Electroacupuncture alleviates cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury via modulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Neural Regen Res. 2016 Jul;11(7):1090-8
Authors: Jin XL, Li PF, Zhang CB, Wu JP, Feng XL, Zhang Y, Shen MH
Electroacupuncture (EA) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions, but whether the neuroprotective effect of EA against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves modulation of the extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is unclear. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. A 30-minute period of EA stimulation was applied to both Baihui (DU20) and Dazhui (DU14) acupoints in each rat (10 mm EA penetration depth, continuous wave with a frequency of 3 Hz, and a current intensity of 1-3 mA) when reperfusion was initiated. EA significantly reduced infarct volume, alleviated neuronal injury, and improved neurological function in rats with MCAO. Furthermore, high mRNA expression of Bax and low mRNA expression of Bcl-2 induced by MCAO was prevented by EA. EA substantially restored total glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. Additionally, Nrf2 and glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) expression levels were markedly increased by EA. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effects of EA were attenuated when ERK1/2 activity was blocked by PD98059 (a specific MEK inhibitor). Collectively, our findings indicate that activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway contributes to the neuroprotective effects of EA. Our study provides a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of EA.
PMID: 27630691 [PubMed]
[Effects of Short Thrust Needing plus Electroacupuncture Intervention on Cartilage Tissue in Rabbits with Knee Osteoarthritis].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2016 Apr;41(2):124-30
Authors: Xi XF, Li XZ, Liu F, Fu NN, Ren Y, Yang XG, Zhang Y
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effectiveness of short thrust needling (STN, close-to-bone needing) plus electroacupuncture (EA) in healing knee cartilage tissue and in regulating expressions of cartilage vitamin K dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP 13) and serum uncarboxylated matrix gla protein (ucMGP) in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), so as to reveal its mechanism underlying improvement of KOA.
METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal, model, EA and STN+ EA groups (n = 10 in each group). The KOA model was created by cutting the medial lateral ligament and medial parapatellar arthrotomy of rabbits as described by Hulth and colleagues. For rabbits in the STN+ EA group, "Neixiyan" (EX-LE 4) and "Waixiyan" (ST 35) were punctured with filiform needles by controlling the needle-tip obliquely to advance till the bone surface of the knee joint cavity, and "Yinlingquan" (SP 9) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) punctured by holding the filiform needles vertically along the tibia, and "Liangqiu" (ST 34) was punctured by controlling the filiform needle to advance till the thigh-bone, followed by EA stimulation. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 1-3 mA) was applied to unilateral EX-LE 4 and ST 35, and ST 36 and SP 9, separately for 20 min, once daily for 20 days except weekends. The pathological changes of the knee cartilage cells were observed using H. E. staining, Toluidine blue staining and electron transmission microscope, respectively. The immunoactivity of GGCX of the knee cartilage was determined by immunohistochemistry and the expression levels of GGCX and MMP 13 proteins in the cartilage were detected by Western blot, and the content of serum ucMGP was assayed by ELISA.
RESULTS: H. E. staining, Toluidine blue staining and electron transmission microscope results showed that pathological changes of knee cartilage cells in structure after modeling were improved in both the STN+ EA and EA groups, particularly the former group. In comparison with the normal group, the expression levels of GGCX protein in the cartilage tissue showed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry were notably down-regulated (P<0.01), and the cartilage MMP 13 protein expression and serum ucMGP content were considerably up-regulated in the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). After STN+ EA and simple EA, the decreased GGCX and the increased MMP 13 expression and serum ucMGP content were reversed (P<0.01, P<0.05). The effects of STN+EA were significantly superior to those of simple EA in down-regulating MMP13 and ucGLA levels, and upre-gulating GGCX expression.
CONCLUSION: Both STN+ EA and simple EA can effectively improve pathological changes of cartilage cells in KOA rabbits, which may be associated with their actions in up-regulating the expression of cartilage GGCX protein and lowering the levels of serum ucMGP content and cartilage MMP 13 protein expression, and the effects of STN+ EA are better.
PMID: 27323439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Electroacupuncture Intervention Inhibits the Decline of Learning-memory Ability and Overex- pression of Cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax in Hippocampus Induced by Isoflurane in APPswe/PS 1].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2016 Feb;41(1):24-30
Authors: Li XY, Xu L, Liu CL, Huang LS, Zhu XY
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protection mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurotoxicity induced by Isoflurane.
METHODS: Twenty-four APPswe/PS 1 dE9 double transgenic mice (one of the most extensively used transgenic mouse model of AD) and 24 littermate wild-type mice were randomly assigned into control (Con) group, isoflurane (Iso) group and EA group, respectively (n = 8 in each group). EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Yongquan" (KI 1) for 15 min, once a day for 3 days. The transgenic mice were exposed to a closed box filled with 1.2% isoflurane + 30% O2 +70% N2 for 4 h. The animals' learning-memory ability was detected by Morris water maze test. The expression of cleaved Caspase-3 in the CA 1 area of hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry, and that of hippocampal Bcl-2 and Bax proteins detected by Western blot.
RESULTS: Compared with the wilde-type mice, the average escape latency of place navigation test was significantly longer, while the percentage of target-quadrant stay time and the target- platform crossing times of spacial probe test were marked decreased in AD + lso mice (P < 0.05). After acupuncture intervention, the abovementioned changes were reversed (P < 0.05). Correspondingly, compared with the AD-Con group, the number of hippocampal activated Caspase-3-positive cells and the expression of Bax protein were significantly increased in the AD-Iso group (P < 0.05). After EA intervention, the increased Caspase-3-positive cell number and Bax protein expression were remarkably down-regulated in the AD-EA group, and the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in AD-Iso mice was obviously up-regulated in AD-EA mice (P < 0.05). No significant changes were found in the average escape latency, the percentage of target-quadrant stay time and the target-platofrm corssing times, and inthe number of hippocampal activated Caspase-3-positive cells, the expression levels of hippocampal Bcl-2 and Sax and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in the three groups of wilde-type mice (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: EA intervention can improve the learning-memory ability in AD + Isoflurane mice, suggesting a reduction of AD-like neurotoxicity, which may be associated with its actions in inhibiting the overexpression of activated Caspase-3 and Bax proteins in the hippocampus.
PMID: 27141616 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Involvement of hippocampal acetylcholinergic receptors in electroacupuncture analgesia in neuropathic pain rats.
Behav Brain Funct. 2016 Apr 12;12(1):13
Authors: Chen SP, Kan Y, Zhang JL, Wang JY, Gao YH, Qiao LN, Feng XM, Yan YX, Liu JL
BACKGROUND: Cumulating evidence has shown a close correlation between electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) frequency-specific analgesic effect and central opioid peptides. However, the actions of hippocampal acetylcholinergic receptors have not been determined. This study aims to observe the effect of different frequencies of EAS on the expression of hippocampal muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (mAChRs, nAChRs) in neuropathic pain rats for revealing their relationship.
METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into sham, CCI model, 2, 2/15 and 100 HzEA groups. The neuropathic pain model was established by ligature of the left sciatic nerve to induce chronic constriction injury (CCI). EAS was applied to bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) for 30 min, once daily for 14 days except weekends. The mechanical pain thresholds (withdrawal latencies, PWLs) of bilateral hindpaws were measured. The expression levels of hippocampal M1 and M2 mAChR, and α4 and β2 nAChR genes and proteins were detected by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, separately. The involvement of mAChR and nAChR in the analgesic effect of EAS was confirmed by intra-hippocampal microinjection of M1mAChR antagonist (Pirenzepine) and α4β2 nAChR antagonist (dihydro-beta-erythroidine) respectively.
RESULTS: Following EAS, the CCI-induced increase of difference values of bilateral PWLs on day 6 and 14 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), with 2/15 Hz being greater than 100 Hz EAS on day 14 (P < 0.05). After 2 weeks' EAS, the decreased expression levels of M1 mAChR mRNA of both 2 and 2/15 Hz groups and M1 mAChR protein of the three EAS groups, α4 AChR mRNA of the 2/15 Hz group and β2 nAChR protein of the three EAS groups were considerably increased (P < 0.05), suggesting an involvement of M1 mAChR and β2 nAChR proteins in EAS-induced pain relief. No significant changes were found in the expression of M2 mAChR mRNA and protein, α4 nAChR protein and β2 nAChR mRNA after CCI and EAS (P > 0.05). The analgesic effect of EAS was abolished by intra-hippocampal microinjection of M1mAChR and α4β2 nAChR antagonists respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: EAS of ST36-GB34 produces a cumulative analgesic effect in neuropathic pain rats, which is frequency-dependent and probably mediated by hippocampal M1 mAChR and β2 nAChR proteins.
