Therapeutic Actions Weight Reduction

NCBI pubmed

Transcriptome and DNA Methylome Analysis in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity Predicts Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

Related Articles Transcriptome and DNA Methylome Analysis in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity Predicts Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer. Cell Rep. 2018 Jan 16;22(3):624-637 Authors: Li R, Grimm SA, Mav D, Gu H, Djukovic D, Shah R, Merrick BA, Raftery D, Wade PA Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice. Strikingly, colonic DNA methylome was pre-programmed by obesity at young age, priming for a tumor-prone gene signature after aging. Furthermore, obesity-related changes were substantially preserved after short-term weight loss, but they were largely reversed after long-term weight loss. We provided mechanistic insights into increased CRC risk in obesity. PMID: 29346762 [PubMed - in process]

Case study of an adaptation and implementation of a Diabetes Prevention Program for individuals with serious mental illness.

Related Articles Case study of an adaptation and implementation of a Diabetes Prevention Program for individuals with serious mental illness. Transl Behav Med. 2018 Jan 16;: Authors: Quiñones MM, Lombard-Newell J, Sharp D, Way V, Cross W Abstract The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is an evidence-based lifestyle intervention developed to decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes and promote weight loss in individuals at risk for diabetes. Individuals with serious mental illness have a greater risk for developing diabetes compared with the general population. In this article, the authors provide a detailed description of the adaptation process of the DPP for individuals with serious mental illness (DPP-SMI). The adaptation process was based on a cultural adaptation framework for modifying evidence-based interventions. To assess the effectiveness of the DPP-SMI, 11 individuals from a community mental health residential agency completed a 22-session pilot study of the adapted program and provided physiological measures before and after the intervention. As primary outcomes, participants were expected to report decreased body weight and increased physical activity per week. Completers had an average weight loss of 19 lbs (8%) and their physical activity increased from 161 to 405 min per week. These preliminary results together with participants' feedback informed further refinement of the DPP-SMI. This case study supports that individuals with serious mental illness can benefit from the DPP-SMI, which is tailored to meet the unique needs of this population group. PMID: 29346678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy for the Treatment of Hypothalamic Hamartomas: A Retrospective Review.

Related Articles Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy for the Treatment of Hypothalamic Hamartomas: A Retrospective Review. Neurosurgery. 2018 Jan 13;: Authors: Xu DS, Chen T, Hlubek RJ, Bristol RE, Smith KA, Ponce FA, Kerrigan JF, Nakaji P Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are rare lesions associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Open surgery results in modest seizure control (about 50%) but has a significant associated morbidity. Radiosurgery is limited to a subset of patients due to latent therapeutic effects. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) offers a novel minimally invasive option. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a single center's outcomes for the LITT treatment of HH. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our experience with LITT for the treatment of HH using our institution's prospectively maintained patient database. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (mean age, 21.1 yr; median age, 11 yr) underwent 21 total LITT treatments for HH. Mean follow-up was 17.4 mo. The length of stay was 1 night for 16 (89%) patients. At the end of follow-up, 11 of 18 patients (61%) had full disconnection of the HH, and 12 of 15 (80%) patients with gelastic seizures and 5 (56%) of 9 patients with nongelastic seizures were seizure free (International League Against Epilepsy Class 1). Immediate complications included a 39% (7/18) incidence of neurological deficits, including 1 case of hemiparesis. At the end of follow-up, 22% of patients (4/18) had persistent deficits. The hypothyroidism that occurred was delayed in 11% of patients (2/18), as was short-term memory loss (22%, 4/18) and weight gain (22%, 4/18). CONCLUSION: LITT therapy for HH can achieve excellent rates of seizure control with low morbidity and a short postoperative stay in a majority of patients. Additional research is needed to assess the durability of results and the full spectrum of cognitive outcomes. PMID: 29346599 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Obesity and Pancreatic Cancer: Overview of Epidemiology and Potential Prevention by Weight Loss.

