The Effects of Feedback Valence and Style on Need Satisfaction, Self-Talk, and Perseverance among Tennis Players: An Experimental Study.
J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2017 Mar 02;:1-38
Authors: De Muynck GJ, Vansteenkiste M, Delrue J, Aelterman N, Haerens L, Soenens B
Grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), this experimental study examined whether the valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and style (i.e., autonomy-supportive versus controlling) of normative feedback impacts the self-talk, motivational experiences (i.e. psychological need satisfaction and enjoyment) and behavioral functioning (i.e. perseverance, performance) of tennis players (N = 120; M(age) = 24.50 ± 9.86 years). Positive feedback and an autonomy-supportive style positively influenced players' enjoyment and perseverance, with psychological need satisfaction and self-talk playing an intervening role. While positive feedback yielded its beneficial effect via greater competence satisfaction and decreased negative self-talk, the beneficial impact of an autonomy-supportive communication style was explained via greater autonomy satisfaction.
PMID: 28253062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Do cognitive training strategies improve motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer players? Insights from a systematic review.
J Sports Sci. 2016 Dec;34(24):2338-2349
Authors: Slimani M, Bragazzi NL, Tod D, Dellal A, Hue O, Cheour F, Taylor L, Chamari K
Soccer players are required to have well-developed physical, technical and cognitive abilities. The present systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, examined the effects of cognitive training strategies on motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer performance and identified the potential moderators of the "cognitive training-soccer performance" relationship. Thirteen databases were systematically searched using keywords related to psychological or cognitive training in soccer players. The review is based on 18 studies, employing 584 soccer players aged 7-39 years. Cognitive strategies, particularly imagery, appear to improve sports performance in soccer players. Regarding imagery, the combination of two different types of cognitive imagery training (i.e., cognitive general and cognitive specific) has a positive influence on soccer performance during training, whereas motivational imagery (i.e., motivational general-arousal, motivational general-mastery and motivational specific) enhance competition performance. Younger soccer players employ cognitive general and cognitive specific imagery techniques to a greater extent than older soccer players. Combined cognitive training strategies were more beneficial than a single cognitive strategy relative to motor skills enhancement in elite (particularly midfielders) and amateur (i.e., when practising complex and specific soccer skills in precompetitive period) soccer players. In conclusion, it appears that there are differences in cognitive/psychological training interventions, and their efficacy, according to whether they are directed towards training or competition, and the age, standard and playing position of the players.
PMID: 27842463 [PubMed - in process]
Mechanisms of change in self-care in adults with heart failure receiving a tailored, motivational interviewing intervention.
Patient Educ Couns. 2017 Feb;100(2):283-288
Authors: Riegel B, Dickson VV, Garcia LE, Masterson Creber R, Streur M
Self-care is challenging but we previously demonstrated that motivational interviewing (MI) was effective in improving heart failure (HF) self-care.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the mechanisms of intervention effectiveness by elucidating the MI techniques used and the relationship between the techniques and changes in self-care.
METHODS: Audiotaped sessions (first and subsequent sessions) from 8 participants were transcribed verbatim and coded to evaluate changes in self-care. Using a sequential mixed method design, quantitative and qualitative self-care data were triangulated; congruence was 97%. The MI techniques used and mechanisms of intervention effectiveness were identified from the qualitative data.
RESULTS: Three MI techniques used were related to improved self-care: 1) reflection and reframing, 2) genuine empathy, affirmation, and humor, and 2) individualized problem solving. These techniques stimulated openness to goal setting, positive self-talk, perceived ability to overcome barriers, and change talk. The mechanisms by which the techniques achieved the desired outcomes were the development of discrepancy and self-efficacy, which are consistent with the principles of MI.
CONCLUSION: This study contributes to clarifying the mechanism by which MI facilitates behavioral change.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Using MI to discuss self-care can help to overcome barriers and engage HF patients in goal setting for behavior change.
PMID: 27599712 [PubMed - in process]
Effects of Motivational Self-Talk on Endurance and Cognitive Performance in the Heat.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Jan;49(1):191-199
Authors: Wallace PJ, McKinlay BJ, Coletta NA, Vlaar JI, Taber MJ, Wilson PM, Cheung SS
PURPOSE: We tested the effectiveness of a 2-wk motivational self-talk (MST) intervention-specific to heat tolerance-on endurance capacity and cognitive function in the heat.
METHODS: Eighteen trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 4) cyclists randomly received 2 wk of MST training (n = 9) or a control regimen (CON, n = 9). The experimental protocol was a PRE/POST design consisting of 30 min of cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO) in the heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity, ~3.0 m·s airflow), a 30-min rest period, followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test at 80% PPO, and an identical rest period. Executive function, reaction time, and working memory were tested at baseline and each rest period. Key measures included TTE, speed and accuracy on the cognitive tests, rectal temperature, HR, oxygen consumption, and RPE.