PMID: 27068709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effect of Electroacupuncture Stimulation of Acupoints at the Distal Limbs on Heart Function of Volunteers with Acute Hypoxia].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2015 Oct;40(5):402-8
Authors: Dong YQ, Xiu CY, Sa ZY, Xu JS
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of different acupoints at the distal ends of the limbs on cardiac function in volunteers with acute hypoxia, so as to determine if its actions are realized by way of segmental innervations or meridians.
METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers were divided into control, Quze (PC 3), Shousanli (LI 10), Guangming (GB 37) and Zusanli (ST 36) groups (both PC 3 and LI 10 are innervated by spinal C3-C6, and both ST 36 and GB 37 innervated by L5-S1). Acute hyoxia (simulating the conditions of about 5,000 m height above the sea level) was induced by asking the volunteers to inhale low-oxygen gas mixture (10.8% O2 + 89.2% N2) for 30 min, when, the participants' cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), left cardiac work (LOW), left ventricular ejection time (LVET)were measured using a ICG Monitor and EA stimulation (10 Hz/20 Hz, 1-2 V) was also conducted for 20 min following inhaling low-oxygen for 10 min.
RESULTS: Before low-oxygen inhale, the levels of CO, HR, LCW and LVET ratios (test value/basic value) of the control, PC 3, LI 10, ST 36 and GB 37 groups were comparable (P > 0.05). After inhaling low-oxygen gas mixture for 10 min, the levels of CO, HR, and LCW ratios were significantly increased, and the LVET ratios were notably decreased in the five groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the 10 min-low-oxygen inhale of the same one group, CO and HR ratios at both EA 10 min and 20 min in the PC 3 and ST 36 groups, LCW ratios at EA 10 min in both PC 3 and ST 36 groups were notably down-regulated (P < 0.05), while the LVET ratios of both PC 3 and ST 36 groups was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05). No significant changes of CO, HR, LCW and LVET ratios were found in the LI 10 and GB 37 groups after EA for 10 min and 20 min (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: EA stimulation of Quze (PC 3) and Zusanli (ST 36), but not Shousanli (LI 10) and Guangming (GB 37) can lower CO, HR and LCW levels and increase LVET in volunteer subjects undergoing acute hypoxia, suggesting that the therapeutic effect of EA maybe not rely on the segmental innervations, but rather, depend on the meridians to which the acupoints belong.
PMID: 26669199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of acupotomy intervention on regional pathological changes and expression of carti- lage-mechanics related proteins in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2015 Apr;40(2):119-24, 140
Authors: Liang CX, Guo Y, Tao L, Xiao H, Liu QG, Ma HF, Guo CQ
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupotomy (needle-knife) therapy on local pathological changes and cartilage-mechanics related protein expression in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) so as to study its mechanisms underlying improving KOA.
METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, acupotomy group, and electroacupuncture (EA) group (n = 10 in each group). The KOA model was established by immobilization of the left knee-joint (modified Videman method) for 6 weeks. After modeling, acupotomy relaxing was applied to the lateral collateral ligament and patellar ligament of the left knee-joint, once a week for 3 times, and EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 3 mA) was applied to the left "Yanglingquan" (GB 34), "Yinlingquan" (SP 9), "Neixiyan" (EX-LE 4) and "Waixiyan" (ST 35) for 20 min, 3 times a week for three weeks. The expression levels of Integrin β1, type II collagen (Col-II), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and Aggrecan proteins of the cartilage tissue of the left femoral medial and external condyles were observed by Western blot. Pathological changes of the knee-joint by X-ray scanning and those of the femoral condyle tissue were evaluated by Mankin's scores under light microscope after H. E. staining.
RESULTS: X-ray showed successful modeling, and pathological changes of the articular cartilage belonged to the early and moderate lesion of knee osteoarthritis. The Mankin's score was significantly higher in the model group than in the control group (P < 0.01) , and after the treatment, the Mankin's scores were significantly decreased in the acupotomy. group (P < 0.01), rather than in the EA group (P > 0.05). The results of Western blot showed that after modeling, the expression levels of Integrin β 1, Col-II and Aggrecan proteins of the femoral articular cartilage were considerably decreased (P < 0.01), while that of MMP-3 protein was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the decreased expression levels of Integrin β 1, Col-II and Aggrecan proteins in the acupotomy group and Integrin β 1 protein in the EA group were notably up-regulated (P < 0.01 , P < 0.05), and MMP-3 expression in the acupotomy group was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.01). No significant changes were found in the EA group in the expression levels of Col-II , Aggrecan and MMP-3 proteins compared with the model group (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Acupotomy intervention can relieve KOA-induced injury of the knee-joint in KOA rats, which is associated with its actions in raising expression levels of Integrin β 1, Col-II and Aggrecan proteins and in lowering the expression of MMP-3 proteins in the articular cartilage, probably by adjusting the mechanics-related signal pathway of the articular chondrocytes.
PMID: 26054196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Electroacupuncture ameliorates experimental colitis induced by TNBS through activation of interleukin-10 and inhibition of iNOS in mice.
Acta Cir Bras. 2014 Dec;29(12):787-93
Authors: Goes AC, Pinto FM, Fernandes GC, Barbosa JS, Correia ES, Ribeiro RA, Guimaraes SB, Lima Júnior RC, Brito GA, Rodrigues LV
PURPOSE: To study the anti-inflammatory actions of electroacupuncture (EAc) on an experimental colitis model in mice.
METHODS: Thirty-eight male Swiss mice, divided in five groups, were subjected to induction of colitis by TNBS in 50% ethanol. Saline (SAL) and ethanol (ETNL) groups served as controls. TNBS+EAc and TNBS+ dexamethasone subgroups were treated with EAc 100Hz and dexamethasone (DEXA) 1 mg/Kg/day, respectively. After three days, a colon segment was obtained for quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, immunohistochemistry for iNOS, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cytokines (IL-1β and IL-10).
RESULTS: Neutrophilic activity, assayed as MPO activity, was significantly higher in the TNBS colitis group than that in the saline control group. TNBS+EAc group showed suppression of IL-10 in the colon. EAc treatment significantly reduced the concentration of MDA and the expression of iNOS, as compared to the other groups.
CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture 100Hz applied to acupoint ST-36 promotes an anti-inflammatory action on the TNBS-induced colitis, mediated by increase of IL-10 and decrease of iNOS expression.
PMID: 25517491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
GABA in nucleus tractus solitarius participates in electroacupuncture modulation of cardiopulmonary bradycardia reflex.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014 Dec 01;307(11):R1313-23
Authors: Tjen-A-Looi SC, Guo ZL, Longhurst JC
Phenylbiguanide (PBG) stimulates cardiopulmonary receptors and cardiovascular reflex responses, including decreases in blood pressure and heart rate mediated by the brain stem parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Electroacupuncture (EA) at P5-6 stimulates sensory fibers in the median nerve and modulates these reflex responses. Stimulation of median nerves reverses bradycardia through action of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nucleus ambiguus, important in the regulation of heart rate. We do not know whether the NTS or the neurotransmitter mechanisms in this nucleus participate in these modulatory actions by acupuncture. We hypothesized that somatic nerve stimulation during EA (P5-6) modulates cardiopulmonary inhibitory responses through a GABAergic mechanism in the NTS. Anesthetized and ventilated cats were examined during either PBG or direct vagal afferent stimulation while 30 min of EA was applied at P5-6. Reflex heart rate and blood pressure responses and NTS-evoked discharge were recorded. EA reduced the PBG-induced depressor and bradycardia reflexes by 67% and 60%, respectively. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the NTS reversed EA modulation of bradycardia but not the depressor response. During EA, gabazine reversed the vagally evoked discharge activity of cardiovascular NTS neurons. EA modulated the vagal-evoked cardiovascular NTS cellular activity for 60 min. Immunohistochemistry using triple labeling showed GABA immunoreactive fibers juxtaposed to glutamatergic nucleus ambiguus-projecting NTS neurons in rats. These glutamatergic neurons expressed GABAA receptors. These findings suggest that EA inhibits PBG-evoked bradycardia and vagally evoked NTS activity through a GABAergic mechanism, likely involving glutamatergic nucleus ambiguus-projecting NTS neurons.
