Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline.
Med Hypotheses. 2016 Oct ;95:71-76. Epub 2016 Sep 7. PMID: 27692172
Grace M McPhee, Luke A Downey, Anthony Noble, Con Stough
Grace M McPhee
As the elderly population grows the impact of age associated cognitive decline as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia will increase. Ageing is associated with consistent impairments in cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, memory, executive function and learning) important for work, well-being, life satisfaction and overall participation in society. Recently, there has been increased effort to conduct research examining methods to improve cognitive function in older citizens. Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance in some cognitive domains; including memory, processing speed, executive function and attention in older adults. These cognitive changes are thought to be related to improvements in brain connectivity and neural circuitry. Bacopa monnieri has also been shown to improve specific domains of cognition, sensitive to age associated cognitive decline (particularly processing speed and memory). These Bacopa monnieri dependent improvements may be due to the increase in specific neuro-molecular mechanisms implicated in the enhancement of neural connections in the brain (i.e. synaptogenesis). In particular, a number of animal studies have shown Bacopa monnieri consumption upregulates calcium dependent kinases in the synapse and post-synaptic cell, crucial for strengthening and growing connections between neurons. These effects have been shown to occur in areas important for cognitive processes, such as the hippocampus. As Bacopa monnieri has shown neuro-molecular mechanisms that encourage synaptogenesis, while cognitive training enhances brain connectivity, Bacopa monnieri supplementation could theoretically enhance and strengthen synaptic changes acquired through cognitive training. Therefore, the current paper hypothesises that the combination of these two interventions could improve cognitive outcomes, over and above the effects of administrating these interventions independently, as an effective treatment to ameliorate age associated cognitive decline.
Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016
Mindfulness Meditation and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention Reduces Pain Severity and Sensitivity in Opioid-Treated Chronic Low Back Pain: Pilot Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Pain Med. 2016 Mar 10. Epub 2016 Mar 10. PMID: 26968850
Aleksandra E Zgierska, Cindy A Burzinski, Jennifer Cox, John Kloke, Aaron Stegner, Dane B Cook, Janice Singles, Shilagh Mirgain, Christopher L Coe, Miroslav Bačkonja
Aleksandra E Zgierska
OBJECTIVE: To assess benefits of mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based intervention for opioid-treated chronic low back pain (CLBP).
DESIGN: 26-week parallel-arm pilot randomized controlled trial (Intervention and Usual Care versus Usual Care alone).
SUBJECTS: . Adults with CLBP, prescribed≥30 mg/day of morphine-equivalent dose (MED) for at least 3 months.
METHODS: The intervention comprised eight weekly group sessions (meditation and CLBP-specific CBT components) and 30 minutes/day, 6 days/week of at-home practice. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 8, and 26 weeks: primary-pain severity (Brief Pain Inventory) and function/disability (Oswestry Disability Index); secondary-pain acceptance, opioid dose, pain sensitivity to thermal stimuli, and serum pain-sensitive biomarkers (Interferon-γ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-α; Interleukins 1ß and 6; C-reactive Protein).
RESULTS: Thirty-five (21 experimental, 14 control) participants were enrolled and completed the study. They were 51.8± 9.7 years old, 80% female, with severe CLBP-related disability (66.7 ± 11.4), moderate pain severity (5.8 ± 1.4), and taking 148.3 ± 129.2 mg/day of MED. Results of the intention-to-treat analysis showed that, compared with controls, the meditation-CBT group reduced pain severity ratings during the study (P = 0.045), with between-group difference in score change reaching 1 point at 26 weeks (95% Confidence Interval: 0.2,1.9; Cohen's d = 0.86), and decreased pain sensitivity to thermal stimuli (P<0.05), without adverse events. Exploratory analyses suggested a relationship between the extent of meditation practice and the magnitude of intervention benefits.
CONCLUSIONS: Meditation-CBT intervention reduced pain severity and sensitivity to experimental thermal pain stimuli in patients with opioid-treated CLBP.
Article Published Date : Mar 09, 2016
A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Cognitive Group Therapy and Aerobic Exercise in the Treatment of Depression among the Students.
Glob J Health Sci. 2016 ;8(10):54171. Epub 2016 Feb 24. PMID: 27302433
Khirollah Sadeghi, Seyed Majid Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba Ahmadi, Mansour Rezaei, Javad Miri, Alireza Abdi, Firoozeh Khamoushi, Mahin Salehi, Khadijeh Jamshidi
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. Finding effective treatments for such a disorder with higher efficiency lower side effects and affordability is an active area of research in psychiatry. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the effects of the cognitive group therapy and aerobic exercises on depression, automatic negative thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Science.
