Role of Vitamin E in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from Animal Models.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Nov 23;18(12):
Authors: Gugliandolo A, Bramanti P, Mazzon E
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder representing the major cause of dementia. It is characterized by memory loss, and cognitive and behavioral decline. In particular, the hallmarks of the pathology are amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Oxidative stress plays a main role in AD, and it is involved in initiation and progression of AD. It is well known that Aβ induced oxidative stress, promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and consequently lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, tau hyperphosphorylation, results in toxic effects on synapses and neurons. In turn, oxidative stress can increase Aβ production. For these reasons, the administration of an antioxidant therapy in AD patients was suggested. The term vitamin E includes different fat-soluble compounds, divided into tocopherols and tocotrienols, that possess antioxidant action. α-Tocopherol is the most studied, but some studies suggested that tocotrienols may have different health promoting capacities. In this review, we focused our attention on the effects of vitamin E supplementation in AD animal models and AD patients or older population. Experimental models showed that vitamin E supplementation, by decreasing oxidative stress, may be a good strategy to improve cognitive and memory deficits. Furthermore, the combination of vitamin E with other antioxidant or anti-inflammatory compounds may increase its efficacy. However, even if some trials have evidenced some benefits, the effects of vitamin E in AD patients are still under debate.
PMID: 29168797 [PubMed - in process]
Synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation by combined targeting with kinase inhibitors and dietary xanthone is a promising strategy for melanoma treatment.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2017 Nov 22;:
Authors: Xia Y, Sun J
α-Mangostin is a dietary xanthone that displays various biological activities, and numerous reports have shown its efficacy in cancer prevention and inhibition. As most agents have been shown to be ineffective as single-agent therapy for malignant melanoma (MM), the principle of targeted chemotherapy for MM is to use effective inhibitors and combination methods. In this study, we tested the cytotoxicity of several kinase inhibitors, including the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 inhibitor CHIR99021, and rapamycin, in combination with a dietary xanthone, α-mangostin, by screening from a kinase inhibitor library for melanogenesis in SK-MEL-2 MM cells, and verified these by clone formation efficiency, terminal dUTP nick end labelling, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins. We also explored the molecular mechanisms for the apoptosis-inducing effects reported. We found a marked synergistic effect of CHIR99021 or rapamycin in combination with α-mangostin, which we verified through apoptosis-related methods. These data provide a strong rationale for the use of α-mangostin as an adjunct to GSK-3 inhibitor or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor treatment. The intrinsic mechanism behind α-mangostin might be inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signalling and autophagy, and induction of reactive oxygen species generation.
PMID: 29168273 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The prognostic significance of frailty compared to peak oxygen consumption and B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with advanced heart failure.
Clin Transplant. 2017 Nov 23;:
Authors: Moayedi Y, Duero Posada JG, Foroutan F, Goldraich LA, Alba AC, MacIver J, Ross HJ
Frailty assessment has become an integral part of the evaluation of potential candidates for heart transplantation and ventricular assist device (HTx/VAD). The impact of frailty, as a heart failure risk factor or to identify those who will derive the greatest benefit with HTx/VAD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent prognostic relevance of frailty assessment from peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 ) or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on mortality in patients referred for advanced heart failure therapies. Frailty was measured using a modified Fried frailty criteria. In 201 consecutive patients, during a median follow up of 17.5 months (IQR 11-29.2), there were 25 (12.4%) deaths. One year survival was 100%, 94%, and 78% in non-frail, pre-frail and frail patients, respectively (log rank p = 0.0001). Frailty was associated with a two-fold increase risk of death (HR 2.01, p<0.0001, 95% CI 1.42 -2.84). When adjusted for BNP or peak VO2 , frailty was not associated with a significant risk of all-cause death. However, when peak VO2 is stratified into two categories (≥12 ml/kg/min vs. < 12 ml/kg/min), frailty was associated with increased mortality in patients with a lower peak VO2 (HR 1.72, p=0.006). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 29168222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Pulmonary contusions after blunt chest trauma: clinical significance and evaluation of patient management.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2017 Nov 22;:
Authors: Požgain Z, Kristek D, Lovrić I, Kondža G, Jelavić M, Kocur J, Danilović M
INTRODUCTION: A pulmonary contusion is an entity defined as alveolar haemorrhage and pulmonary parenchymal destruction after blunt chest trauma. According to the literature, most pulmonary contusions can only be seen on a chest CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patients with pulmonary contusions, as well as their management, considering diagnostic and therapeutic options related to their outcomes, since we assumed, based on everyday clinical practice, that an 'overdiagnosing' and 'overtreatment' attitude towards this injury could be present.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The research was a retrospective study including 5042 patients admitted to the Department of Traumatology in the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek, during a 3-year period. The medical data of the patients who suffered pulmonary contusion were evaluated considering significant characteristics, known risk factors, procedures undergone, and outcomes.