PMID: 25231352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of acupuncture at GV20 and ST36 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, aquaporin 4, and aquaporin 9 in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97488
Authors: Xu H, Zhang Y, Sun H, Chen S, Wang F
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is characterized by high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), aquaporin (AQP) 4, and AQP9 are linked to permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI). BBB disruption, tissue inflammation, and MMP/AQP upregulation jointly provoke brain edema/swelling after CIRI, while acupuncture and electroacupuncture can alleviate CIRI symptoms. This study evaluated the hypothesis that acupuncture and electroacupuncture can similarly exert neuroprotective actions in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by modulating MMP2/AQP4/APQ9 expression and inflammatory cell infiltration.
METHODS: Eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group S, MCAO model group M, acupuncture group A, electroacupuncture group EA, and edaravone group ED. The MCAO model was established by placement of a suture to block the middle carotid artery, and reperfusion was triggered by suture removal in all groups except group S. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture were administered at acupoints GV20 (governing vessel-20) and ST36 (stomach-36). Rats in groups A, EA, and ED received acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or edaravone, respectively, immediately after MCAO. Neurological function (assessed using the Modified Neurological Severity Score), infarct volume, MMP2/AQP4/AQP9 mRNA and protein expression, and inflammatory cell infiltration were all evaluated at 24 h post-reperfusion.
RESULTS: Acupuncture and electroacupuncture significantly decreased infarct size and improved neurological function. Furthermore, target mRNA and protein levels and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly reduced in groups A, EA, and ED vs. group M. However, MMP2/AQP levels and inflammatory cell infiltration were generally higher in groups A and EA than in group ED except MMP2 mRNA levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture and electroacupuncture at GV20 and ST36 both exercised neuroprotective actions in a rat model of MCAO, with no clear differences between groups A and EA. Therefore, acupuncture and electroacupuncture might find utility as adjunctive and complementary treatments to supplement conventional therapy for ischemic stroke.
PMID: 24828425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of acupotomy, electroacupuncture or round-sharp acupuncture needle interventions on expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 proteins of rectus femoris in rabbits with knee ostarthritis].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2014 Apr;39(2):100-5, 123
Authors: Huang YR, Jin YL, Li N, Lei LD, Yu F, Li YB, Tao L, Zhang Q, Guo CQ
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupotomy, electroacupuncture (EA) or round-sharp acupuncture needle intervention on the expression of Bcl-2,Bax and Caspase-3 proteins in the rectus femoris in rabbits with knee ostarthritis (KOA), so as to explore their mechanisms underlying improvement of braking-induced joint damage from the cellular apoptosis.
METHODS: Forty-five New Zealand rabbits were equally and randomized into control group, model group, acupotomy (AP) group, EA group and round-sharp acupuncture needle (RSAN) group (n = 9 in each group). The knee-joint injury model was established by fixing the left knee joint in extention position with plaster bandage. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 3 mA, 20 min each time) was applied to the left "Yanglingquan" (GB 34)- "Yinlingquan" (SP 9) and left "Neixiyan" (EX-LE 4)- "Waixiyan"(ST 35) for rabbits in the EA group. The EA treatment was given once daily, 3 times a week, 3 weeks in total. For rabbits of the AP group, a needle-knife was held to insert into the front edge of the midpoint, the starting point and the stopping point of the left medial collateral ligamen, lateral collateral ligament and the patellar ligament of the knee to make a loosening manipulation for 5 times in a session of treatment, once a week, 3 times altogether. For rabbits of the RSAN group, a round-sharp needle was performed in the same way to the needle-knife including the stimulation point, the manipulation method and treatment sessions. At the end of the experiment, the left rectus femoris was taken out for detecting the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 proteins with Western blot.
RESULTS: In comparison with the control group, the passive range of motion (PROM) level was significantly decreased 4, 8 and 12 weeks after modeling (P < 0.01), and the expression levels of Bax and Caspase-3 proteins in the rectus femoris were considerably upregulated in the model group (P < 0.05), while the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was notably down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the PROM level at week 12 after modeling in the AP, EA and RSAN groups were significantly increased (P < 0.01); while Bax and Caspase-3 expression levels in both AP and RSAN groups were considerably downregulated (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the five groups in Bcl-2 expression levels (P > 0.05), and between the EA and model groups in Bax and Caspase-3 expression levels and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: AP, RSAN and EA interventions are effective in improving the knee-joint motion range in KOA rabbits, and this effect of both AP and RSAN is closely associated with their actions in lowering the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 proteins of the rectus femoris and in raising ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein (reducing muscular cellular apoptosis). The mechanism of EA intervention in improving PROM may be different.
PMID: 24818492 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Depressing effect of electroacupuncture on the spinal non-painful sensory input of the rat.
Exp Brain Res. 2014 Sep;232(9):2721-9
Authors: Quiroz-González S, Segura-Alegría B, Jiménez-Estrada I
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) applied in the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) points on the N1 component of the cord dorsum potential (CDP) evoked by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve (SU) in the rat. The experiments were performed in 44 Wistar rats (250-300 g) anesthetized with ketamine (100 mg/kg) and xylazine (2 mg/kg). A bilateral laminectomy was performed to expose the L3 to S2 segments of the spinal cord. The SU nerve was exposed and placed on pairs of hook electrodes for electrical stimulation. The N1-CDPs were recorded with three silver-ball electrodes located on the dorsal surface of the L5 to S1 segments. Ipsilateral high and low EA stimulation (100, 2 Hz, 6 mA, 30 min) induced a considerable reduction in the amplitude (45 ± 5.6, 41 ± 6.2%) of the N1-CDP recorded at the L6 segmental level. Recovery of the N1-CDP amplitude occurred approximately 1-3 s after EA. Sectioning of the saphenous and superficial peroneal nerves reduced the depressing effect provoked by the EA stimulation (18.7 ± 1.3, 27 ± 3.8%). Similarly, sectioning of the posterior and anterior tibial, deep peroneal and gastrocnemius nerves partially reduced the effect provoked by EA (11 ± 1.5, 9.8 ± 1.1, 12.6 ± 1.9%). Intravenous picrotoxin (1 mg/kg) also reduced the action of low and high EA (23 ± 4.8, 27 ± 5.2%). It is suggested that EA stimulation depresses non-painful sensory pathways through the activation of specific inhibitory pathways that receive modulatory actions from other sensory and muscle afferent inputs in the rat spinal cord.
PMID: 24770863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Electroacupuncture improves thermal and mechanical sensitivities in a rat model of postherpetic neuralgia.
Mol Pain. 2013 Apr 03;9:18
Authors: Wu CH, Lv ZT, Zhao Y, Gao Y, Li JQ, Gao F, Meng XF, Tian B, Shi J, Pan HL, Li M
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) is effective in relieving pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of EA in PHN is still unclear. Systemic injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent analog of TRPV1 agonist, in adult rats can reproduce the clinical symptoms of PHN by ablating TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons. In this study, we determined the beneficial effect of EA and the potential mechanisms in this rat model of PHN.
METHODS: PHN was induced in rats by a single injection of RTX. Thermal hyperalgesia was tested with a radiant heat stimulus, and mechanical allodynia was quantified with von Frey filaments. TRPV1 receptors were shown by using immunofluorescence labeling. The ultrastructural changes of the sciatic nerve were assessed by electron microscopic examination. The sprouting of myelinated primary afferent terminals into the spinal dorsal horn was mapped by using the transganglionic tracer cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB).
RESULTS: RTX injection diminished thermal sensitivity and gradually induced tactile allodynia within 3 weeks. EA applied to GB30 and GB34 at 2 and 15 Hz, but not 100 Hz, significantly increased the thermal sensitivity 4 weeks after treatment and decreased the tactile allodynia 2 weeks after treatment in RTX-treated rats. EA treatment at 2 and 15 Hz recovered the loss of TRPV1-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons and their central terminals of afferent fibers in the spinal superficial dorsal horn of RTX-treated rats. Moreover, EA significantly reduced the loss of unmyelinated fibers and the damage of the myelinated nerve fibers of RTX-treated rats. Furthermore, EA at 2 and 15 Hz inhibited the sprouting of myelinated primary afferent terminals into the spinal lamina II of RTX-treated rats.
