Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Grounding - Contact with the Earth

Electric Nutrition: The Surprising Health and Healing Benefits of Biological Grounding (Earthing).

Abstract Title: Electric Nutrition: The Surprising Health and Healing Benefits of Biological Grounding (Earthing). Abstract Source: Altern Ther Health Med. 2017 Sep ;23(5):8-16. PMID: 28987038 Abstract Author(s): Stephen T Sinatra, James L Oschman, Gaétan Chevalier, Drew Sinatra Article Affiliation: Stephen T Sinatra Abstract: Context• Modern biomedicine has discovered that many of the most debilitating diseases, as well as the aging process itself, are caused by or associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Emerging research has revealed that direct physical contact with the surface of the planet generates a kind of electric nutrition, with surprisingly potent and rapid anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Objectives • The objective of this study was to explain the potential of grounding to clinicians as a simple strategy for prevention, therapy, and improving patient outcomes. The research summarized here has pursued the goal of determining the physiological and clinical significance of biological grounding. Design • The research team has summarized more than 12 peer-reviewed reports. Where appropriate, blinded studies examined in this paper were conducted using a variety of statistical procedures. Interventions • In all cases, the intervention examined conductive contact between the surface of Earth and the study's participants, using conductive bed sheets, floor or desk pads, and electrode patches, such as those used in electrocardiography. Results • All studies discussed revealed significant physiological or clinical outcomes as a result of grounding. Conclusion • This body of research has demonstrated the potential of grounding to be a simple, natural, and accessible clinical strategy against the global epidemic of noncommunicable, degenerative, inflammatory-related diseases. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2017

Effects of Grounding on Body Voltage and Current in the Presence of Electromagnetic Fields. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of Grounding on Body Voltage and Current in the Presence of Electromagnetic Fields. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Sep ;22(9):757-9. Epub 2016 Jul 25. PMID: 27454187 Abstract Author(s): Richard Brown Article Affiliation: Richard Brown Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if grounding in the presence of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) encountered in a normal housing environment produces harmful currents in the human body. DESIGN: This study had a test-retest design, with duration of 5-15 min per participant. PARTICIPANTS: There were 50 participants, of whom 23 were males aged 12-77 years (Mage ± standard deviation = 50.5 ± 19.5 years) and 27 were females aged 13-79 years (Mage ± standard deviation = 45.9 ± 19.0 years). INTERVENTION: Each participant was instructed to touch a lamp on a desk with his or her left hand, then to move the hand away from the lamp (first one foot away and then three feet) while his/her body voltage was measured. Each participant was then grounded and instructed to repeat the same hand movements. Current was also measured during the grounded retest. OUTCOME MEASURES: The measured parameters were alternating current (AC) body voltage and current generated from contact or proximity to a lamp and other appliances situated on top of a desk. RESULTS: AC body voltage was reduced by an average of 58-fold when participants were grounded compared with when they were not grounded. AC currents generated during grounding were several orders of magnitude lower than the accepted minimum level of perception. CONCLUSION: Normal levels of EMFs existing in houses are too low to produce harmful currents when a person is grounded.

The effect of grounding the human body on mood.

Abstract Title: The effect of grounding the human body on mood. Abstract Source: Psychol Rep. 2015 Apr ;116(2):534-42. Epub 2015 Mar 6. PMID: 25748085 Abstract Author(s): Gaétan Chevalier Article Affiliation: Gaétan Chevalier Abstract: Earthing (grounding) refers to bringing the body in contact with the Earth. Health benefits were previously reported, but no study exists about mood. This study was conducted to assess if Earthing improves mood. 40 adult participants were either grounded or sham-grounded (no grounding) for 1 hr. while relaxing in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with a conductive pillow, mat, and patches connecting them to the ground. This pilot project was double-blinded and the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (comprising 4 mood scales) was used. Pleasant and positive moods statistically significantly improved among grounded-but not sham-grounded-participants. It is concluded that the 1-hr. contact with the Earth improved mood more than expected by relaxation alone. More extensive studies are, therefore, warranted. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. 📎

Abstract Title: The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Abstract Source: J Inflamm Res. 2015 ;8:83-96. Epub 2015 Mar 24. PMID: 25848315 Abstract Author(s): James L Oschman, Gaétan Chevalier, Richard Brown Article Affiliation: James L Oschman Abstract: Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing) produces intriguing effects on physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this report is two-fold: to 1) inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to the study of inflammation, and 2) alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance to ground) of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness, has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions. Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Grounding after moderate eccentric contractions reduces muscle damage. 📎

