strategy to combat cancer and infectious diseases. PMID: 30568442 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The first one-pot synthesis of undoped and Eu doped β-NaYF4 nanocrystals and their evaluation as efficient dyes for nanomedicine.

Related Articles The first one-pot synthesis of undoped and Eu doped β-NaYF4 nanocrystals and their evaluation as efficient dyes for nanomedicine. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019 Jan 01;94:26-34 Authors: Mnasri W, Ben Tahar L, Boissière M, Abi Haidar D, Ammar S Abstract Polygonal-shaped about 75 nm sized and highly crystallized Eu3+-doped β-NaYF4 particles were directly prepared under mild conditions using the polyol process. A set of operating parameters were optimized for such a purpose. A conventional heating under reflux for 30 min of a mixture of Y(III) and Eu(III) acetate, ammonium fluoride, sodium hydroxide and oleic acid (OA) dissolved in ethyleneglycol offered a pertinent material processing route if a large excess of NH4F and an enough amount of OA were used. Typically, the former parameter provides an exclusive stabilization of the desired β allotropic form, while the latter allows a significant size decrease of the particles. Thanks to their coating by a double OA layer, the produced particles exhibited a hydrophilic surface feature when dispersed in water and when excited under UV light they emitted a very intense red photoluminescence. Additionally, they did not evidence any accurate cytotoxicity when incubated with healthy human foreskin fibroblast (BJH) cells for doses as high as 50 μg·mL-1 and contact time as long as 48 h, highlighting the ability of the prepared particles to be used as efficient down-converter light sources for cell labelling. PMID: 30423708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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