CONCLUSIONS: EA treatment improves thermal perception by recovering TRPV1-positive sensory neurons and nerve terminals damaged by RTX. EA Also reduces RTX-induced tactile allodynia by attenuating the damage of myelinated afferent nerves and their abnormal sprouting into the spinal lamina II. Our study provides new information about the mechanisms of the therapeutic actions of EA in the treatment of PHN.
PMID: 23551937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Medullary GABAergic mechanisms contribute to electroacupuncture modulation of cardiovascular depressor responses during gastric distention in rats.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013 Mar 01;304(5):R321-32
Authors: Tjen-A-Looi SC, Guo ZL, Li M, Longhurst JC
Electroacupuncture (EA) at P5-P6 acupoints overlying the median nerves typically reduces sympathoexcitatory blood pressure (BP) reflex responses in eucapnic rats. Gastric distention in hypercapnic acidotic rats, by activating both vagal and sympathetic afferents, decreases heart rate (HR) and BP through actions in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) and nucleus ambiguus (NAmb), leading to sympathetic withdrawal and parasympathetic activation, respectively. A GABAA mechanism in the rVLM mediates the decreased sympathetic outflow. The present study investigated the hypothesis that EA modulates gastric distention-induced hemodynamic depressor and bradycardia responses through nuclei that process parasympathetic and sympathetic outflow. Anesthetized hypercapnic acidotic rats manifested repeatable decreases in BP and HR with gastric distention every 10 min. Bilateral EA at P5-P6 for 30 min reversed the hypotensive response from -26 ± 3 to -6 ± 1 mmHg and the bradycardia from -35 ± 11 to -10 ± 3 beats/min for a period that lasted more than 70 min. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect c-Fos protein and GAD 67 mRNA expression showed that GABAergic caudal ventral lateral medulla (cVLM) neurons were activated by EA. Glutamatergic antagonism of cVLM neurons with kynurenic acid reversed the actions of EA. Gabazine used to block GABAA receptors microinjected into the rVLM or cVLM reversed EA's action on both the reflex depressor and bradycardia responses. EA modulation of the decreased HR was inhibited by microinjection of gabazine into the NAmb. Thus, EA through GABAA receptor mechanisms in the rVLM, cVLM, and NAmb modulates gastric distention-induced reflex sympathoinhibition and vagal excitation.
PMID: 23302958 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Acupuncture in the treatment of obesity: a narrative review of the literature.
Acupunct Med. 2013 Mar;31(1):88-97
Authors: Belivani M, Dimitroula C, Katsiki N, Apostolopoulou M, Cummings M, Hatzitolios AI
Obesity is one of the leading health risk factors worldwide and is associated with several other risk factors and health problems including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and malignancies. Current conventional therapeutic strategies for obesity cannot achieve adequate weight control in all patients, so complementary types of treatment are also performed. Acupuncture, one of the oldest healing practices, represents the most rapidly growing complementary therapy which is recognised by both the National Institutes of Health and the WHO. A previous review concluded that acupuncture was superior to lifestyle advice, to sham acupuncture and to conventional medication. In this narrative review, the possible mechanisms of actions and the results of recent experimental and clinical studies with different forms of acupuncture (eg, body, auricular, manual and electroacupuncture) are presented. In particular, the effects of acupuncture on anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers are discussed. Both experimental and clinical current data suggest that acupuncture exerts beneficial effects on the mechanisms of obesity. Some data suggest that electroacupuncture may be more effective than manual acupuncture; however, the most effective frequency remains controversial. Combination of different forms of acupuncture with diet and exercise seems to be necessary for achieving and maintaining weight loss. Further prospective clinical trials are needed to establish the effectiveness of this complementary method for obesity treatment.
PMID: 23153472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Comparison of the clinical therapeutic effects between electroacupuncture and warming needle moxibustion for knee osteoarthritis of kidney deficiency and marrow insufficiency pattern/syndrome].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2012 May;32(5):395-8
Authors: Gao J, Ouyang BS, Zhang Y, Li J, Yang HZ, Ji LL, Wu YJ, Wang W
OBJECTIVE: To explore the actions of electroacupuncture (EA) and the warming needle moxibustion on knee osteoarthritis (KOA) of kidney deficiency and marrow insufficiency pattern/syndrome and compare the clinical effects between these two therapies.
METHODS: Seventy-four cases of KOA were randomly divided into an electroacupuncture (EA) group and a warming needle moxibustion (WNM) group, 37 cases in each one. The acupoints were Dubi (ST 35), Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Xuehai (SP 10), Zusanli (ST 36), Yanglingquan (GB 34), etc. In EA group, electric stimulation was given, 5 Hz, continuous wave. In the WNM group, warm needling technique was applied, 2 moxa cones on each acupoint in each time, three treatments a week. Totally, 4 weeks of treatment were required. The indicaices such as WOMAC score, illness severity index and systematic efficacy were adopted to evaluate the efficacy before treatment, 1 session and 2 sessions after treatment separately.
RESULTS: The treatment in either group achieved the effectiveness. The cured and markedly effective rate was 64.7% (22/34) in EA group and was 40.0% (14/35) in WNM group, presenting statistically significant difference in comparison (P < 0.05). But the total effective rate did not indicate significance (P > 0.05). In EA group, the releasing effect of joint pain was obvious (P < 0.01). In the WNM group, the treatment was more advantageous at relieving joint stiffness (P < 0.01). There was no difference in the mean curative time between two groups (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture and the warming needle moxibustion have their own advantages in the treatment of KOA of kidney deficiency and marrow insufficiency pattern/syndrome. Electroacupuncture is advantageous at analgesia and the warming needle moxibustion is at relieving joint stiffness. The total efficacy of electroacupuncture is superior to that of the warming needle moxibustion.
PMID: 22650121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Absence of actions of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines and electroacupuncture on myocardial infarct size.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Dec;17(4):403-11
Authors: Dow J, Painovich J, Hale SL, Tjen-A-Looi S, Longhurst JC, Kloner RA
BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that certain Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture could limit ischemia/reperfusion damage. We sought to determine whether the commonly used single herb Danshen (DS), either alone or in combination with Jiang Xiang (JX), or electroacupuncture (EA) reduces myocardial infarct size.
METHODS: An anesthetized rat model of proximal left coronary artery occlusion (30 minutes) and reperfusion (180 minutes) was used to measure infarct size (triphenyltetrazolium chloride) and ischemic risk zone (blue dye technique). Rats were either untreated (saline) or received an infusion of DS or DS + JX, starting 30 minutes prior to coronary occlusion. In a separate protocol, rats were untreated, received static needle (ND) placement without stimulation or EA at P5-P6 acupuncture points in the rat forearm starting 5 minutes before occlusion and lasting for 40 minutes, or starting 30 minutes before occlusion and lasting for 90 minutes.
RESULTS: In the herbal experiments, myocardial infarct size expressed as a fraction of the ischemic risk zone was 0.43 ± 0.06 in controls, 0.39 ± 0.05 in the DS group, and 0.42 ± 0.04 in the Danshen + JX groups (P = not significant [NS]). In the acupuncture study, there was no significant difference in infarct size as a fraction of the risk zone among the control group (0.38 ± 0.04), the ND group (0.47 ± 0.04), or the EA group (0.32 ± 0.05). When EA was started 30 minutes prior to coronary occlusion and continued for 30 minutes into reperfusion, infarct size was 0.41 ± 0.07 in controls and 0.38 ± 0.10 in EA (P = NS). Neither herbs nor EA altered heart rate or blood pressure. In a separate study of 5 minutes of coronary occlusion plus reperfusion, EA failed to reduce ventricular arrhythmias.
CONCLUSION: Our studies do not suggest a cardioprotective effect of DS or DS + JX or EA in an experimental model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.
PMID: 22549008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Electroacupuncture counteracts the development of thermal hyperalgesia and the alteration of nerve growth factor and sensory neuromodulators induced by streptozotocin in adult rats.
Diabetologia. 2011 Jul;54(7):1900-8
Authors: Manni L, Florenzano F, Aloe L
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes is considered the leading cause of neuropathies in developed countries. Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) production and/or utilisation may lead to the establishment of diabetic neuropathies. Electroacupuncture has been proved effective in the treatment of human neuropathic pain as well as in modulating NGF production/activity. We aimed at using electroacupuncture to correct the development of thermal hyperalgesia and the tissue alteration of NGF and sensory neuromodulators in a rat model of type 1 diabetes.
