Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Caloric Restriction


Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.

Abstract Title: Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2015 ;10(10):e0140431. Epub 2015 Oct 16. PMID: 26473740 Abstract Author(s): Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan Franks, Nathalie Sumien, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Frank Filipetto, Michael Forster Article Affiliation: Marjana Rahman Sarker Abstract: Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR), a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i) a base diet (Ain93M) fed ad libitum (AL), (ii) the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR) or (iii) the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL). Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio), were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze) and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance). The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: binge eating and drug abuse.

Abstract Title: Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: binge eating and drug abuse. Abstract Source: Physiol Behav. 2011 Jul 25 ;104(1):162-7. Epub 2011 Apr 28. PMID: 21530562 Abstract Author(s): Kenneth D Carr Article Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Millhauser Laboratories, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: In the laboratory, food restriction has been shown to induce neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry which are likely to be among those that facilitate survival during periods of food scarcity in the wild. However, the upregulation of mechanisms that promote foraging and reward-related learning may pose a hazard when food restriction is self-imposed in an ecology of abundant appetitive rewards. For example, episodes of loss of control during weight-loss dieting, use of drugs with addictive potential as diet aids, and alternating fasting with alcohol consumption in order to avoid weight gain, may induce synaptic plasticity that increases the risk of enduring maladaptive reward-directed behavior. In the present mini-review, representative basic research findings are outlined which indicate that food restriction alters the function of mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons, potentiates cellular and behavioral responses to D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptor stimulation, and increases stimulus-induced synaptic insertion of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens. Possible mechanistic underpinnings of increased drug reward magnitude, drug-seeking, and binge intake of sucrose in food-restricted animal subjects are discussed and possible implications for human weight-loss dieting are considered. Article Published Date : Jul 25, 2011

Long-term intermittent feeding, but not caloric restriction, leads to redox imbalance, insulin receptor nitration, and glucose intolerance.

Abstract Title: Long-term intermittent feeding, but not caloric restriction, leads to redox imbalance, insulin receptor nitration, and glucose intolerance. Abstract Source: Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jul 21. Epub 2011 Jul 21. PMID: 21816219 Abstract Author(s): Fernanda M Cerqueira, Fernanda M da Cunha, Camille C Caldeira da Silva, Bruno Chausse, Renato L Romano, Camila C M Garcia, Pio Colepicolo, Marisa H G Medeiros, Alicia J Kowaltowski Abstract: Calorie restriction is a dietary intervention known to improve redox state, glucose tolerance, and animal life span. Other interventions have been adopted as study models for caloric restriction, including nonsupplemented food restriction and intermittent, every-other-day feedings. We compared the short- and long-term effects of these interventions to ad libitum protocols and found that, although all restricted diets decrease body weight, intermittent feeding did not decrease intra-abdominal adiposity. Short-term calorie restriction and intermittent feeding presented similar results relative to glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, long-term intermittent feeding promoted glucose intolerance, without a loss in insulin receptor phosphorylation. Intermittent feeding substantially increased insulin receptor nitration in both intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle, a modification associated with receptor inactivation. All restricted diets enhanced nitric oxide synthase levels in the insulin-responsive adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. However, whereas calorie restriction improved tissue redox state, food restriction and intermittent feedings did not. In fact, long-term intermittent feeding resulted in largely enhanced tissue release of oxidants. Overall, our results show that restricted diets are significantly different in their effects on glucose tolerance and redox state when adopted long-term. Furthermore, we show that intermittent feeding can lead to oxidative insulin receptor inactivation and glucose intolerance. Article Published Date : Jul 21, 2011

Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes.