Related Articles Obesity and Pancreatic Cancer: Overview of Epidemiology and Potential Prevention by Weight Loss. Pancreas. 2018 Feb;47(2):158-162 Authors: Xu M, Jung X, Hines OJ, Eibl G, Chen Y Abstract Currently, there are no effective preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer. Obesity has been increasingly recognized as a strong but modifiable risk factor of pancreatic cancer. In this article, we aim to review the literature regarding weight loss on prevention of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased incidence of pancreatic cancer and potentially worse cancer outcome. Whereas the underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered intestinal microbiota are all implicated in the carcinogenic effect of obesity. Weight loss, especially the durable and significant weight loss after bariatric surgery, has been shown to reduce the risks of multiple cancers and may become a good intervention for pancreatic cancer prevention. PMID: 29346216 [PubMed - in process]

Esophageal leiomyoma in a dog causing esophageal distension and treated by transcardial placement of a self-expanding, covered, nitinol esophageal stent.

Related Articles Esophageal leiomyoma in a dog causing esophageal distension and treated by transcardial placement of a self-expanding, covered, nitinol esophageal stent. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 Feb 01;252(3):330-335 Authors: Robin EM, Pey PB, de Fornel-Thibaud P, Moissonnier PHM, Freiche V Abstract CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old spayed female Rottweiler was referred for evaluation because of a 2-month history of regurgitation and weight loss, despite no apparent change in appetite. The dog had received antiemetic and antacid treatment, without improvement. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a low body condition score (2/5), but other findings were unremarkable. Diffuse, global esophageal dilatation was noted on plain thoracic radiographs, and normal motility was confirmed through videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Transhepatic ultrasonographic and CT examination revealed a circumferential, intraparietal lesion in the distal portion of the esophagus causing distal esophageal or cardial subobstruction and no metastases. Incisional biopsy of the lesion was performed, and findings of histologic examination supported a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In view of numerous possible complications associated with esophageal surgery, the decision was made to palliatively treat the dog by transcardial placement of a self-expanding, covered, nitinol esophageal stent under endoscopic guidance. Two weeks after stent placement, radiography revealed complete migration of the stent into the gastric lumen. Gastrotomy was performed, and the stent was replaced and fixed in place. Twenty-four months after initial stent placement, the dog had a healthy body condition and remained free of previous clinical signs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Diffuse benign muscular neoplasia should be considered as a differential diagnosis for acquired esophageal dilatation in adult and elderly dogs. In the dog of this report, transcardial stent placement resulted in resolution of the clinical signs, with no apparent adverse effect on digestive function. The described procedure could be beneficial for nonsurgical treatment of benign esophageal tumors in dogs. PMID: 29346056 [PubMed - in process]

Diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease in a harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) with suspected fenbendazole toxicosis.

Related Articles Diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease in a harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) with suspected fenbendazole toxicosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 Feb 01;252(3):336-342 Authors: Doss GA, Mans C, Johnson L, Pinkerton ME, Hardie RJ, Sladky KK Abstract CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-year-old 4.1-kg (9.02-lb) male harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) was evaluated because of vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss (decrease of 0.35 kg [0.77 lb]) of 4 weeks' duration. The bird had previously been treated orally with fenbendazole after the initial onset of clinical signs. CLINICAL FINDINGS An initial CBC revealed marked heteropenia and anemia, but whole-body contrast-enhanced CT images and other diagnostic test findings were unremarkable. Clinical signs persisted, and additional diagnostic testing failed to reveal the cause. During celiotomy, a biopsy specimen of the duodenum was obtained for histologic examination, which revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, consistent with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Prior to histopathologic diagnosis of IBD, barium sulfate administered via gavage resulted in a temporary improvement of clinical signs. Following diagnosis of IBD, corticosteroid administration was initiated in conjunction with antifungal prophylaxis. Cessation of vomiting and a return to normal appetite occurred within 3 days. Fifteen months after cessation of corticosteroid treatment, the eagle continued to do well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this was the first report of diagnosis and management of IBD in an avian species. For the eagle of the present report, results of several diagnostic tests increased clinical suspicion of IBD, but histologic examination of an intestinal biopsy specimen was required for definitive diagnosis. Although successful in this case, steroid administration in avian species must be carefully considered. Conclusive evidence of fenbendazole toxicosis was not obtained, although it was highly suspected in this bird. PMID: 29346050 [PubMed - in process]

Intermittent Preventive Therapy in Pregnancy and Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Malaria-Endemic Countries.