METHODS: In this clinical trial, 46 associate and undergraduate students at Kermanshah University of Medical Science were randomly divided into three groups: cognitive therapy, aerobic exercise, and control. The data was gathered both before and 8 weeks after the intervention. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), automatic negative thoughts (ATQ), and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) were used as the data collection instruments. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 15 using paired samples T-test, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA).
RESULTS: Cognitive therapy caused a significant decrease in depression, belief in automatic negative thoughts, and dysfunctional attitudes in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Although aerobics compared to the control group causes more reductions in the variables, however, It was only meaningful for the depression variable (p=0.049). Cognitive therapy also reduced the variables more than the aerobic exercise, but the decrease was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive group therapy and aerobic exercise are effective in treating depression. For treating depression, aerobic exercise can be used as a therapy itself or along with cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015
Breathing exercise combined with cognitive behavioural intervention improves sleep quality and heart rate variability in major depression.
J Clin Nurs. 2015 Nov ;24(21-22):3206-14. Epub 2015 Sep 25. PMID: 26404039
Hui-Ching Chien, Yu-Chu Chung, Mei-Ling Yeh, Jia-Fu Lee
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise on sleep quality and heart rate variability in patients with major depression.
BACKGROUND: Depression is a long-lasting illness with significant effects not only in individuals themselves, but on their family, work and social relationships as well. Cognitive behavioural therapy is considered to be an effective treatment for major depression. Breathing relaxation may improve heart rate variability, but few studies have comprehensively examined the effect of a cognitive behavioural intervention combined with relaxing breathing on patients with major depression.
DESIGN: An experimental research design with a repeated measure was used.
METHODS: Eighty-nine participants completed this study and entered data analysed. The experimental group (n = 43) received the cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise for four weeks, whereas the control group (n = 46) did not. Sleep quality and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, posttest1, posttest2 and follow-up. Data were examined by chi-square tests, t-tests and generalised estimating equations.
RESULTS: After adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, severity of disease and psychiatric history, the quality of sleep of the experimental group improved, with the results at posttest achieving significance. Heart rate variability parameters were also significantly improved.
CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the hypothesis that the cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise could improve sleep quality and heart rate variability in patients with major depression, and the effectiveness was lasting.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise that included muscle relaxation, deep breathing and sleep hygiene could be provided with major depression during hospitalisation. Through group practice and experience sharing, participants could modulate their heart rate variability and share feeling about good sleep as well relaxation.
Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2015
Improved sleep quality in older adults with insomnia reduces biomarkers of disease risk: pilot results from a randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 May ;55:184-92. Epub 2015 Feb 25. PMID: 25770704
Judith E Carroll, Teresa E Seeman, Richard Olmstead, Gerson Melendez, Ryan Sadakane, Richard Bootzin, Perry Nicassio, Michael R Irwin
Judith E Carroll
IMPORTANCE: Sleep disturbances have been linked to increased morbidity and mortality, yet it is unknown whether improving sleep quality in older adult patients with insomnia alters biomarkers of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk.
OBJECTIVE: Determine the comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), tai chi chih (TCC), and a sleep seminar control (SS) to reduce multisystem biomarkers of disease risk in older adults with insomnia.
DESIGN: Randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial.
SETTING: Los Angeles community.
PARTICIPANTS: A population-based sample of 109 older adults with chronic and primary insomnia.
INTERVENTION: Random assignment to CBT, TCC, or SS for 2-h group sessions weekly over 4 months with a 16-month evaluation (1 year after follow-up).
MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): Multisystem biological risk comprised of 8 biomarkers: high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, hemoglobinA1c, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. Using clinical laboratory cutoffs defined as abnormal, a multisystem risk score was computed representing a sum of the deviation around the cutoffs across the 8 biomarkers. In addition, high risk grouping was classified if subjects exhibited 4 or more biomarkers in the abnormal laboratory range.
RESULTS: An interaction of time-by-treatment-by-high risk group was found (F(4, 197.2)=3.14, p=.02) in which both TCC (p=.04) and CBT (p=.001) showed significantly lower risk scores as compared to SS at 16-months. CBT reduced risk of being in the high risk group at 4-months (odds ratio [OR]=.21 [95% CI, .03-1.47], p<.10) and at 16-months (OR=.06 [95% CI, .005-.669]; p<.01). TCC reduced the risk at 16-months (OR=.10 [95% CI, .008-1.29]; p<.05) but not at 4 months. Of participants who were classified in the high risk category at baseline, improvements in sleep quality, as defined by a clinical severity threshold, reduced the likelihood of being in the high risk group at 16-months, OR=.08 (95% CI, .008-.78); p=.01.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Participants classified as having high multisystem biological risk at entry and assigned to CBT or TCC show improvements in risk scores after one year follow-up. Given that these clinical biomarkers are associated with cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory disease risk, improving sleep quality has the potential to reduce the risk of chronic disease in older adults with insomnia.
Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2015
Treating Acute Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a"Single-Shot"of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.
Sleep. 2015 ;38(6):971-8. Epub 2015 Jun 1. PMID: 25515106
Jason G Ellis, Toby Cushing, Anne Germain
Jason G Ellis
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Despite considerable evidence supporting cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for chronic insomnia, it remains untested within the context of acute insomnia. This study examined the efficacy of a single session of CBT-I, with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, for individuals with acute insomnia.
DESIGN: A pragmatic parallel group randomized controlled trial.
PARTICIPANTS: Forty adults (mean age 32.9± 13.72 y) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defined insomnia disorder, except a self-reported duration of less than 3 mo (i.e., acute insomnia), who reported no previous exposure to CBT-I and were not currently taking medication for sleep.
INTERVENTIONS: A single 60- to 70-min session of CBT-I (n = 20), with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, or wait list control group (n = 20). All subjects were offered a full individual course of CBT-I on completion of the study, regardless of group allocation.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Subjects completed sleep diaries and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) pretreatment and 1 mo following treatment. There were no between-group differences on baseline ISI scores or subjective sleep continuity. The intervention group reported significantly lower ISI scores than controls (t(38) 2.24, P<0.05) at follow-up. Further, using proposed ISI scores for identifying insomnia caseness (i.e.,≥ 10), 60% of those in the CBT-I group had remitted by 1 mo compared to 15% of those in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: This single session of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is sufficiently efficacious for a significant proportion of those with acute insomnia. The results are discussed in terms of integrating this brief form of CBT-I into the"stepped care"model of insomnia.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Testing the efficacy of an early intervention for acute insomnia (SRCTN05891695) http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN05891695.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014
Randomised clinical trial: symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome are improved by a psycho-education group intervention.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Dec 3. Epub 2012 Dec 3. PMID: 23205588
J Labus, A Gupta, H K Gill, I Posserud, M Mayer, H Raeen, R Bolus, M Simren, B D Naliboff, E A Mayer
Gail and Gerald Oppenheimer Family Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
BACKGROUND: Evidence supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural approaches in improving the symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Duration, cost and resistance of many patients towards a psychological therapy have limited their acceptance. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention on IBS symptoms. METHODS: Sixty-nine IBS patients (72% female) were randomised to an intervention or a wait-list control group. The IBS class consisted of education on a biological mind body disease model emphasising self-efficacy and practical relaxation techniques. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention showed significant improvement on GI symptom severity, visceral sensitivity, depression and QoL postintervention and most of these gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up (Hedge's g = -0.46-0.77). Moderated mediation analyses indicated change in anxiety, visceral sensitivity, QoL and catastrophising due to the intervention had moderate mediation effects (Hedge's g = -0.38 to -0.60) on improvements in GI symptom severity for patients entering the trial with low to average QoL. Also, change in GI symptom severity due to the intervention had moderate mediation effects on improvements in QoL especially in patients with low to average levels of QoL at baseline. Moderated mediation analyses indicated mediation was less effective for patients entering the intervention withhigh QoL. CONCLUSIONS: A brief psycho-educational group intervention is efficacious in changing cognitions and fears about the symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome, and these changes are associated with clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms and quality of life. The intervention seems particularly tailored to patients with low to moderate quality of life baseline levels.
Article Published Date : Dec 02, 2012
Motor-language coupling: direct evidence from early Parkinson's disease and intracranial cortical recordings.
