Simulation and Measurement of Through-the-Earth, Extremely Low-Frequency Signals Using Copper-Clad Steel Ground Rods.
IEEE Trans Ind Appl. 2017 Sept-Oct;53(5):5088-5095
Authors: Damiano NW, Yan L, Whisner B, Zhou C
The underground mining environment can greatly affect radio signal propagation. Understanding how the earth affects signal propagation is a key to evaluating communications systems used during a mine emergency. One type of communication system is through-the-earth, which can utilize extremely low frequencies (ELF). This paper presents the simulation and measurement results of recent National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research aimed at investigating current injection at ELF, and in particular, ground contact impedance. Measurements were taken at an outside surface testing location. The results obtained from modeling and measurement are characterized by electrode impedance, and the voltage received between two distant electrodes. This paper concludes with a discussion of design considerations found to affect low-frequency communication systems utilizing ground rods to inject a current into the earth.
PMID: 29176916 [PubMed]