Related Articles Intermittent Preventive Therapy in Pregnancy and Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Malaria-Endemic Countries. Am J Public Health. 2018 Jan 18;:e1-e8 Authors: Cates JE, Westreich D, Unger HW, Bauserman M, Adair L, Cole SR, Meshnick S, Rogerson SJ, Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) Initiative Abstract OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of hypothetical antimalarial and nutritional interventions (which reduce the prevalence of low midupper arm circumference [MUAC]) on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). METHODS: We analyzed data from 14 633 pregnancies from 13 studies conducted across Africa and the Western Pacific from 1996 to 2015. We calculated population intervention effects for increasing intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp), full coverage with bed nets, reduction in malaria infection at delivery, and reductions in the prevalence of low MUAC. RESULTS: We estimated that, compared with observed IPTp use, administering 3 or more doses of IPTp to all women would decrease the incidence of LBW from 9.9% to 6.9% (risk difference = 3.0%; 95% confidence interval = 1.7%, 4.0%). The intervention effects for eliminating malaria at delivery, increasing bed net ownership, and decreasing low MUAC prevalence were all modest. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing IPTp uptake to at least 3 doses could decrease the incidence of LBW in malaria-endemic countries. The impact of IPTp on LBW was greater than the effect of prevention of malaria, consistent with a nonmalarial effect of IPTp, measurement error, or selection bias. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print January 18, 2018: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304251). PMID: 29346002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Pharmacological Management of Metabolic Syndrome.

Related Articles The Pharmacological Management of Metabolic Syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Jan 18;: Authors: Rask Larsen J, Dima L, Correll CU, Manu P Abstract Introduction The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Areas covered: A Medline literature search was performed to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses related to the therapy of dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and obesity published in the past decade. Expert commentary: Our recommendation for first-line pharmacological are statins for dyslipidemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system inhibitors for arterial hypertension, metformin or sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for glucose intolerance, and the GLP-1RA liraglutide for achieving body weight and waist circumference reduction. PMID: 29345505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Poly(glycidol) Coating on Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene for Reduced Biofilm Growth.

Related Articles Poly(glycidol) Coating on Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene for Reduced Biofilm Growth. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Jan 18;: Authors: Lockhart JN, Spoonmore TJ, McCurdy MW, Rogers BR, Guelcher SA, Harth E Abstract Semibranched poly(glycidol) (PG-OH) and poly(glycidol allylglycidyl ether) (PG-Allyl) coatings were formed on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UMWPE) in a unique two-step process which included radiation of UHMWPE followed by grafting of PG-OH or PG-Allyl to the surface via free radical cross-linking. Resulting surfaces were extensively characterized by FTIR-ATR, XPS, fluorescent microscopy, and contact goniometry. The performance was evaluated using the most prominent biofilm-forming bacteria Staphylococcus aureus for 24 and 48 h. The PG-Allyl coating demonstrated a 3 log reduction in biofilm growth compared to noncoated control, demonstrating a promising potential to inhibit adherence and colonization of biofilm-forming bacteria that often develop into persistent infections. PMID: 29345453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The effect of diuresis on extravascular lung water and pulmonary function in acute decompensated heart failure.

Related Articles The effect of diuresis on extravascular lung water and pulmonary function in acute decompensated heart failure. ESC Heart Fail. 2018 Jan 18;: Authors: Chase SC, Fermoyle CC, Wheatley CM, Schaefer JJ, Olson LJ, Johnson BD Abstract AIMS: The effect of extravascular lung water (EVLW) and relationship to functional status as a result of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are not well understood. We sought to quantify changes in clinical variables, EVLW, airway anatomy, spirometry, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide before and after treatment for ADHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission. Spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and surrogates of EVLW by computed tomography were measured and were then repeated within 24 h of discharge. From the computed tomography (CT) scan, surrogates of EVLW were calculated from the distribution of CT attenuation of the lung tissue. Airways were segmented using the VIDA Apollo software. Patients were hospitalized for 4.6 ± 2.1 days, had 10 ± 4.8 L of fluid removed (7.0 ± 4.2 L between study visits), and lost 7.1 ± 4.9 kg. Patients had significant clearance of fluid from the lungs (per cent change: mean, 4.2 ± 6.1%; skew, 17.5 ± 27.0%; kurtosis, 37.6 ± 56.7%; full-width half-maximum, 10.2 ± 13.5%). Static lung volumes and maximal flows improved significantly (per cent change: forced vital capacity, 14.5 ± 13.6%; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 15.9 ± 14.0%; forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity, 27.2 ± 42.9%). The ratio of membrane conductance to capillary blood volume improved significantly (per cent change: alveolar-capillary membrane conductance/capillary blood volume, 23.4 ± 22.8%). Weight loss during hospitalization was significantly correlated with improved spirometry and diffusing capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Extravascular lung water contributes to the pulmonary congestive syndrome in ADHF patients, and its clearance is an important component of the improvement in pulmonary function as a result of inpatient treatment. PMID: 29345431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates eosinophil recruitment and food allergen-induced gastrointestinal inflammation.