METHODS: Adult rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes and subsequently treated with low-frequency electroacupuncture for 3 weeks. Variation in thermal sensitivity was studied during the experimental course. Hindpaw skin and spinal cord protein content of NGF, NGF receptor tyrosine kinase A (TrkA), substance P (SP), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) were measured after electroacupuncture treatments. The skin and spinal cord cellular distribution of TrkA was analysed to explore NGF signalling.
RESULTS: Early after streptozotocin treatment, thermal hyperalgesia developed that was corrected by electroacupuncture. The parallel increases in NGF and TrkA in the spinal cord were counteracted by electroacupuncture. Streptozotocin also induced variation in skin/spinal TrkA phosphorylation, increases in skin SP and spinal TRPV1 and a decrease in spinal GAD-67. These changes were counteracted by electroacupuncture.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results point to the potential of electroacupuncture as a supportive therapy for the treatment of diabetic neuropathies. The efficacy of electroacupuncture might depend on its actions on spinal/peripheral NGF synthesis/utilisation and normalisation of the levels of several sensory neuromodulators.
PMID: 21431457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of electroacupuncture of different acupoints on changes of blood pressure and autonomic nerve system after colorectal distension in rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2010 Oct;35(5):335-41
Authors: Chen SP, Gao YH, Yu XC, Liu JL
OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) of different acupoints on changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in colorectal distension (CRD) rats, so as to analyze the specificity of actions of acupoints in relieving visceral pain and regulating activities of the autonomic nerve system.
METHODS: Forty-five Wistar rats were randomized into control, Zusanli (ST 36), non-acupoint, Neiguan (PC 6) and Taichong (LR 3) groups (n = 9/group). Under anesthesia, CRD was given to the rats by using an aerostat for 5 min. EA (2 Hz/15 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to bilateral ST 36, non-acupoint (1.0 cm lateral to ST 36), PC 6 and LR 3 for 15 min, respectively. Electrocardiogram of the cervico-chest lead was recorded by using a bioelectric amplifier, and MAP recorded by using a pressure transducer and an amplifier. Low frequency and high frequency of HRV were analyzed by Chart 5.0.
RESULTS: Following CRD, the HR, MAP, LF and LF/HF levels increased significantly in all the 5 groups (P < 0.05), while HF had no apparent changes (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, 5 min and 15 min after EA ,and 10 min after ceasing EA, MAP values of ST 36 and PC 6 groups were decreased obviously (P < 0.05). The HR values of ST 36 and PC 6 groups at 15 min after EA and 10 min after ceasing EA were decreased markedly in comparison with those of each of the other groups during CRD (P < 0.05). The LF levels of both ST 36 and PC 6 groups at 5 min after EA, and those of ST 36, PC 6 and LR 3 at 15 min after EA were significantly lower than those of control group (P < 0.05). LF/HF levels of ST 36 and PC 6 at 10 min after ceasing EA were obviously lower than those of control group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found among ST 36, non-acupoint, PC 6 and LR 3 groups in HR, LF and LF/HF (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: EA of ST 36 and PC 6 can suppress CRD-induced increase of MAP, HR and LF/HF, suggesting beneficial effects of EA in relieving visceral pain and mediating autonomic nerve system. The aforementioned effects of EA of LR 3 and non-acupoint are not obvious.
PMID: 21235060 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Electroacupuncture enhances preproenkephalin mRNA expression in rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats.
Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jun 21;477(2):61-5
Authors: Li M, Tjen-A-Looi SC, Longhurst JC
Electroacupuncture (EA) causes prolonged suppression of reflex elevations in blood pressure for at least 60min in anesthetized preparations. Thus, EA can modify sympathetic outflow and elevated blood pressure through actions in a number of hind brain regions, including the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). Since our previous data show that the opioid system plays a role in EA-related prolonged inhibition of presympathetic neuronal activity in the rVLM, we postulated that EA increases preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA in this region, possibly for prolonged periods of time. Under alpha-chloralose anesthesia, rats received EA (1-2mA, 2Hz, 0.5ms) at P5-P6 acupoints (overlying median nerves) or sham (needle placement without electrical stimulation) for 30min. PPE mRNA in the rVLM also was evaluated in control rats that received surgery but no EA, or sham treatment. 20min, 1.5h or 4h following EA or sham treatment, PPE mRNA in the rVLM was analyzed by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR. Relative ratios of PPE mRNA levels (normalized with 18s house keeping gene) were increased 1.5h after EA stimulation (7.77+/-1.39, n=6) relative to sham (2.84+/-0.37, n=5) but were unchanged both 20min and 4h after EA, compared to the sham or surgery groups at the same time points. Thus, 30min of EA transiently stimulates the production of enkephalin in a region of the brain that importantly regulates sympathetic outflow suggesting that even a single brief acupuncture treatment can increase the expression of this modulatory neuropeptide.
PMID: 20399834 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Acupuncture reduces immune-mediated pulmonary inflammatory lesions induced in rats.
Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Dec;16(6):413-6
Authors: Katsuya EM, de Castro MA, Carneiro CR, Yamamura Y, Silveira VL
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this report was to experimen-tally demonstrate the biological actions of acupuncture in an animal model of immune-mediated inflammation associated with a deposition of collagen.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were sensitized by a subcu-taneous implant of heat-solidified hen egg-white and divided into 4 groups: acupuncture, sham acupuncture, immobilized, and control. Acupuncture was initiated the day after sensitization and repeated twice a week for 3 weeks. The dorsal acupoints chosen were GV-14 and BL-13, the ventral acupuncture points were LU-1, CV-17, ST-36 and SP-6. The dorsal points were stimulated manually and the ventral ones by electroacupuncture. On day 14, animals were challenged through the tail vein with Sepharose(R)beads coupled with ovalbumin. One week later, animals were bled, plasma corticoster-one concentrations were measured and the lungs were removed for histological evaluation.
RESULTS: Measurement of the areas of pulmonary lesion on hematoxylin-eosin stained slides showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the inflammatory infiltrate in the acupuncture group, compared to the other 3 groups. Utilization of Litt and Picrosirius staining methods, in order to better visualize the infiltrate of eosinophils and the deposition of collagen, respectively, showed that both were much less intense in the acupuncture group. Corticosterone plasma levels were similar in all groups.
CONCLUSION: Point-specific acupuncture treatment effectively reduced the inflammatory process and the deposition of collagen around ovalbumin-Sepharose beads intravenously embolized to the lungs of rats previously sensitized with the same protein that was administered subcutaneously.
PMID: 20090355 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effect of different frequency electroacupuncture on the expression of substance P and beta-endorphin in the hypothalamus in rats with gastric distension-induced pain].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2009 Aug;34(4):252-7
Authors: Lin YP, Peng Y, Yi SX, Tang S
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different frequency electroacupuncture (EA) on hippocampal substance P (SP) and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) in rats with gastralgia so as to explore its underlying mechanism in preventing and relieving visceral pain.
METHOD: Fifty rats were randomly divided into control, sham operation, model, low- frequency-EA and high frequency-EA groups. Gastralgia model was duplicated by gastric distension (a pressure of 40 mmHg) with a latex balloon. Low (2 Hz) and high (100 Hz) frequency EA was applied to bilateral "Zusanli (ST 36)" for 30 min. Pain score was given by using Al-Chaer's method (abdominal withdrawal reflex) and the expression of hypothalamic beta-EP and SP was detected by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Both low- and high-frequency EA of ST 36 could significantly lower the pain score (P < 0.01), and the effect of high-frequency EA was markedly superior to that of low-frequency (P < 0.01). Compared with control and sham-operation groups, both SP immuno-reaction (IR) and beta-EP IR positive cells in the hypothalamus in model group increased significantly in the number (P < 0.01), suggesting an upregulation of SP and beta-EP expression after occurrence of gastralgia. In comparison with model group, the number of SP IR and (beta-EP IR positive cells in the hypothalamus in low frequency and high frequency EA groups increased further (P < 0.01) particularly in low frequency EA group.
CONCLUSION: Both low-frequency and high-frequency EA of "Zusanli (ST 36)" can effectively relieve gastric distension-induced gastralgia in the rat, and the effect of high-frequency EA is better, which may be closely related to its actions in promoting the release and synthesis of hypothalamic beta-EP and SP.