Abstract Title: Grounding after moderate eccentric contractions reduces muscle damage. Abstract Source: Open Access J Sports Med. 2015 ;6:305-17. Epub 2015 Sep 21. PMID: 26443876 Abstract Author(s): Richard Brown, Gaétan Chevalier, Michael Hill Article Affiliation: Richard Brown Abstract: Grounding a human to the earth has resulted in changes in the physiology of the body. A pilot study on grounding and eccentric contractions demonstrated shortened duration of pain, reduced creatine kinase (CK), and differences in blood parameters. This follow-up study was conducted to investigate the effects of grounding after moderate eccentric contractions on pain, CK, and complete blood counts. Thirty-two healthy young men were randomly divided into grounded (n=16) and sham-grounded (n=16) groups. On days 1 through 4, visual analog scale for pain evaluations and blood draws were accomplished. On day 1, the participants performed eccentric contractions of 200 half-knee bends. They were then grounded or sham-grounded to the earth for 4 hours on days 1 and 2. Both groups experienced pain on all posttest days. On day 2, the sham-grounded group experienced significant CK increase (P<0.01) while the CK of the grounded group did not increase significantly; the between-group difference was significant (P=0.04). There was also an increase in the neutrophils of the grounded group on day 3 (P=0.05) compared to the sham-grounded group. There was a significant increase in platelets in the grounded group on days 2 through 4. Grounding produced changes in CK and complete blood counts that were not shared by the sham-grounded group. Grounding significantly reduced the loss of CK from the injured muscles indicating reduced muscle damage. These results warrant further study on the effects of earthing on delayed onset muscle damage. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Earthing (grounding) the human body reduces blood viscosity-a major factor in cardiovascular disease. 📎

Abstract Title: Earthing (grounding) the human body reduces blood viscosity-a major factor in cardiovascular disease. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Feb ;19(2):102-10. Epub 2012 Jul 3. PMID: 22757749 Abstract Author(s): Gaétan Chevalier, Stephen T Sinatra, James L Oschman, Richard M Delany Article Affiliation: Gaétan Chevalier Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. DESIGN/INTERVENTIONS: SUBJECTS were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. SUBJECTS: Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. RESULTS: Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2013

Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons. 📎

Abstract Title: Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons. Abstract Source: J Environ Public Health. 2012 ;2012:291541. Epub 2012 Jan 12. PMID: 22291721 Abstract Author(s): Gaétan Chevalier, Stephen T Sinatra, James L Oschman, Karol Sokal, Pawel Sokal Article Affiliation: Developmental and Cell Biology Department, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Abstract: Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits-including better sleep and reduced pain-from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012

The neuromodulative role of earthing.

Abstract Title: The neuromodulative role of earthing. Abstract Source: Med Hypotheses. 2011 Aug 17. Epub 2011 Aug 17. PMID: 21856083 Abstract Author(s): Paweł Sokal, Karol Sokal Article Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, Military Clinical Hospital, Powstancow Warszawy 5, 85-915 Bydgoszcz, Poland. Abstract: Neuromodulation is a process of inhibition, stimulation, modification and regulation or therapeutic alteration of activity, electrically and chemically in the peripheral, central or autonomic nervous systems. Direct electric current or electric field alternates the function of nervous system. Coupling the human organism with the Earth directly or via a wire conductor changes the electric potential not only on the surface of the body but also inside it, changing the potential of electric environment of the human organism. Earthing refers to a direct contact with the Earth with bare feet or contact with the Earth with the use of conductive wire attached to the human body during sleeping, or daily activities. During earthing this electric potential equals to electric potential of the Earth and the value of it depends on location, time, atmospheric conditions, moisture of the surface of the Earth. The earthing which changes the density of negative charge in electric environment of the human body influences physiological processes. Our medical hypothesis states that contact with the Earth (earthing) directly or via a conductive wire plays role as a neuromodulative factor, probably primary, which enables the nervous system to be better adapted to the demands of organism and ambient environment. It helps to restore natural, electrical status of the electrical environment of the organism and thus the nervous system. Earthing generates immediate changes in electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (SEMG), and somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEPs). We hypothesize that earthing through its complex action on bioelectrical environment of human organism and alternations in electrolyte concentrations regulates correct functioning of the nervous system. Earthing significantly influences on the electrical activity of the brain. Article Published Date : Aug 17, 2011

Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes. 📎

Abstract Title: Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Apr;17(4):301-8. Epub 2011 Apr 6. PMID: 21469913 Abstract Author(s): Karol Sokal, Pawel Sokal Article Affiliation: 1 Department of Ambulatory Cardiology, Military Clinical Hospital , Bydgoszcz, Poland . Abstract: Abstract Objectives: This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results: Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions: Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolicprocesses. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2011