RESULTS: During the 3-year period, 2% of all the admitted patients were diagnosed with a pulmonary contusion. In 54% of the cases, the patient suffered polytraumatic injuries. The pulmonary contusion was an isolated injury in 7% of the patients. In 31% of the cases, there was no liquidothorax or pneumothorax (isolated pulmonary contusion). In 89% of the patients the pulmonary contusion was diagnosed using a CT scan. In 68% of the patients there were no interventions regarding the thorax; thoracocentesis was performed in 25% of the cases, and pleural punction in 14% of the cases. 25% of the patients developed respiratory insufficiency and 16% required mechanical ventilation. Regarding isolated pulmonary contusions, respiratory insufficiency was present in 8% of the cases.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that a pulmonary contusion seen on CT only has limited clinical significance and that the use of CT scans in diagnosing and follow-up of these patients should be re-evaluated. Further prospective and randomised studies should be conducted and the patients should be clinically evaluated, with the administration of supportive and antibiotic therapy, maintaining the fluid balance, the administration of diuretics, supportive oxygen therapy, pulmonary toilet, and physical therapy.
PMID: 29167928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Tracking dyspnea up to supplemental oxygen prescription among patients with pulmonary fibrosis.
BMC Pulm Med. 2017 Nov 22;17(1):152
Authors: Olson AL, Graney B, Baird S, Churney T, Fier K, Korn M, McCormick M, Sprunger D, Vierzba T, Wamboldt FS, Swigris JJ
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is the hallmark symptom of pulmonary fibrosis. Supplemental oxygen (O2) is prescribed to many patients with pulmonary fibrosis in hopes of alleviating dyspnea and improving physical functioning. We used response data from the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSD) which was administered monthly in the context of a longitudinal, observational study to plot a rich trajectory for dyspnea over time in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. We used other data from that study to identify clinical predictors of being prescribed O2 and to provide additional information for how UCSD scores could be used for clinical purposes.
METHODS: We used linear mixed-effects models and multivariate Cox proportional hazards to model change in dyspnea scores over time and to identify significant predictors of time-to-O2-prescription among a pool of clinically-meaningful candidate variables. In the longitudinal study, all decisions, including whether or not to prescribe O2, were made by subjects' treating physicians, not members of the research team.
RESULTS: One-hundred ninety-four subjects with pulmonary fibrosis completed more than one UCSD or were prescribed O2 at some point during the follow-up period (N = 43). Twenty-eight of the 43 had analyzable, longitudinal data and contribute data to the longitudinal UCSD analyses. All 43 were included in the time-to-O2-prescription analyses. Subjects prescribed O2 had more severe dyspnea at enrollment (38.4 ± 19.6 vs. 22.6 ± 18.7, p < 0.0001) and a steeper increase in UCSD scores over time (slope = 1.18 ± 0.53 vs. 0.24 ± 0.09 points per month, p = 0.02) than subjects not prescribed O2. Controlling for baseline UCSD score and FVC%, subjects with a clinical summary diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) were far more likely to be prescribed O2 than subjects with other forms of pulmonary fibrosis (hazard ratio = 4.85, (2.19, 10.74), p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Baseline dyspnea and rise in dyspnea over time predict timing of O2 prescription. Accounting for disease severity, patients with IPF are more likely than patients with other forms of pulmonary fibrosis to be prescribed O2. UCSD scores provide clinically useful information; frequent administration could yield timely data on changes in disease status in patients with pulmonary fibrosis.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The longitudinal study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01961362 ). Registered October 9, 2013.
PMID: 29166901 [PubMed - in process]
Pharmacological interventions for preventing acute mountain sickness: a network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Ann Med. 2017 Nov 23;:1-9
Authors: Sridharan K, Sivaramakrishnan G
BACKGROUND: Individuals ascending to high altitude are at a risk of getting acute mountain sickness (AMS). The present study is a network meta-analysis comparing all the interventions available to prevent AMS.
METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials evaluating the use of drugs to prevent AMS. Incidence of AMS was the primary outcome and incidence of severe AMS, paraesthesia (as side effect of acetazolamide use), headache and severe headache, and oxygen saturation were the secondary outcomes. Odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was the effect estimate for categorical outcomes and weighted mean difference for oxygen saturation. Random effects model was used to derive the direct and mixed treatment comparison pooled estimates. Trial sequential analysis and grading of the evidence for key comparisons were carried out.
RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were included. Acetazolamide at 125, 250 and 375 mg twice daily, dexamethasone and ibuprofen had statistically significant lower incidence of AMS compared to placebo. All the above agents except ibuprofen were also observed to significantly reduce the incidence of severe AMS. Acetazolamide alone or in combination with Ginkgo biloba were associated with lower incidence of headache, but higher risk of paraesthesia. Acetazolamide at 125 mg and 375 mg twice daily significantly reduce the incidence of severe headache as like ibuprofen. Trial sequential analysis indicates that the current evidence is adequate for the incidence of AMS only for acetazolamide 125 and 250 mg twice daily. Similarly, the strength of evidence for acetazolamide 125 and 250 mg twice daily was moderate while it was either low or very low for all other comparisons.
CONCLUSIONS: Acetazolamide at 125, 250 and 375 mg twice daily, ibuprofen and dexamethasone significantly reduce the incidence of AMS of which adequate evidence exists only for acetazolamide 125 and 250 mg twice daily therapy. Acetazolamide 125 mg twice daily could be the best in the pool considering the presence of enough evidence for preventing AMS and associated with lower incidence of paraesthesia. Key messages Acetazolamide 125, 250 and 375 mg twice daily, dexamethasone and ibuprofen reduce the incidence of AMS in high altitudes. Adequate evidence exists supporting the use of acetazolamide 125 mg and 250 mg twice daily for preventing AMS of which acetazolamide 125 mg twice daily could be the best.
PMID: 29166795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]