Abstract Title: Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Diabet Med. 2011 May;28(5):549-59. PMID: 21480966 Abstract Author(s): H Kahleova, M Matoulek, H Malinska, O Oliyarnik, L Kazdova, T Neskudla, A Skoch, M Hajek, M Hill, M Kahle, T Pelikanova Article Affiliation: Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine Charles University, 1st Faculty of Medicine Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic. Abstract: Diabet. Med. 28, 549-559 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of calorie-restricted vegetarian and conventional diabetic diets alone and in combination with exercise on insulin resistance, visceral fat and oxidative stress markers in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Methods  A 24-week, randomized, open, parallel design was used. Seventy-four patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 37), which received a vegetarian diet, or the control group (n = 37), which received a conventional diabetic diet. Both diets were isocaloric, calorie restricted(-500 kcal/day). All meals during the study were provided. The second 12 weeks of the diet were combined with aerobic exercise. Participants were examined at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were: insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinaemic isoglycaemic clamp; volume of visceral and subcutaneous fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging; and oxidative stress measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Analyses were by intention to treat. Results  Forty-three per cent of participants in the experimental group and 5% of participants in the control groupreduced diabetes medication (P < 0.001). Body weight decreased more in the experimental group than in the control group [-6.2 kg (95% CI -6.6 to -5.3) vs. -3.2 kg (95% CI -3.7 to -2.5); interaction group × time P = 0.001]. An increase in insulin sensitivity was significantly greater in the experimental groupthan in the control group [30% (95% CI 24.5-39) vs. 20% (95% CI 14-25), P = 0.04]. A reduction in both visceral and subcutaneous fat was greater in the experimental group than in the control group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). Plasma adiponectin increased (P = 0.02) and leptin decreased (P = 0.02) in the experimental group, with no change in the control group. Vitamin C, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione increased in the experimental group (P = 0.002, P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Differences between groups were greater after the addition of exercise training. Changes in insulin sensitivity and enzymatic oxidative stress markers correlated with changes in visceral fat. Conclusions  A calorie-restricted vegetarian diet had greater capacity to improve insulin sensitivity compared with a conventional diabetic diet over 24 weeks. The greater loss of visceral fat and improvements in plasma concentrations of adipokines and oxidative stress markers with this diet may be responsible for the reduction of insulin resistance. The addition of exercise training further augmented the improved outcomes with the vegetarian diet. Article Published Date : May 01, 2011

Low calorie dieting increases cortisol.

Abstract Title: Low calorie dieting increases cortisol. Abstract Source: Psychosom Med. 2010 May;72(4):357-64. Epub 2010 Apr 5. PMID: 20368473 Abstract Author(s): A Janet Tomiyama, Traci Mann, Danielle Vinas, Jeffrey M Hunger, Jill Dejager, Shelley E Taylor Article Affiliation: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholars Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94118, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting--monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake--on psychological and biological stress indicators. METHODS: In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) x 2 (restricting vs. not) fully crossed, controlled experiment, 121 female participants were assigned randomly to one of four dietary interventions for 3 weeks. The monitoring + restricting condition tracked their caloric intake and restricted their caloric intake (1200 kcal/day); the monitoring only condition tracked their caloric intake but ate normally; the restricting only condition was provided 1200 kcal/day of food but did not track their calories, and the control group ate normally and did not track their intake. Before and after the interventions, participants completed measures of perceived stress and 2 days of diurnal saliva sampling to test for cortisol. RESULTS: Restricting calories increased the total output of cortisol, and monitoring calories increased perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning, and changes in clinical recommendations may be in order. Article Published Date : May 01, 2010
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Caloric Restriction

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Caloric restriction and IGF-I administration promote rabbit fecundity: Possible interrelationships and mechanisms of action.

