Molecular characterization and recombination analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerged in southwestern China during 2012-2016.
Virus Genes. 2017 Nov 14;:
Authors: Zhou L, Kang R, Ji G, Tian Y, Ge M, Xie B, Yang X, Wang H
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry. To investigate the prevalence of PRRSV of genotype 2 (North American type, NA-type) in southwestern China, the Nsp2 hypervariable region (Nsp2 HV) and ORF5 of 61 PRRS viruses collected during 2012-2016 were sequenced and analyzed. All the virus detected clustered into the JXA1-like (52/61), VR-2332-like (7/61), and NADC30-like (2/61) sub-genotypes. Five deletions in Nsp2 HV were detected in addition to the typical 30aa discontinuous deletion in HP-PRRSV, and two of these five were not reported previously. Strikingly, two PRRS virus (SCnj16 and SCcd16) isolated in 2016 contained the classic HP-PRRSV molecular marker in the Nsp2-coding region, but belonged to the NADC30-like sub-genotype on the ORF5 gene. Further recombination and phylogenetic analysis on the two complete genomic sequences revealed that they may have originated from recombination events between the NADC30 and Chinese HP-PRRSV strains. The present study suggests that the endemic PRRSVs in the region have continuously evolved and new vaccine strategies are necessary for more efficient control of the virus.
PMID: 29138994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Efficacy of Tai Chi and qigong for the prevention of stroke and stroke risk factors: A systematic review with meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Nov;96(45):e8517
Authors: Lauche R, Peng W, Ferguson C, Cramer H, Frawley J, Adams J, Sibbritt D
BACKGROUND: This review aims to summarize the evidence of Tai Chi and qigong interventions for the primary prevention of stroke, including the effects on populations with major stroke risk factors.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted on January 16, 2017 using the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases. Randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Chi or qigong for stroke prevention and stroke risk factors were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool.
RESULTS: Twenty-one trials with n = 1604 patients with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, overweight or obesity, or metabolic syndrome were included. No trials were found that examined the effects of Tai Chi/qigong on stroke incidence. Meta-analyses revealed significant, but not robust, benefits of Tai Chi/qigong over no interventions for hypertension (systolic blood pressure: -15.55 mm Hg (95% CI: -21.16; -9.95); diastolic blood pressure: -10.66 mm Hg (95% CI: -14.90, -6.43); the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index (-2.86%; 95% CI: -5.35, -0.38) and fasting blood glucose (-9.6 mg/dL; 95% CI: -17.28, -1.91), and for the body mass index compared with exercise controls (-1.65 kg/m; 95% CI: -3.11, -0.20). Risk of bias was unclear or high for the majority of trials and domains, and heterogeneity between trials was high. Only 6 trials adequately reported safety. No recommendation for the use of Tai Chi/qigong for the prevention of stroke can be given.
CONCLUSION: Although Tai Chi and qigong show some potential more robust studies are required to provide conclusive evidence on the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi and qigong for reducing major stroke risk factors.
PMID: 29137055 [PubMed - in process]
Balance and Functional Outcomes for Older Community-Dwelling Adults Who Practice Tai Chi and Those Who Do Not: A Comparative Study.
J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2017 Nov 09;:
Authors: Bubela D, Sacharko L, Chan J, Brady M
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A growing body of literature substantiates that Tai Chi is a form of exercise that may help older adults increase strength, improve balance, lower fall rates, and experience less fear of falling. Few studies, however, offer controlled experimental design and simultaneously investigate multiple factors known to contribute to fall risk. The purpose of this study was to compare performance on measures relating to fall risk (strength, balance, functional mobility, and fear of falling) in older community-dwelling adults who participated in a community-based Tai Chi program with a control group of their peers who had no Tai Chi training over the same time period.
METHODS: A quasi-experimental comparative pre- and posttest design was used to compare an experimental group of 16 community-dwelling older adults, mean (SD) age = 80.4 (6.8) years, participating in a 16-week Tai Chi training program with a group of 13 adults, mean (SD) age = 71.2 (6.1) years, who had no Tai Chi experience in the areas of knee extension strength (measured by handheld dynamometry), functional strength (by five-time sit to stand), mobility (by Timed Up and Go [TUG] test and Fifty-Foot Walk Test), balance (by Functional Reach and Berg Balance Scale), and fear of falling (by Activity-specific Balance Confidence scale). Within-group and between-groups comparisons were made using 2×2 mixed analysis of variance.
RESULTS: Tai Chi participants improved in nearly all measures, whereas controls did not. Tai Chi participants experienced significant improvement in the TUG test during the training period (P = .003), with significant difference when compared with controls (P = .049) and moderate effect size and observed power (ηp = 0.165; observed power = 0.512). Significant knee extension strength improvement occurred (P = .042) with moderate effect size and observed power (ηp = 0.183; observed power = 0.543). While the total balance confidence scale score did not change significantly, responses on many individual items did reach a level of significant change for persons participating in the Tai Chi training.
CONCLUSION: Older adults' participation in a community-based Tai Chi program may lead to improvement in strength, mobility, and confidence in performing functional tasks. Incorporation of elements of Tai Chi into therapy programs for older adults at risk for fall and referral to community-based Tai Chi programs may be viable options in the continuum of health-related care for older adults.
PMID: 29135600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]