Pilot study on the effect of grounding on delayed-onset muscle soreness. 📎

Abstract Title: Pilot study on the effect of grounding on delayed-onset muscle soreness. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Mar;16(3):265-73. PMID: 20192911 Abstract Author(s): Dick Brown, Gaétan Chevalier, Michael Hill Article Affiliation: Human Physiology Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, Eugene, OR, USA. Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there are markers that can be used to study the effects of grounding on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Eight (8) healthy subjects were exposed to an eccentric exercise that caused DOMS in gastrocnemius muscles of both legs. Four (4) subjects were grounded with electrode patches and patented conductive sheets connected to the earth. Four (4) control subjects were treated identically, except that the grounding systems were not connected to the earth. OUTCOME MEASURES: Complete blood counts, blood chemistry, enzyme chemistry, serum and saliva cortisols, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy and pain levels were taken at the same time of day before the eccentric exercise and 24, 48, and 72 hours afterwards. Parameters consistently differing by 10% or more, normalized to baseline, were considered worthy of further study. RESULTS: Parameters that differed by these criteria included white blood cell counts, bilirubin, creatine kinase, phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate ratios, glycerolphosphorylcholine, phosphorylcholine, the visual analogue pain scale, and pressure measurements on the right gastrocnemius. CONCLUSIONS: In a pilot study, grounding the body to the earth alters measures of immune system activity and pain. Since this is the first intervention that appears to speed recovery from DOMS, the pilot provides a basis for a larger study. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2010

Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance, and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for 40 minutes.

Abstract Title: Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance, and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for 40 minutes. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jan ;16(1):81-7. PMID: 20064020 Abstract Author(s): Gaetan Chevalier Article Affiliation: Developmental and Cell Biology Department, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that grounding produces quantifiable physiologic changes. This study was set up to reproduce and expand earlier electrophysiologic and physiologic parameters measured immediately after grounding with improved methodology and state-of-the-art equipment. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A multiparameter double-blind experiment was conducted with 14 men and 14 women (age range: 18-80) in relatively good health. Subjects were screened for health problems using a commonly used health questionnaire. They were seated in a comfortable recliner and measured during 2-hour grounding sessions, leaving time for signals to stabilize before, during, and after grounding (40 minutes for each period). Sham 2-hour grounding sessions were also recorded with the same subjects as controls. OUTCOME MEASURES: This report presents results for 5 of the 18 parameters measured. The parameters reported here are: skin conductance (SC), blood oxygenation (BO), respiratory rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and perfusion index (PI). SETTINGS/LOCATION: This study was performed in a rented facility in Encinitas, California. The facility was chosen in a quiet area for its very low electromagnetic noise. RESULTS: For each session, statistical analyses were performed on four 10-minute segments: before and after grounding (sham grounding for control session) and before and after ungrounding (sham ungrounding). There was an immediate decrease in SC at grounding and an immediate increase at ungrounding on all subjects. RR increased during grounding, and the effect lasted after ungrounding. RR variance increased immediately after grounding then decreased. BO variance decreased during grounding, followed by a dramatic increase after ungrounding. PR and PI variances increased toward the end of the grounding period, and this change persisted after ungrounding. CONCLUSIONS: These results warrant further research to determine how grounding affects the body. Grounding could become important for relaxation, health maintenance and disease prevention. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Charge transfer in the living matrix.

Abstract Title: Charge transfer in the living matrix. Abstract Source: J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2009 Jul;13(3):215-28. Epub 2008 Jul 30. PMID: 19524846 Abstract Author(s): James L Oschman Article Affiliation: Nature's Own Research Association, PO Box 1935, Dover, New Hampshire, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: The living matrix is defined as the continuous molecular fabric of the organism, consisting of fascia, the other connective tissues, extracellular matrices, integrins, cytoskeletons, nuclear matrices and DNA. The extracellular, cellular and nuclear biopolymers or ground substances constitute a body-wide reservoir of charge that can maintain electrical homeostasis and "inflammatory preparedness" throughout the organism. Recent research has emphasized the significance of charge transfer in relation to the scavenging or neutralization of free radicals delivered to sites of injury during and after the oxidative burst. Evidence comes from studies of the role of electrons in mitigating the consequences of inflammation when living systems are connected to the earth (earthing). The phenomenon helps explain how bodywork and movement therapies can facilitate the resolution of acute or chronic injuries, and how patients with inflammatory conditions may "deplete" a therapist during hands-on treatments. It is suggested that barefoot contact with the earth as well as hands-on and hands-off therapies facilitate healing by stimulating the migration of charges into sites of acute or chronic inflammation. One hypothesis to explain the effects of earthing is that charges from the ground substance reservoir prevent "collateral damage" to healthy tissues in the vicinity of an injury. A second hypothesis is that earthing allows electrons to replenish charge in the ground substance reservoirs, making electrons available throughout the body. Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2009