Related Articles Caloric restriction and IGF-I administration promote rabbit fecundity: Possible interrelationships and mechanisms of action. Theriogenology. 2017 Mar 01;90:252-259 Authors: Sirotkin AV, Florkovičová IK, Švarcová OØ, Rafay J, Laurincik J, Harrath AH Abstract The aim of these in vivo and in vitro studies was to examine the influence of caloric restriction (CR), and the administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), on rabbit fecundity and to understand the interrelationships between CR and IGF-I, as well as the endocrine and intracellular mechanisms of their effects. Female rabbits were subjected to 50% CR, injections of IGF-I (20 μg/animal/day) and a combination of the two for 10 d before and 2 d after ovulation induced by 25 IU PMSG and 0.25 IU hCG. On the day of ovulation blood samples were collected and analyzed IGF-I, leptin, progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) concentrations by RIA. Some animals from each group were killed in their periovulatory period and weighed, as were their ovaries. Granulosa cells isolated from ovaries of does subjected or not to CR were cultured for 2 d with and without IGF-I (100 ng/mL). Accumulation of markers of cell proliferation (PCNA and cyclin B1), apoptosis (bax), MAP/ERK1,2 kinase (MAPK), protein kinase A (PKA) and IGF-I were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. In addition, E2 release by cells isolated from ovaries of animals subjected or not to CR and cultured with and without IGF-I (1, 10, 100, 1000 or 10000 ng/mL) was assessed by RIA. The remaining animals were kept until parturition, when the number of pups was recorded. CR did not affect animal and ovarian weight, but significantly increased the number of pups per litter and plasma levels of IGF-I and decreased plasma leptin and P4, but not E2 concentration. Injections of IGF-I did not influence body and ovarian weights, but increased the number of pups per litter and plasma IGF-I and leptin concentration and reduced plasma E2 but not P4 level. IGF-I administration did not modify the main effects of CR, although it prevented the CR-induced decrease in plasma P4 level. CR reduced accumulation of PCNA, bax, promoted accumulation of cyclin B1 but not of MAPK, PKA or IGF-I within ovarian granulosa cells. Addition of IGF-I to culture medium reduced accumulation of bax, MAPK, and IGF-I and promoted PKA accumulation and E2 release. CR promoted the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on E2 output. Thus, CR can increase rabbit fecundity, probably via changes in IGF-I, leptin and steroid hormones released, which in turn can affect ovarian cell cycle, apoptosis, and response to IGF-I. Furthermore, they demonstrate the stimulatory influence of IGF-I on rabbit fecundity, which was associated with changes in plasma leptin, E2 and ovarian cell apoptosis, PKA, MAPK, IGF-I and E2 release. The promotion of IGF-I output by CR and the ability of IGF-I to mimic/replace but not to modify CR effects on fecundity, plasma IGF-I, and ovarian cell apoptosis suggest that IGF can mediate the action of CR on these reproductive indexes. In contrast, differences in the action of CR and IGF-I on other hormones, ovarian cell proliferation, protein kinases and IGF-I suggest that CR action on these indexes is not mediated by IGF-I. We thus demonstrate that both CR and IGF-I administration can increase rabbit fecundity, and that their effects can be mediated by changes in reproductive hormones, ovarian cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the response of ovarian cells to IGF-I. PMID: 28166977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Optimization and pharmacological validation of a set-shifting procedure for assessing executive function in rats.

Related Articles Optimization and pharmacological validation of a set-shifting procedure for assessing executive function in rats. J Neurosci Methods. 2016 Aug 01;268:182-8 Authors: Troudet R, Detrait E, Hanon E, Lamberty Y Abstract BACKGROUND: Set-shifting tests represent a reliable paradigm to assess executive functions in humans and animals. In the rat, set-shifting in a cross-maze is a recognized method. In this test, rats must learn an egocentric rule to locate food reinforcement. Once acquired, a second rule, based on visual-cue strategy, allows the location of the food. Ability of rats to shift from the first to the second rule is considered to reflect cognitive flexibility. NEW METHOD: This study aimed at optimizing the most currently used set-shifting protocol in a cross-maze for standardized drug testing by modulating the parameters related to caloric restriction, reward preference, and by redefining the notion of turn bias and classification of errors sub-types, i.e. perseverative vs. regressive. The new protocol has then been used to assess rats treated by sub-chronic phencyclidine administration and investigate the potential reversal effect of tolcapone, a brain penetrant catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor. RESULTS: The new procedure resulted in a decreased total duration and a re-definition of turn bias and error subtypes. Despite preferences for sweet rewards, caloric restriction had to be maintained to motivate animals. Overall, sub-chronic PCP-treated rats made mostly perseverative errors compared to controls and required more trials to shift between the two rules. Tolcapone partly reversed impairments observed in PCP-treated rats. CONCLUSION: The new protocol has improved the reliability of key parameters and has contributed to the decrease of the test duration. PCP-treated rats submitted to this protocol have been shown to have significant deficits that could be reversed by tolcapone. PMID: 26296285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]