Related Articles Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates eosinophil recruitment and food allergen-induced gastrointestinal inflammation. J Leukoc Biol. 2018 Jan 17;: Authors: Bastan I, Ge XN, Dileepan M, Greenberg YG, Guedes AG, Hwang SH, Hammock BD, Washabau RJ, Rao SP, Sriramarao P Abstract Prevalence of food allergies in the United States is on the rise. Eosinophils are recruited to the intestinal mucosa in substantial numbers in food allergen-driven gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to play a pro-inflammatory role during inflammation by metabolizing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to pro-inflammatory diols. We investigated the role of sEH in a murine model of food allergy and evaluated the potential therapeutic effect of a highly selective sEH inhibitor (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid [t-TUCB]). Oral exposure of mice on a soy-free diet to soy protein isolate (SPI) induced expression of intestinal sEH, increased circulating total and antigen-specific IgE levels, and caused significant weight loss. Administration of t-TUCB to SPI-challenged mice inhibited IgE levels and prevented SPI-induced weight loss. Additionally, SPI-induced GI inflammation characterized by increased recruitment of eosinophils and mast cells, elevated eotaxin 1 levels, mucus hypersecretion, and decreased epithelial junction protein expression. In t-TUCB-treated mice, eosinophilia, mast cell recruitment, and mucus secretion were significantly lower than in untreated mice and SPI-induced loss of junction protein expression was prevented to variable levels. sEH expression in eosinophils was induced by inflammatory mediators TNF-α and eotaxin-1. Treatment of eosinophils with t-TUCB significantly inhibited eosinophil migration, an effect that was mirrored by treatment with 11,12-EET, by inhibiting intracellular signaling events such as ERK (1/2) activation and eotaxin-1-induced calcium flux. These studies suggest that sEH induced by soy proteins promotes allergic responses and GI inflammation including eosinophilia and that inhibition of sEH can attenuate these responses. PMID: 29345370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cancer-associated cachexia.

Related Articles Cancer-associated cachexia. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 Jan 18;4:17105 Authors: Baracos VE, Martin L, Korc M, Guttridge DC, Fearon KCH Abstract Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells. In addition, endocrine, metabolic and central nervous system perturbations combine with these mediators to elicit catabolic changes in skeletal and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue. At the tissue level, mechanisms include activation of inflammation, proteolysis, autophagy and lipolysis. Cachexia associates with a multitude of morbidities encompassing functional, metabolic and immune disorders as well as aggravated toxicity and complications of cancer therapy. Patients experience impaired quality of life, reduced physical, emotional and social well-being and increased use of healthcare resources. To date, no effective medical intervention completely reverses cachexia and there are no approved drug therapies. Adequate nutritional support remains a mainstay of cachexia therapy, whereas drugs that target overactivation of catabolic processes, cell injury and inflammation are currently under investigation. PMID: 29345251 [PubMed - in process]

Case Report: Neurobrucellosis with Plastered Spinal Arachnoiditis: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Report.

Related Articles Case Report: Neurobrucellosis with Plastered Spinal Arachnoiditis: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Report. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jan 15;: Authors: Nashi S, Preethish-Kumar V, Maji S, Chandrashekar N, Polavarapu K, Kashinkunti C, Bhattacharya K, Saini J, Nalini A Abstract Diffuse spinal arachnoiditis in neurobrucellosis is a rare manifestation. We report a boy aged 17, presenting with hearing impairment and recurrent vomiting for 18 months, weight loss for 12 months, dysphagia, dysarthria, hypophonia for 6 months, and gait unsteadiness for 5 months. He had bilateral 5th (motor) to 12th cranial nerve palsy, wasting and weakness of limbs, fasciculations, absent tendon reflexes, and positive Babinski's sign. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed raised protein and pleocytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive enhancing exudates in cisterns and post-contrast enhancement of bilateral 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th nerves. Spine showed clumping with contrast enhancement of the cauda equina roots and encasement of the cord with exudates. Serum and CSF were positive for anti-Brucella antibodies. He showed significant improvement with antibiotics. At 4 months follow-up, MRI demonstrated near complete resolution of cranial and spinal arachnoiditis. It is important to recognize such rare atypical presentations of neurobrucellosis. PMID: 29345223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Matcha Green Tea Drinks Enhance Fat Oxidation During Brisk Walking in Females.