Cortex. 2013 Apr;49(4):968-84
Authors: Ibáñez A, Cardona JF, Dos Santos YV, Blenkmann A, Aravena P, Roca M, Hurtado E, Nerguizian M, Amoruso L, Gómez-Arévalo G, Chade A, Dubrovsky A, Gershanik O, Kochen S, Glenberg A, Manes F, Bekinschtein T
Language and action systems are functionally coupled in the brain as demonstrated by converging evidence using Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and lesion studies. In particular, this coupling has been demonstrated using the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) in which motor activity and language interact. The ACE task requires participants to listen to sentences that described actions typically performed with an open hand (e.g., clapping), a closed hand (e.g., hammering), or without any hand action (neutral); and to press a large button with either an open hand position or closed hand position immediately upon comprehending each sentence. The ACE is defined as a longer reaction time (RT) in the action-sentence incompatible conditions than in the compatible conditions. Here we investigated direct motor-language coupling in two novel and uniquely informative ways. First, we measured the behavioural ACE in patients with motor impairment (early Parkinson's disease - EPD), and second, in epileptic patients with direct electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings. In experiment 1, EPD participants with preserved general cognitive repertoire, showed a much diminished ACE relative to non-EPD volunteers. Moreover, a correlation between ACE performance and action-verb processing (kissing and dancing test - KDT) was observed. Direct cortical recordings (ECoG) in motor and language areas (experiment 2) demonstrated simultaneous bidirectional effects: motor preparation affected language processing (N400 at left inferior frontal gyrus and middle/superior temporal gyrus), and language processing affected activity in movement-related areas (motor potential at premotor and M1). Our findings show that the ACE paradigm requires ongoing integration of preserved motor and language coupling (abolished in EPD) and engages motor-temporal cortices in a bidirectional way. In addition, both experiments suggest the presence of a motor-language network which is not restricted to somatotopically defined brain areas. These results open new pathways in the fields of motor diseases, theoretical approaches to language understanding, and models of action-perception coupling.
PMID: 22482695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cholinesterase inhibitors and memory.
Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Sep 06;187(1-3):403-8
Authors: Pepeu G, Giovannini MG
A consensus exists that cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are efficacious for mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Unfortunately, the number of non-responders is large and the therapeutic effect is usually short-lasting. In experimental animals, ChEIs exert three main actions: inhibit cholinesterase (ChE), increase extracellular levels of brain acetylcholine (ACh), improve cognitive processes, particularly when disrupted in models of AD. In this overview we shall deal with the cognitive processes that are improved by ChEI treatment because they depend on the integrity of brain cholinergic pathways and their activation. The role of cholinergic system in cognition can be investigated using different approaches. Microdialysis experiments demonstrate the involvement of the cholinergic system in attention, working, spatial and explicit memory, information encoding, sensory-motor gating, skill learning. No involvement in long-term memory has yet been demonstrated. Conversely, memory consolidation is facilitated by low cholinergic activity. Experiments on healthy human subjects, notwithstanding caveats concerning age, dose, and different memory tests, confirm the findings of animal experiments and demonstrate that stimulation of the cholinergic system facilitates attention, stimulus detection, perceptual processing and information encoding. It is not clear whether information retrieval may be improved but memory consolidation is reduced by cholinergic activation. ChEI effects in AD patients have been extensively investigated using rating scales that assess cognitive and behavioural responses. Few attempts have been made to identify which scale items respond better to ChEIs and therefore, presumably, depend on the activity of the cholinergic system. Improvement in attention and executive functions, communication, expressive language and mood stability have been reported. Memory consolidation and retrieval may be impaired by high ACh levels. Therefore, considering that in AD the degeneration of the cholinergic system is associated with alteration of other neurotransmitter systems and a diffuse synaptic loss, a limited efficacy of ChEIs on memory processes should be expected.
PMID: 19941841 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Antidepressants and brain monoaminergic systems: a dimensional approach to understanding their behavioural effects in depression and anxiety disorders.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 Jun;7(2):193-218
Authors: Morilak DA, Frazer A
There is extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety disorders. Dimensional psychiatric and psychometric approaches have suggested that dysregulation of a limited number of behavioural dimensions that cut across diagnostic categories can account for both the shared and unique symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. Such an approach recognizes that anxiety, the emotional response to stress, is a key element of depression as well as the defining feature of anxiety disorders, and many antidepressants appear to be effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders as well as depression. Therefore, the pharmacological actions of these drugs must account for their efficacy in both. Brain noradrenergic and serotonergic systems, and perhaps to a more limited extent the dopaminergic system, regulate or modulate many of the same behavioural dimensions (e.g. negative or positive affect) that are affected in depression and anxiety disorders, and that are ameliorated by drug treatment. Whereas much recent research has focused on the regulatory effects of antidepressants on synaptic function and cellular proteins, less emphasis has been placed on monoaminergic regulation at a more global systemic level, or how such systemic alterations in monoaminergic function might alleviate the behavioural, cognitive, emotional and physiological manifestations of depression and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss how chronic antidepressant treatment might regulate the tonic activity and/or phasic reactivity of brain monoaminergic systems to account for their ability to effectively modify the behavioural dimensions underlying improvement in both depression and anxiety disorders.
PMID: 15003145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Communication and abnormal behaviour.
Ciba Found Symp. 1979;(69):345-53
Authors: Crown S
In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).
PMID: 261653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]