RESULTS: Group (MST vs CON) × test (PRE vs POST) × time repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that MST significantly increased TTE from PRE (487 ± 173 s) to POST (679 ± 251 s, P = 0.021) concurrent with a higher terminating rectal temperature (PRE, 38.5°C ± 0.2°C; POST, 38.8°C ± 0.4°C; P = 0.023); no TTE (PRE, 531 ± 178 s; POST, 510 ± 216 s; P = 0.28) or rectal temperature (PRE, 38.4°C ± 0.3°C; POST, 38.4°C ± 0.2°C; P = 1.000) changes were found in CON. MST significantly improved both speed and accuracy for executive function from PRE/POST, with no PRE/POST differences for CON on any cognitive measure. There were no interactions (all P > 0.05) for other key measures.
CONCLUSION: Motivational self-talk is effective in altering the internal psychophysiological control of exercise and plays a role in improving endurance capacity and executive function in the heat.
PMID: 27580154 [PubMed - in process]
A novel application in the study of client language: Alcohol and marijuana-related statements in substance-using adolescents during a simulation task.
Psychol Addict Behav. 2016 09;30(6):672-9
Authors: Ladd BO, Garcia TA, Anderson KG
The current study explored whether laboratory-based techniques can provide a strategy for studying client language as a mechanism of behavior change. Specifically, this study examined the potential of a simulation task to elicit healthy talk, or self-motivational statements in favor of healthy behavior, related to marijuana and alcohol use. Participants (N = 84) were adolescents reporting at least 10 lifetime substance use episodes recruited from various community settings in an urban Pacific Northwest setting. Participants completed the Adolescent Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation (A-SIDE), a validated paradigm for assessing substance use decision making in peer contexts. Participants responded to 4 types of offers in the A-SIDE: (a) marijuana, (b) food (marijuana control), (c) alcohol, and (d) soda (alcohol control). Using a validated coding scheme adapted for the current study, client language during a structured interview assessing participants' response to the simulated offers was evaluated. Associations between percent healthy talk (PHT, calculated by dividing the number of healthy statements by the sum of all substance-related statements) and cross-sectional outcomes of interest (previous substance use, substance use expectancies, and behavioral willingness) were explored. The frequency of substance-related statements differed in response to offer type; rate of PHT did not. PHT was associated with behavioral willingness to accept the offer. However, PHT was not associated with decontextualized measures of substance use. Associations between PHT and global expectancies were limited. Simulation methods may be useful in investigating the impact of context on self-talk and to systematically explore client language as a mechanism of change. (PsycINFO Database Record
PMID: 27454368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Enhancing Self-Efficacy and Performance: An Experimental Comparison of Psychological Techniques.
Res Q Exerc Sport. 2016;87(1):36-46
Authors: Wright BJ, O'Halloran PD, Stukas AA
PURPOSE: We assessed how 6 psychological performance enhancement techniques (PETs) differentially improved self-efficacy (SE) and skill performance. We also assessed whether vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion as posited sources of SE (Bandura, 1982 ) were supported and, further, if the effects of the 6 PETs remained after controlling for achievement motivation traits and self-esteem.
METHOD: A within-subject design assessed each individual across 2 trials for 3 disparate PETs. A between-groups design assessed differences between PETs paired against each other for 3 similar novel tasks. Participants (N = 96) performed 2 trials of 10 attempts at each of the tasks (kick, throw, golf putt) in a counterbalanced sequence using their nondominant limb. Participants completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Self-Efficacy Scale and were randomly allocated to either the modeling or imagery, goal-setting or instructional self-statement, or knowledge-of-results or motivational feedback conditions aligned with each task.
RESULTS: An instructional self-statement improved performance better than imagery, modeling, goal setting, and motivational and knowledge-of-results augmented feedback. Motivational auditory feedback most improved SE. Increased SE change scores were related to increased performance difference scores on all tasks after controlling for age, sex, achievement motivation, and self-esteem.
CONCLUSIONS: Some sources of SE may be more influential than others on both SE and performance improvements. We provide partial support for the sources of SE proposed by Bandura's social-cognitive theory with verbal persuasion but not vicarious experiences improving SE.
PMID: 26523398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A Systematic Review of the Effect of Cognitive Strategies on Strength Performance.
Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45(11):1589-602
Authors: Tod D, Edwards C, McGuigan M, Lovell G
BACKGROUND: Researchers have tested the beliefs of sportspeople and sports medicine specialists that cognitive strategies influence strength performance. Few investigators have synthesised the literature.
OBJECTIVES: The specific objectives were to review evidence regarding (a) the cognitive strategy-strength performance relationship; (b) participant skill level as a moderator; and (c) cognitive, motivational, biomechanical/physiological, and emotional mediators.
METHOD: Studies were sourced via electronic databases, reference lists of retrieved articles, and manual searches of relevant journals. Studies had to be randomised or counterbalanced experiments with a control group or condition, repeated measures, and a quality control score above 0.5 (out of 1). Cognitive strategies included goal setting, imagery, self-talk, preparatory arousal, and free choice. Dependent variables included maximal strength, local muscular endurance, or muscular power.
RESULTS: Globally, cognitive strategies were reliability associated with increased strength performance (results ranged from 61 to 65 %). Results were mixed when examining the effects of specific strategies on particular dependent variables, although no intervention had an overall negative influence. Indeterminate relationships emerged regarding hypothesised mediators (except cognitive variables) and participant skill level as a moderator.