PMID: 19916289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Acupuncture analgesia: a review of its mechanisms of actions.
Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(4):635-45
Authors: Lin JG, Chen WL
The mechanism of acupuncture analgesia (AA) has been widely explored since the 1970s. Early studies investigated the relationship between acupuncture and endogenous opiates (beta-endorphin, enkephalin, endomorphin and dynorphin). Before the 1990s, most experts agreed on the concept that in normal animal models, lower frequency electroacupuncture (EA) stimulates the release of beta-endorphin, enkephalin and endomorphin, which in turn activates the mu- and delta-opioid receptors, and that higher frequency EA stimulates dynorphin which activates the kappa-opioid receptor. Besides endogenous opiates, our studies have focused on serotonin. The serotoninergic descending inhibitory pathway is suggested to be an important mechanism of acupuncture analgesic, collaborating with endogenous opiates. Many efforts have been made to clarify these mechanisms, but to date no satisfactory consensus has been reached. In the late 1990s, researchers began to focus on the different analgesic effects of EA between normal and hyperalgesic animal models. Published data from these studies imply that normal and hyperalgesic animals respond differently to EA. Results from experiments on the anti-hyperalgesia effect of EA have raised a new issue about the influences of EA on receptors to excitatory amino acid in the spinal cord level. Results from various studies have shown that these receptors play a role in the mechanism of AA. Recently, research on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) seem to indicate its connection with acupuncture. The inflammatory reflex (via the ANS) might be a crucial part of anti-hyperalgesia elicited by acupuncture, and this reflex, which regulates the immune system in the organism, can elucidate not only the mechanism of AA but also the mechanism of acupuncture applied to other inflammatory conditions. Innovation of functional image study enables us to analyze the responses of cortex on living human body to acupuncture. However, results of these experiments are still controversial. After 30 years of acupuncture research, there are still many puzzles left to be solved regarding the mechanism of AA.
PMID: 18711761 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of strong and weak electroacupuncture on endotoxin-induced changes of electrical activities of heat-sensitive neurons in preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus in rabbits].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2008 Apr;33(2):124-30
Authors: Dong QS, Dong XM, Zhang XQ
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of weak and strong electroacupuncture (EA) on endotoxin (ET) thermolysis-induced changes of discharges of neurons in the preoptic region and anterior hypothalamus (PO-AH) so as to explore its underlying mechanism in antipyretic and thermolytic actions and its relation to the receptive system of acupoints.
METHODS: Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into ET group, ET + weak-EA group and ET + strong-EA group. Extracellular discharges of the PO-AH neurons were recorded by using tungsten microelectrodes. A "U"-shape stainless steel tube was implanted in the region (P0.4-A4.4, L0.5-1.7) crossing the hypothalamus for changing local temperature by perfusion of cool (25 degrees C) or warm (41 degrees C) solution in order to distinguish the heat sensitive neurons (HSN), cold sensitive neurons (CSN) and insensitve neurons to temperature changes. Intravenous injection of endotoxin (25 EU/rabbit) was given to rabbits to induce increase of tempe rature. EA (8 Hz, wave width 0.1 ms, weak stimulation: 4.5 V, strong stimulation: 25 V) was applied to bilateral "Yongquan" (KI 1) for observing changes of firing rates of HSN in PO-AH.
RESULTS: Compared with the basal values of firing rates of PO-AH neurons in each group, the average changing ratios of both ET and ET + weak-EA groups decreased significantly from 55-60 min on in ET group and from 40-45 min on in ET + weak-EA group after intravenous injection of ET (P<0.05), suggesting no marked effect of weak EA for preventing discharges of PO-AH neurons from decrease. While in ET + strong-EA group, the firing rates of HSN of PO-AH kept stable after injection of ET during EA and after cease of EA (P>0.05 vs basal value), suggesting that strong EA could antagonize ET thermolysis-induced decrease of firing rates of PO-AH neurons.
CONCLUSION: Stronger EA stimulation of KI1 can antagonize ET thermolysis-induced effect on electrical activities of PO-AH HSN, which may be initiated by the activation of the high-threshold thin nerve fibers in the acupoint region.
PMID: 18630590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Corticosterone mediates electroacupuncture-produced anti-edema in a rat model of inflammation.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Aug 14;7:27
Authors: Li A, Zhang RX, Wang Y, Zhang H, Ren K, Berman BM, Tan M, Lao L
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to produce anti-edema and anti-hyperalgesia effects on inflammatory disease. However, the mechanisms are not clear. The present study investigated the biochemical mechanisms of EA anti-inflammation in a rat model.
METHODS: Three experiments were conducted on male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7-8/per group). Inflammation was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) subcutaneously into the plantar surface of one hind paw. Experiment 1 measured plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels to see if EA regulates CORT secretion. Experiment 2 studied the effects of the adrenal gland on the therapeutic actions of EA using adrenalectomy (ADX) rats. Experiment 3 determined whether a prototypical glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, affects EA anti-edema. EA treatment, 10 Hz at 3 mA and 0.1 ms pulse width, was given twice, for 20 min each, once immediately after CFA administration and again 2 h post-CFA. Plasma CORT levels, paw thickness, indicative of the intensity of inflammation, and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured 2 h and 5 h after the CFA injection.
RESULTS: EA significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels 2 h (5 folds) and 5 h (10 folds) after CFA administration compared to sham EA control, but EA alone in naive rats and CFA alone did not induce significant increases in corticosterone. Adrenalectomy blocked EA-produced anti-edema, but not EA anti-hyperalgesia. RU486 (15 mul, 15 mug/mul), a prototypical glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, also prevented EA anti-edema.
CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate that EA activates the adrenals to increase plasma corticosterone levels and suppress edema and suggest that EA effects differ in healthy subjects and in those with pathologies.
PMID: 17697336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Epilepsy, electroacupuncture and the nucleus of the solitary tract.
Acupunct Med. 2006 Dec;24(4):164-8
Authors: Cakmak YO
Vagal nerve stimulation and electroacupuncture have some promise as neuroprotective therapies for patients with poorly controlled epilepsy. It has been demonstrated that stimulation of acupuncture points on the extremities results in stimulation of the vagus nerve. It is possible that the antiepileptic effects of these two applications might be targeting the same centre in the brain. The nucleus of the solitary tract, which is a primary site at which vagal afferents terminate, is also the site for afferent pathways of facial, scalp and auricular acupuncture via trigeminal, cervical spinal and glossopharyngeal nerves. Taken together with laboratory findings, the neuroprotective pathways of electroacupuncture in epileptic models may stem from the collaboration of its anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic actions through the nucleus of the solitary tract via vagus nerve stimulation.
PMID: 17264834 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of electroacupuncture on CRH, IL-2 and beta-EP contents in the hypothalamus in the rat of adjuvant arthritis].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2005 Nov;25(11):793-6
Authors: Li H, Li XH, Zhang LF, Zhu WL, Zhai JH, Zhou DF
OBJECTIVE: To explore Mechanisms of electroacupuncture in anti-inflammation and immunoregulation, and to compare differences among "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Mingmen "(GV 4) and non-acupoint in these actions.
METHODS: Adjuvant arthritis rat model was made. The rats were divided into 5 groups: normal group, model group, "Dazhui" (GV 14) electroacupuncture group, "Mingmen" (GV 4) electroacupuncture group and non-acupoint electroacupuncture group. Effects of electroacupuncture on local joint inflammation and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), beta-endorphin (betaEP) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) contents in the hypothalamus were observed and differences of the actions among different points were compared.
RESULTS: CRH content in the hypothalamus in the "Dazhui" (GV 14) electroacupuncture group decreased as compared with the model group (P < 0.05); there was no significant change in beta-EP and IL-2 contents of the hypothalamus in the 3 electroacupuncture groups as compared with the model group (P > 0.05); there was positive correlation between CRH and IL-2 contents, and between IL-2 and beta-EP contents in the hypothalamus. The swelling rate of the toe in the "Dazhui" (GV 14) group and the "Mingmen" (GV 4) group was lower than that in the non-acupoint group (P < 0 05).
CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture exerts anti-inflammation and immunoregulation possibly via regulation of CRH, IL-2 and beta-EP each other, and the anti-inflammation action of "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Mingmen" (GV 4) is stronger than that of non-acupoint.