Related Articles Matcha Green Tea Drinks Enhance Fat Oxidation During Brisk Walking in Females. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Jan 18;:1-21 Authors: Willems MET, Şahin MA, Cook MD Abstract Intake of the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine and is consumed as a drink. We examined the effect of Matcha green tea drinks on metabolic, physiological and perceived intensity responses during brisk walking. Thirteen females (age: 27±8 yr, body mass: 65±7 kg, height: 166±6 cm) volunteered. Resting metabolic equivalent (1-MET) was measured using Douglas bags (1-MET: 3.4±0.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Participants completed an incremental walking protocol to establish the relationship between walking speed and oxygen uptake and individualize the walking speed at 5- or 6-MET. A randomized cross-over design was used with participants tested between day 9 and 11 of the menstrual cycle (follicular phase). Participants consumed 3 drinks (each drink made with 1 gram of Matcha premium grade, OMGTea Ltd UK) the day before, and 1 drink 2 hours before the 30-min walk at 5- (n=10) or 6-METs (walking speed: 5.8±0.4 km·h-1) with responses measured at 8-10, 18-20 and 28-30 min. Matcha had no effect on physiological and perceived intensity responses. Matcha resulted in lower respiratory exchange ratio (control: 0.84±0.04; Matcha: 0.82±0.04) (P < 0.01) and enhanced fat oxidation during a 30-min brisk walk (control: 0.31±0.10; Matcha: 0.35±0.11 g·min-1) (P < 0.01). Matcha green tea drinking can enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation in females. However, when regular brisk walking with 30-min bouts is being undertaken as part of a weight loss program, the metabolic effects of Matcha should not be overstated. PMID: 29345213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Caffeine Improves Triathlon Performance: A Field Study in Males and Females.

Related Articles Caffeine Improves Triathlon Performance: A Field Study in Males and Females. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Jan 18;:1-34 Authors: Potgieter S, Wright HH, Smith C Abstract The ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance exercise is commonly accepted. We aimed to elucidate realistically the effect of caffeine on triathlon event performance using a field study design, while allowing investigation into potential mechanisms at play. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, field trial was conducted. Twenty-six triathletes (14 males, 12 females) participated (age: 37.8±10.6 years, habitual caffeine intake: 413±505 mg/day, percentage body fat: 14.5±7.2%, training/week: 12.8±4.5 hours). Microencapsulated caffeine (6 mg/kg body weight) was supplemented 60 minutes pre-trial. Performance data included time to completion (TTC), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and profile of mood states (POMS). Blood samples taken before, during and post-race were analyzed for cortisol, testosterone and full blood count. Capillary blood lactate concentrations were assessed pre-race, during transitions and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 minutes after triathlons. Caffeine supplementation resulted in a 3.7% reduction in swim time (33.5±7.0 vs. 34.8±8.1 minutes, p<0.05) and a 1.3% reduction in TTC (149.6±19.8 vs. 151.5±18.6 minutes, p<0.05) for the whole group. Gender differences and individual responses are also presented. Caffeine did not alter RPE significantly, but better performance after caffeine supplementation suggests a central effect resulting in greater overall exercise intensity at the same RPE. Caffeine supplementation was associated with higher post-exercise cortisol levels (665±200 vs. 543±169 nmol/l, p<0.0001) and facilitated greater peak blood lactate accumulation (ANOVA main effect, p<0.05). We recommend that triathlon athletes with relatively low habitual caffeine intake may ingest 6 mg/kg body weight caffeine, 45-60 minutes before the start of Olympic-distance triathlon in order to improve performance. PMID: 29345161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A systematic review of community-based interventions for the treatment of adolescents with overweight and obesity.

