Molecular properties of a fermented manure preparation used as field spray in biodynamic agriculture.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012 Nov ;19(9):4214-25. Epub 2012 Jun 17. PMID: 22707205
R Spaccini, P Mazzei, A Squartini, M Giannattasio, A Piccolo
Manure products fermented underground in cow horns and commonly used as field spray (preparation 500) in the biodynamic farming system, were characterized for molecular composition by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance [(13) C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning NMR ((13) C-CPMAS-NMR)] spectroscopy and offline tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both thermochemolysis and NMR spectroscopy revealed a complex molecular structure, with lignin aromatic derivatives, polysaccharides, and alkyl compounds as the predominant components. CPMAS-NMR spectra of biodynamic preparations showed a carbon distribution with an overall low hydrophobic character and significant contribution of lignocellulosic derivatives. The results of thermochemolysis confirmed the characteristic highlighted by NMR spectroscopy, revealing a molecular composition based on alkyl components of plant and microbial origin and the stable incorporation of lignin derivatives. The presence of biolabile components and of undecomposed lignin compounds in the preparation 500 should be accounted to its particularly slow maturation process, as compared to common composting procedures. Our results provide, for the first time, a scientific characterization of an essential product in biodynamic agriculture, and show that biodynamic products appear to be enriched of biolabile components and, therefore, potentially conducive to plant growth stimulation.
Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2012
Soil microbiota respond to green manure in organic vineyards.
J Appl Microbiol. 2017 Oct 09;:
Authors: Longa CMO, Nicola L, Antonielli L, Mescalchin E, Zanzotti R, Turco E, Pertot I
AIMS: The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of biodynamic management with and without the addition of green manure, in comparison with organic management, on the microbiota in vineyards soil.
METHODS AND RESULTS: High throughput sequencing was used to compare the taxonomic structure of the soil bacterial and fungal communities from vineyards managed with different methods (organic, biodynamic or biodynamic with green manure). Our results showed that microbial communities associated with biodynamic and organic farming systems were very similar, while green manure was the greatest source of soil microbial biodiversity and significantly changed microbial richness and community composition compared to other soils. Green manure also significantly enriched bacterial taxa involved in the soil nitrogen cycle (e.g. Microvirga sp., Pontibacter sp. and Nitrospira sp.).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the diversity and composition of the microbial communities associated with biodynamic and organic farming systems were similar, indicating that the use of biodynamic preparations 500 and 501 did not cause any significant detectable changes to the soil microbial community in the short term, while the effects of green manure were significant in soil microbiota.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The microbiological richness and structure of soil is used as a sensitive indicator of soil quality. The extension of organic/biodynamic farming, associated with green manure application, could contribute to increase the abundance of functional groups of biological and agronomical relevance and maintaining microbial biodiversity in vineyard soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28990280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]