Nasal changes associated with exercise in athletes: systematic review.
J Laryngol Otol. 2018 Jan 18;:1-7
Authors: Surda P, Walker A, Limpens J, Fokkens W, Putala M
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of rhinitis in athletes has frequently been studied in combination with asthma, but the impact of exercise on the paracrine and secretory functions of nasal mucosa is less well established. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of exercise on nasal mucosa in elite athletes.
METHOD: A systematic search of Medline, Embase and the non-Medline subset of PubMed, from inception to 8th March 2016, was performed to identify studies on rhinitis in athletes.
RESULTS: Of the 373 identified unique articles, a total of 8 studies satisfied the criteria for this review.
CONCLUSION: There is no evidence in the existing literature that indicates a reduction in nasal airway induced by exercise. Olfaction and mucociliary transport time are affected in swimmers, which can likely be attributed to chlorine irritation and which resolves with training cessation. Short-term strenuous exercise may trigger changes in cytology and prolonged mucociliary transport time, which also resolve quickly with rest.
PMID: 29343306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Exploring metabolic factors and health behaviors in relation to suicide attempts: A case-control study.
J Affect Disord. 2018 Jan 02;229:386-395
Authors: Perera S, Eisen RB, Bhatt M, Dennis BB, Bawor M, El-Sheikh W, DeJesus J, Rangarajan S, Sholer H, Iordan E, Mackie P, Islam S, Dehghan M, Brasch J, Meyre D, de Souza R, Thabane L, Samaan Z
BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts are a serious public health concern with devastating global impact, thereby necessitating the development of an adequate prevention strategy. Few known risk factors of suicide attempts are directly modifiable. This study sought to investigate potential associations between health behaviors and suicide attempts, identifying novel opportunities for clinicians to help prevent suicidal behavior.
METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to compare body weight, serum total cholesterol, physical activity, tobacco use, and dietary food groups among adults who had made a suicide attempt (n = 84) to psychiatric inpatients (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) without history of suicide attempt. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between metabolic risk factors and attempted suicide.
RESULTS: Psychiatric inpatients who had attempted suicide were less likely to be physically active [moderate/strenuous (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.95) and mild (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.16-0.76)] compared to controls. Psychiatric inpatients who attempted suicide were more likely to use tobacco (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.07-4.73) compared to controls. Contrary to prior research, obesity, serum total cholesterol, and diet were not significantly associated with risk of attempted suicide.
LIMITATIONS: Our study was limited by its cross-sectional design, which precludes the identification of causal or temporal relationships between the risk of attempted suicide and factors such as physical activity and tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS: Study results suggest that a history of attempted suicide is associated with a decreased likelihood of being physically active and an increased risk of tobacco use. Further investigation is warranted to understand the role of exercise and tobacco use in suicide intervention and prevention strategies.
PMID: 29331698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students: A longitudinal test of 2 explanatory models of health behavior.
J Am Coll Health. 2017 Feb-Mar;65(2):112-121
Authors: Davis HA, Riley EN, Smith GT, Milich R, Burris JL
OBJECTIVE: To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students.
PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively.
METHODS: Participants reported their alcohol use and strenuous physical activity on 2 occasions (baseline and follow-up) spaced approximately 1 or 2 years apart.
RESULTS: For females, alcohol use quantity at baseline was associated with increased strenuous physical activity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups, and alcohol use frequency at baseline was associated with decreased strenuous physical activity at 2-year follow-up. For males, alcohol use frequency at baseline predicted decreased strenuous physical activity at 1-year follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences may be explained from an eating disorders perspective such that women use physical activity as a compensatory strategy to combat potential weight gain from calories consumed during alcohol use.
PMID: 27858530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]