Related Articles A systematic review of community-based interventions for the treatment of adolescents with overweight and obesity. Obes Rev. 2018 Jan 17;: Authors: Moores CJ, Bell LK, Miller J, Damarell RA, Matwiejczyk L, Miller MD Abstract Adolescent obesity is a risk factor for obesity and other chronic disease in adulthood. Evidence for the effectiveness of community-based obesity treatment programs for adolescents is required to inform policy and clinical decisions. This systematic review aims to evaluate recent effective and scalable community-based weight management programs for adolescents (13-17 years) who are overweight or obese. Eight databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Informit, and Scopus) were searched for studies published between January 2011-2 March 2017 which are scalable in a community setting and reported primary outcome measures relating to weight. Following deduplication, 10,074 records were screened by title/abstract with 31 publications describing 21 programs included in this review. Programs were heterogeneous in nature (including length, number and frequency of sessions, parent-involvement and technology involvement). Reduction in adolescent BMIz ranged from 2 to 9% post-program and from 2 to 11% after varied lengths of follow-up. Study quality varied (n = 5 weak; n = 8 moderate; n = 8 high), and findings are limited by the risk of selection and retention bias in the included studies. Factors including the effectiveness and acceptability to the target population must be considered when selecting such community programs. PMID: 29345042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Utilizing selected social determinants and behaviors to predict obesity in military personnel.

Related Articles Utilizing selected social determinants and behaviors to predict obesity in military personnel. Public Health Nurs. 2018 Jan 18;: Authors: West GF, Jeffery DD Abstract OBJECTIVE: Like the general population, the military is experiencing an increase in the number of obese personnel. This study aimed to identify predictors of obesity by assessing social determinants of health and behaviors in relation to Body Mass Index (BMI), and to use these variables to build a model to predict obesity in Active Duty Military Personnel (ADMP). Predicting obesity would allow early intervention of at risk personnel, potentially reducing the number of ADMP who are separated from the service for failing to meet weight standards. DESIGN: A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Survey of Health-Related Behaviors of Active Duty Military Personnel was performed. The survey included 39,197 responders. MEASURES: Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine the relationship between social determinants of health, behaviors in relation to Healthy People 2020 recommendations, and obesity. Moderator variables were used to determine what affects the direction and/or strength of the relationship between the independent variables (e.g., social determinants and behaviors) and the outcome variable of obesity. RESULTS: At the bivariate level, these variables mirror existing research. However, logistic regression identified few statistically significant obesogenic lifestyle behaviors in relation to Healthy People 2020 recommendations and a weak interactive effect between the variables. CONCLUSION: The low number of significant variables identified to predict obesity highlights the multifactorial nature of obesity making it difficult for weight-loss interventions to be effective if limited to one group or one specific behavior. PMID: 29344974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Genetic Evidence for the Role of a Rice Vacuolar Invertase as a Molecular Sink Strength Determinant.

Related Articles Genetic Evidence for the Role of a Rice Vacuolar Invertase as a Molecular Sink Strength Determinant. Rice (N Y). 2018 Jan 17;11(1):6 Authors: Morey SR, Hirose T, Hashida Y, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Ohsugi R, Yamagishi J, Aoki N Abstract BACKGROUND: Rice is a major crop feeding the majority of the global population, and increasing its sink strength is one of the modes to alleviate the declining availability of food for the rapidly growing world population. We demonstrate a role for an important rice vacuolar invertase isoform, OsINV3, in sink strength determination. RESULTS: OsINV3 mutants showed shorter panicles with lighter and smaller grains, owing to a smaller cell size on the outer and inner surfaces of the palea and lemma as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Further, strong promoter::GUS expression was observed in the palea, lemma and the rachis branches in the young elongating panicles, which supported the role of OsINV3 in cell expansion and thus, in spikelet size and panicle length determination. Size of the spikelet was found to directly influence the grain weight, which was confirmed by the lack of differences in weights of hulled grain for differently segregated alleles in the heterozygous lines. Assessment of field grown mutants not only revealed a drastic reduction in the percentage of ripened grain, 1000-grain weight and final yield, but also significantly reduced partitioning of assimilates to the panicles, whereby the total dry weight remained unaffected. Determination of the non-structural carbohydrate contents revealed a lower hexose-to-sucrose ratio in the panicles of the mutants from panicle initiation to 10 days after heading, a stage that identifies as the critical pre-storage phase of grain filling, whereas the starch contents were not affected. In addition, strong promoter::GUS expression was observed in the dorsal end of ovary during the pre-storage phase until 6 days after flowering, highlighting a function for OsINV3 in monitoring the initial grain filling stage. CONCLUSIONS: OsINV3 was found to regulate spikelet size by playing a key role in cell expansion, driving the movement of assimilates for grain filling by modulating the hexose-to-sucrose ratio, contributing in grain weight determination and thus, the grain yield. PMID: 29344835 [PubMed]

Safety and efficacy of lamivudine or telbivudine started in early pregnancy for mothers with active chronic hepatitis B.