Can electrons act as antioxidants? A review and commentary. 📎

Abstract Title: Can electrons act as antioxidants? A review and commentary. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Nov;13(9):955-67. PMID: 18047442 Abstract Author(s): James L Oschman Article Affiliation: Nature's Own Research Association, Dover, NH 03821-1935, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: A previous study demonstrated that connecting the human body to the earth during sleep (earthing) normalizes the daily cortisol rhythm and improves sleep. A variety of other benefits were reported, including reductions in pain and inflammation. Subsequent studies have confirmed these earlier findings and documented virtually immediate physiologic and clinical effects of grounding or earthing the body. It is well established, though not widely known, that the surface of the earth possesses a limitless and continuously renewed supply of free or mobile electrons as a consequence of a global atmospheric electron circuit. Wearing shoes with insulating soles and/or sleeping in beds that are isolated from the electrical ground plane of the earth have disconnected most people from the earth's electrical rhythms and free electrons. The most reasonable hypothesis to explain the beneficial effects of earthing is that a direct earth connection enables both diurnal electrical rhythms and free electrons to flow from the earth to the body. It is proposed that the earth's diurnal electrical rhythms set the biological clocks for hormones that regulate sleep and activity. It is also suggested that free electrons from the earth neutralize the positively charged free radicals that are the hallmark of chronic inflammation. A relationship between cortisol and inflammation was established in the pioneering work of H. Selye published in the 1950s. Current biomedical research has led to an inflammation hypothesis that is establishing chronic inflammation as the culprit behind almost every modern chronic illness. The research summarized here and in subsequent reports provides a basis for a number of earthing technologies that restore and maintain natural electrical contact between the human body and the earth throughout the day and night in situations where going barefoot on the earth is impractical. It is proposed that free or mobile electrons from the earth can resolve chronic inflammation by serving as natural antioxidants. Article Published Date : Nov 01, 2007

The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress.

Abstract Title: The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Oct;10(5):767-76. PMID: 15650465 Abstract Author(s): Maurice Ghaly, Dale Teplitz Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Diurnal cortisol secretion levels were measured and circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated in a pilot study conducted to test the hypothesis that grounding the human body to earth during sleep will result in quantifiable changes in cortisol. It was also hypothesized that grounding the human body would result in changes in sleep, pain, and stress (anxiety, depression, irritability), as measured by subjective reporting. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Twelve (12) subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were grounded to earth during sleep for 8 weeks in their own beds using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were administered to establish pregrounding baseline cortisol levels. Levels were obtained at 4-hour intervals for a 24-hour period to determine the circadian cortisol profile. Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6. Subjective symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reported daily throughout the 8-week test period. RESULTS: Measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles were observed, with cortisol levels significantly reduced during night-time sleep. Subjects' 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles showed a trend toward normalization. Subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, were reduced or eliminated in nearly all subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth ("earthing") during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes cortisol hormone secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2004
Therapeutic Actions Grounding - Contact with the Earth

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Extensive retreat and re-advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Holocene.

Related Articles Extensive retreat and re-advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Holocene. Nature. 2018 Jun 13;: Authors: Kingslake J, Scherer RP, Albrecht T, Coenen J, Powell RD, Reese R, Stansell ND, Tulaczyk S, Wearing MG, Whitehouse PL Abstract To predict the future contributions of the Antarctic ice sheets to sea-level rise, numerical models use reconstructions of past ice-sheet retreat after the Last Glacial Maximum to tune model parameters 1 . Reconstructions of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet have assumed that it retreated progressively throughout the Holocene epoch (the past 11,500 years or so)2-4. Here we show, however, that over this period the grounding line of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (which marks the point at which it is no longer in contact with the ground and becomes a floating ice shelf) retreated several hundred kilometres inland of today's grounding line, before isostatic rebound caused it to re-advance to its present position. Our evidence includes, first, radiocarbon dating of sediment cores recovered from beneath the ice streams of the Ross Sea sector, indicating widespread Holocene marine exposure; and second, ice-penetrating radar observations of englacial structure in the Weddell Sea sector, indicating ice-shelf grounding. We explore the implications of these findings with an ice-sheet model. Modelled re-advance of the grounding line in the Holocene requires ice-shelf grounding caused by isostatic rebound. Our findings overturn the assumption of progressive retreat of the grounding line during the Holocene in West Antarctica, and corroborate previous suggestions of ice-sheet re-advance 5 . Rebound-driven stabilizing processes were apparently able to halt and reverse climate-initiated ice loss. Whether these processes can reverse present-day ice loss 6 on millennial timescales will depend on bedrock topography and mantle viscosity-parameters that are difficult to measure and to incorporate into ice-sheet models. PMID: 29899456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]