PMID: 16335209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of electroacupuncture of different frequencies on cerebral blood perfusion and cerebral function in the patient of stroke].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2005 Nov;25(11):776-8
Authors: Ouyang G, Jia SW, Wang F, Shi Y, Gao Z
OBJECTIVE: To explore effects of electroacupuncture of different frequencies on stroke.
METHODS: Forty-seven cases of stroke were treated with electroacupuncture at the motor region of the scalp and divided into 2 Hz, 2/15 Hz and 100 Hz groups according to the used frequency. Cerebral blood perfusion and brain functions before and during electroacupuncture in the 3 groups were investigated with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
RESULTS: Local cerebral blood perfusion and brain cell functions could be improved by electroacupuncture of the 3 frequencies, and the actions of 2/15 Hz and 100 Hz were better.
CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture of 2/15 Hz and 100 Hz has a better therapeutic effect on stroke when the stimulating intensity is fixed.
PMID: 16335203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effect of electroacupuncture on metabolism of lipids in rats of obesity induced by sodium glutamate].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2005 Apr;25(4):269-71
Authors: Wang SJ, Li Q, She YF, Li AY, Xu HZ, Zhao ZG
OBJECTIVE: To explore mechanisms of acupuncture for reducing of body weight.
METHODS: The rat obesity model was developed by subcutaneous injection of sodium glutamate solution, and the experimental rats were divided into a blank control group, a model group, an electroacupuncture group and a sibutramine group; blood TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C contents and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and serum leptin and insulin levels were determined.
RESULTS: The body weight and Lee's index, and TG, TC and LDL-C contents in the electroacupuncture group decreased significantly as compared with those in the model group (all P<0.01), the actions in the electroacupuncture group being superior to those in the sibutramine group; the HDL-C contents in both the electroacupuncture and the sibutramine groups were higher than that of the model group (P<0.01) with no significant difference between the electroacupuncture group and the sibutramine group; LPL activity in the electroacupuncture group increased significantly as compared with that in the model group (P<0.01); serum leptin and insulin levels in both the electroacupuncture group and the sibutramine group were lower than that in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01), with no significant difference between the electroacupuncture group and the sibutramine group in the effect on insulin content, and the decrease of leptin level in the electroacupuncture group was more as compared with the sibutramine group (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture can improve the status of high blood lipids, increase lipoprotein lipase activity, and regulate serum leptin and insulin levels in the obestic rat.
PMID: 16309105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Afferent mechanisms underlying stimulation modality-related modulation of acupuncture-related cardiovascular responses.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Mar;98(3):872-80
Authors: Zhou W, Fu LW, Tjen-A-Looi SC, Li P, Longhurst JC
Despite the use of acupuncture to treat a number of heart diseases, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie its actions. Therefore, we examined the influence of acupuncture on sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular responses to gastric distension in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty minutes of low-current, low-frequency, (0.3-0.5 mA, 2 Hz) electroacupuncture (EA), at P 5-6, S 36-37, and H 6-7 overlying the median, deep peroneal, and ulnar nerves significantly decreased reflex pressor responses by 40, 39, and 44%, respectively. In contrast, sham acupuncture involving needle insertion without stimulation at P 5-6 or 30 min of EA at LI 6-7 acupoints overlying the superficial radial nerve did not attenuate the reflex. Similarly, EA at P 5-6 using 40- or 100-Hz stimulation frequencies did not inhibit the reflex. Compared with EA at P 5-6, EA at two sets of acupoints, including P 5-6 and S 36-37, did not lead to larger inhibition of the reflex. Two minutes of manual acupuncture (MA; 2 Hz) at P 5-6 every 10 min for 30 min inhibited the reflex cardiovascular pressor response by 33%, a value not significantly different from 2-Hz EA at P 5-6. Single-unit afferent activity was not different between electrical stimulation (ES) and manual stimulation. However, 2-Hz ES activated more somatic afferents than 10- or 20-Hz ES. These data suggest that, although the location of acupoint stimulation and the frequency of stimulation determine the extent of influence of EA, there is little difference between low-frequency EA and MA at P 5-6. Furthermore, simultaneous stimulation using two acupoints that independently exert strong effects did not lead to an additive or a facilitative interaction. The similarity of the responses to EA and MA and the lack of cardiovascular response to high-frequency EA appear to be largely a function of somatic afferent responses.
PMID: 15531558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alterations in the function of cerebral dopaminergic and serotonergic systems following electroacupuncture and moxibustion applications: possible correlates with their antistress and psychosomatic actions.
Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):283-93
Authors: Yano T, Kato B, Fukuda F, Shinbara H, Yoshimoto K, Ozaki A, Kuriyama K
Alterations in cerebral monoamines following application of electroacupuncture were investigated using conscious rats with and without application of restraining stress. The dopamine and serotonin levels were significantly decreased in the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and lateral hypothalamus and increased in the dorsal raphe nucleus by restraining stress. On the other hand, application of electroacupuncture on the lumbar and hindlimb segments eliminated the above changes in dopamine, while the changes in serotonin were attenuated by lumbar and hindlimb electroacupuncture. However, the effects of hindlimb electroacupuncture were greater than those of lumbar electroacupuncture. These results clearly indicate that lumbar and hindlimb electroacupuncture stimulations have differential effects on brain monoaminergic neurons in rats exposed to restraining stress. Moxa burning stimulation was applied to the lumbar and hindlimb segments of rats without restraining stress. The dopamine level was significantly increased in the midbrain substantia nigra-ventrotegmental area by hindlimb moxibusion. On the other hand, the serotonin levels were significantly increased in the nucleus amygdala by lumber moxibusion and decreased in the nucleus accumbens by hindlimb moxibusion. The present results indicate that electroacupuncture applied to the lumbar and hindlimb segments has an antistress effect, while the application of moxibustion to the lumbar and hindlimb segments was likely to stimulate the functions of mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. We suggest that functional alterations in cerebral dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons are involved in the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture and moxibustion, especially because of their antistress and psychosomatic actions.
PMID: 14992288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The central serotonergic system mediates the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on ZUSANLI (ST36) acupoints.
J Biomed Sci. 2004 Mar-Apr;11(2):179-85
Authors: Chang FC, Tsai HY, Yu MC, Yi PL, Lin JG
Evidence in the past decade indicates that the mechanisms of anti-nociception of electroacupuncture (EAc) involve actions of neuropeptides (i.e., enkephalin and endorphin) and monoamines (i.e., serotonin and norepinephrine) in the central nervous system. Our present results using a subcutaneous injection of formalin to test pain sensation in mice provide further understanding of the involvement of serotonin in the actions of EAc-induced analgesia. Our observations show that (1) EAc at three different frequencies (2, 10 and 100 Hz) elicited an anti-nociceptive effect as determined by behavioral observations of reduced hindpaw licking; (2) exogenously intracerebroventricular administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) exhibited an analgesic effect, which partially mimicked the analgesic actions of EAc; (3) the anti-nociception of EAc at different frequencies was attenuated after reduced biosynthesis of serotonin by the administration of the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, P-chlorophenylalanine, and (4) the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, pindobind-5-HT(1A) and LY-278584, respectively, blocked three different frequencies of EAc-induced analgesic effects, but the anti-nociceptive effect of 100 Hz EAc was potentiated by the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist, ketanserin. These observations suggest that 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors partially mediate the analgesic effects of EAc, but that the 5-HT(2) receptor is conversely involved in the nociceptive response.
PMID: 14966368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002 Jun;35(6):731-9
Authors: Tabosa A, Yamamura Y, Forno ER, Mello LE
Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min). Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 +/- 7%) in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot) this activity compared to baseline (+44 +/- 7%). In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant) increases in myoelectric activity (+9 +/- 6%). Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects.
PMID: 12045840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Functional studies using antibodies against orphanin FQ/nociceptin.
Peptides. 2000 Jul;21(7):1047-50
Authors: Tian JH, Han JS
Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ) is a recently discovered endogenous ligand for the novel opioid receptor-like receptor (ORL-1). There are numerous reports in the literature demonstrating paradoxical effects of exogenous OFQ on pain modulation. For example, OFQ produces a pronociceptive effect in the brain and an analgesic effect in the spinal cord. In order to better understand the physiological actions of OFQ, the present study focused on the pain-modulatory effect of endogenously released OFQ measured using antibody microinjection techniques. We found that electroacupuncture analgesia (EA) was increased by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of an OFQ-antibody and decreased following intrathecal injection. Furthermore, i.c.v. OFQ-antibody partially reversed tolerance to both chronic morphine and chronic EA. These data suggest that endogenously released OFQ plays an important role in pain modulation, where pain sensitivity in the brain and spinal cord is increased and decreased, respectively.