Related Articles Safety and efficacy of lamivudine or telbivudine started in early pregnancy for mothers with active chronic hepatitis B. Hepatol Int. 2018 Jan 17;: Authors: He T, Bai Y, Cai H, Ou X, Liu M, Yi W, Jia J Abstract BACKGROUND: Few data exist regarding use of nucleos(t)ide analogs started in early pregnancy for mothers with active chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We assessed the safety and efficacy of lamivudine/telbivudine initiated in the first trimester versus no treatment in mothers with active CHB. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 94 mothers newly diagnosed with active CHB in the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients with or without antiviral therapy were followed until postpartum week 28. All newborns received immunoprophylaxis. The primary endpoint was the safety of mothers and infants. The secondary endpoints were hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA suppression and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate. RESULTS: Fifty-nine of the 94 mothers initiated lamivudine/telbivudine (27/32) in the first trimester of pregnancy; 35 received no treatment. At delivery, the viral load reduction was similar between lamivudine and telbivudine. Early initiation of lamivudine/telbivudine significantly increased the proportion of mothers achieving HBV DNA <106 copies/ml compared with those with no treatment (100 versus 42.42 %, p < 0.001). At postpartum week 28, the MTCT rate was significant lower in the treated group than in the control group (0/61 or 0 versus 4/34 or 11.76 %, p = 0.028). Lamivudine and telbivudine were well tolerated in the mothers except mild creatine kinase (CK) elevation. There existed no differences in gestational age, infant length and weight, Apgar score, adverse events, or birth defect rates between infants from treated and untreated mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with lamivudine or telbivudine for active CHB in early pregnancy appears to be safe and effective for controlling maternal disease as well as interrupting MTCT. PMID: 29344772 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Liraglutide suppresses proliferation and induces adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway.

Related Articles Liraglutide suppresses proliferation and induces adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Jan 16;: Authors: Li Y, Du J, Zhu E, Zhang J, Han J, Zhao W, Sun B, Tian D Abstract Liraglutide, as a glucagon-like peptide‑1 analogue, is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Previous findings have demonstrated the effects of liraglutide on adipogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism involved in this process remains to be elucidated. In the present study, to certify the effect of liraglutide on adipogenesis and explore the possible underlying mechanism involved in this process, preadipocyte 3T3‑L1 cells were cultured in adipocyte‑inducing medium and treated with liraglutide. Subsequently, the expression levels of the master transcription factors and adipocyte‑specific genes were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analysis. Lipid droplet production was detected by Oil red O staining. Cell proliferation was determined by a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and cell immunofluorescence for Ki67, and apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Next, the expression levels of the core components in the Hippo‑yes‑associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway as well as YAP‑specific target genes were measured. Finally, short interfering RNAs of mammalian ste20 kinase 1/2 (MST1/2), a key protein kinase in the Hippo‑YAP pathway, were used to determine whether liraglutide regulated adipogenic differentiation via the Hippo‑YAP pathway. It was demonstrated that liraglutide promoted adipogenic differentiation, suppressed proliferation, did not affect apoptosis of 3T3‑L1 cells and activated the Hippo‑YAP signaling pathway at the initial stage of adipogenesis. Silencing of MST1 counteracted the effect of increasing adipogenesis by liraglutide. These results suggested that liraglutide may activate the Hippo‑YAP signaling pathway leading to the inhibition of proliferation of preadipocyte 3T3‑L1 cells, and result in cells achieving transformation into mature adipocytes sooner. Taken together, the results of the present study may expand knowledge of the underlying mechanism of liraglutide facilitating adipogenesis, and may contribute to the development of GLP‑1 receptor agonists for weight loss and increased insulin sensitivity. PMID: 29344656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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