PMID: 10998539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Reciprocal actions of acupoints on gastrointestinal peristalsis during electroacupuncture in mice.
J Tradit Chin Med. 1999 Jun;19(2):141-4
Authors: Xu F, Chen R
Orthogonal design was used to observe the gastrointestinal peristalsis in normal and atropine-treated mice after electroacupuncture was applied, singly or in combination, at Neiguan (P 6), Pishu (UB 20) and Zusanli (St 36). The results showed that: 1) electroacupuncture has no significant effect on the gastrointestinal peristalsis in normal mice; 2) Pishu (UB 20) was significantly antagonistic to Zusanli (St 36) in normal mice; 3) the decreased gastrointestinal peristalsis in atropine-treated mice was markedly promoted by electroacupuncture at Zusanli (St 36); and 4) Neiguan (P 6) was significantly antagonistic to Pishu (UB 20) in atropine-treated mice. The results indicated that the reciprocal actions among acupoints should be taken into consideration for point prescription.
PMID: 10681875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[The preventing and treating effects of electro-acupuncture on cholelithiasis in golden hamster].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 1996;21(4):68-72
Authors: Ma C, Yang W
In this study, the 38 golden hamsters, male and female each half, were divided into four groups: the control and control treating groups to feed normal foods; cholelithiasis model and model treating groups to feed special diet, which made high fat, high cholesterol and high carbohydrates to cause the cholelithiasis model of hamsters. After 30 day, the natural formation rate of gallstone rose to 50% (contral group), while model group, the formation rate was 100%. On the 30th day, the treatment was carried out. The control treating group and model treating group were acupunctured at Yanglingquan(G 34) and Qimen(Liv 14) through Riyue(G 24) on the right side of body respectively by electrotherapy. The period of treatment was total 7 days, once everyday and 10 min every once. The results showed: (1) In control treating group, the natural formation rate of gallstone of normal hamsters was dropped from 50% to 10%, the number of gall-tones was reduced markedly(P < 0.05) and number of huge gallstones was dropped to zero(P < 0.01). (2) In the cholelithiasis model treating group, the treatment of electrotherapy could significantly reduced the formation rate of cholelithiasis, the number of gallstones and the huge gall-stones(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Also, content of the cholesterol in plasma and bile were reduced, but the contents of the cholic acid secreted from the liver were obviously increased in the model hamsters. It was significant difference to compared with model group(P all < 0.05). (3) The electrotherapy increased the rhythmic actions and frequency of Oddi's sphincter electromyogram markedly(P < 0.05, P < 0.01) as well as secretion of hepatic bile(P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The effects of electrotherapy could continued 30 to 40 minutes. The results suggest that some points to acupuncture with electrotherapy can reduce the contents of cholesterol in plasma and bile, and increase the volumes of secretion of cholic acid, thus inhibit the crystallization of cholesterol from bile. At the sometime, the electrotherapy causes the rhythmic contractions of Oddi's sphincter and increase the secretion of bile, so the gallstones are discharged on its own initiative. Therefore the cholelithiasis is cured by acupuncture.
PMID: 9388323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Influence of electroacupuncture and capsaicin treatment on AChE activity and [3H]-QNB binding sites in the spinal dorsal horn].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 1996;21(2):47-51
Authors: Xu R, Guan X, Wang C
1.5% Capsaicin (Cap) or Vehicle was respectively used to treat the right or left sciatic nerve in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. On the seventh day, the 20 rats were at random divided into electroacupuncture (EA) group and non-EA group, the spinal cord corresponding to the afferent segments of sciatic nerve was taken out for observing the changes of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [3H]-quinuelidinylbenzylate (QNB) binding sites in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). The results were as follows: (1) EA "Huantiao" could enhance AChE activity in the SDH and decrease [3H]-QNB binding sites; (2) Cap treating sciatice nerve could weaken AChE activity in the SDH and merease [3H]-QNB binding sites; (3) Cap treatment could inhibit or partially inhibit the actions of EA as above. The results indicated that ACh participated in the primary afferent of acupuncture information and might exist in Cap-sensitive neurons.
PMID: 9387374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[The role of Ach in the central nerve system on pain modulation and analgesia].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 1993;18(1):1-5, 7
Authors: Xu G, Duanmu Z, Yin Q
This article reviews the main results in recent years of studies on the role of central Ach in pain modulation and analgesia, including: (1) cholinergically induced analgesia (CIA). Cholinomimetic drugs raised the pain threshold or inhibited the unit discharges of hypothalamus parafascicularis nuclens in rats, and these actions were revised by atropine not by nicotine. (2) Ach and acupuncture analgesia (AA). The effect of electroacupuncture was changed by administration of HC-3, atropine, etc. (3) Ach and stress analgesia (SA). Scopolamine reduced the hind foot shock induced analgesia, and this kind of SA was probably mediated by m-receptors existed at supraspinal, rather than spinal level. Swimming and immobilization analgesia were also related to Ach. These data suggested that the central cholinergic system is very important in pain modulation and analgesia and the central Ach is essential transmitter or modulator in this analgesic pathway. But the problem is whether the mechanism of CIA is involved in opiate analgesic system or not.
PMID: 8082273 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[The effect of puncture actions on the ocular hypertension caused by chronic stimulation of the hypothalamus and amygdaloid body].
Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1992 Dec;78(12):88-94
Authors: Danilov GE, Sterkhova VI, Gurfinkel' KhV, Egorkina SB
PMID: 1306760 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[The analgetic activity of antidepressants and their influence on the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture].
Farmakol Toksikol. 1991 May-Jun;54(3):12-4
Authors: Ignatov IuD, Vasil'ev IuN, Kolchin VV, Amelin AV, Li Ch Kh
The analgesic properties of new Soviet-made antidepressants pyrasidol, incazan, tetrindol as compared with amitriptyline and their influence on the analgesic effect of acupuncture were studied in experiments on rats by using the method of electrical stimulation of the tail root with stimuli of the increasing intensity. All the studied drugs at single and subchronic (6 days) administration possessed the analgesic actions. Pyrasidol exerted the most pronounced effect. The antidepressants enhanced the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture, in particular during activation of the points of general action and this effect showed up to the greatest degree under medication with pyrasidol.
PMID: 1915811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of chronoacupuncture na ja fa on gastric acid secretion, plasma gastrin and prostaglandin E1 in patients with peptic ulcer].
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Feb;11(2):91-3, 68-9
Authors: Cheng X, Yang JB
Observations on gastric acid secretion, plasma gastrin and prostaglandin E1 in patients with peptic ulcer disease were made after giving acupuncture with Na Ja Fa. The relationship between the chosen points and their effects was also discussed so as to provide more evidence to evaluate and practice the traditional chronoacupuncture more accurately. The results of this experiment were: (1) The gastric acid output of patients with peptic ulcer disease was decreased, while the plasma gastrin and prostaglandin E1 were increased after puncturing with Na Ja Fa. This reveals that the decrease of acid output was not caused by the change of plasma gastrin, however the plasma prostaglandin E1 may be involved in this process. (2) By using points on Stomach and Spleen meridians, there was a better inhibiting effect in acid output than treating the points of other meridians. This showed that using chronoacupuncture should include choosing points according to differentiation and only by laying stress on the relative specialization of the actions of these points one could expect improvement in efficiency. (3) There were no obvious differences between the standard opening points and the group of points which changed to opening points by Dr Shan Yu Tang. This proves that these two groups of points do have some similar functions and are both effective for clinical use.
PMID: 2060057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Synergism between metoclopramide and electroacupuncture analgesia.
Acupunct Electrother Res. 1983;8(3-4):283-8
Authors: Xu ZB, Pan YY, Xu SF, Mo WY, Cao XD, He LF
Animal experiments revealed that the activity of the cholinergic system in certain brain areas enhanced acupuncture analgesia (AA) while that of the dopaminergic system attenuated it. Metoclopramide, having antidopamine and anticholinesterase actions, was found to be synergic with AA both in the laboratory and in the clinics. Patients having taken metoclopramide reported better analgesic effect during thyroidectomy under acupuncture anesthesia. The results suggest that metoclopramide can be used as an adjuvant to improve AA.
PMID: 6145303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]