CONCLUSIONS: Although cognitive strategies influence strength performance, there are knowledge gaps regarding specific types of strength, especially muscular power. Cognitive variables, such as concentration, show promise as possible mediators.
PMID: 26378003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study.
Front Psychol. 2015;6:517
Authors: Alderson-Day B, Fernyhough C
Inner speech is often reported to be a common and central part of inner experience, but its true prevalence is unclear. Many questionnaire-based measures appear to lack convergent validity and it has been claimed that they overestimate inner speech in comparison to experience sampling methods (which involve collecting data at random timepoints). The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-made smartphone app (Inner Life). Fifty-one university students completed a generalized self-report measure of inner speech (the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire, VISQ) and responded to at least seven random alerts to report on incidences of inner speech over a 2-week period. Correlations and pairwise comparisons were used to compare generalized endorsements and randomly sampled scores for each VISQ subscale. Significant correlations were observed between general and randomly sampled measures for only two of the four VISQ subscales, and endorsements of inner speech with evaluative or motivational characteristics did not correlate at all across different measures. Endorsement of inner speech items was significantly lower for random sampling compared to generalized self-report, for all VISQ subscales. Exploratory analysis indicated that specific inner speech characteristics were also related to anxiety and future-oriented thinking.
PMID: 25964773 [PubMed]
Apps to promote physical activity among adults: a review and content analysis.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014 Jul 25;11:97
Authors: Middelweerd A, Mollee JS, van der Wal CN, Brug J, Te Velde SJ
BACKGROUND: In May 2013, the iTunes and Google Play stores contained 23,490 and 17,756 smartphone applications (apps) categorized as Health and Fitness, respectively. The quality of these apps, in terms of applying established health behavior change techniques, remains unclear.
METHODS: The study sample was identified through systematic searches in iTunes and Google Play. Search terms were based on Boolean logic and included AND combinations for physical activity, healthy lifestyle, exercise, fitness, coach, assistant, motivation, and support. Sixty-four apps were downloaded, reviewed, and rated based on the taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in the interventions. Mean and ranges were calculated for the number of observed behavior change techniques. Using nonparametric tests, we compared the number of techniques observed in free and paid apps and in iTunes and Google Play.
RESULTS: On average, the reviewed apps included 5 behavior change techniques (range 2-8). Techniques such as self-monitoring, providing feedback on performance, and goal-setting were used most frequently, whereas some techniques such as motivational interviewing, stress management, relapse prevention, self-talk, role models, and prompted barrier identification were not. No differences in the number of behavior change techniques between free and paid apps, or between the app stores were found.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that apps promoting physical activity applied an average of 5 out of 23 possible behavior change techniques. This number was not different for paid and free apps or between app stores. The most frequently used behavior change techniques in apps were similar to those most frequently used in other types of physical activity promotion interventions.
PMID: 25059981 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Improvement of 10-km time-trial cycling with motivational self-talk compared with neutral self-talk.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015 Mar;10(2):166-71
Authors: Barwood MJ, Corbett J, Wagstaff CR, McVeigh D, Thelwell RC
PURPOSE: Unpleasant physical sensations during maximal exercise may manifest themselves as negative cognitions that impair performance, alter pacing, and are linked to increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE). This study examined whether motivational self-talk (M-ST) could reduce RPE and change pacing strategy, thereby enhancing 10-km time-trial (TT) cycling performance in contrast to neutral self-talk (N-ST).
METHODS: Fourteen men undertook 4 TTs, TT1-TT4. After TT2, participants were matched into groups based on TT2 completion time and underwent M-ST (n=7) or N-ST (n=7) after TT3. Performance, power output, RPE, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were compared across 1-km segments using ANOVA. Confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for performance data.
RESULTS: After TT3 (ie, before intervention), completion times were not different between groups (M-ST, 1120±113 s; N-ST, 1150±110 s). After M-ST, TT4 completion time was faster (1078±96 s); the N-ST remained similar (1165±111 s). The M-ST group achieved this through a higher power output and VO2 in TT4 (6th-10th km). RPE was unchanged. CI data indicated the likely true performance effect lay between 13- and 71-s improvement (TT4 vs TT3).
CONCLUSION: M-ST improved endurance performance and enabled a higher power output, whereas N-ST induced no change. The VO2 response matched the increase in power output, yet RPE was unchanged, thereby inferring a perceptual benefit through M-ST. The valence and content of self-talk are important determinants of the efficacy of this intervention. These findings are primarily discussed in the context of the psychobiological model of pacing.
PMID: 25010539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Talking yourself out of exhaustion: the effects of self-talk on endurance performance.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(5):998-1007
Authors: Blanchfield AW, Hardy J, De Morree HM, Staiano W, Marcora SM
PURPOSE: The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that the perception of effort is the ultimate determinant of endurance performance. Therefore, any physiological or psychological factor affecting the perception of effort will affect endurance performance. Accordingly, this novel study investigated the effects of a frequently used psychological strategy, motivational self-talk (ST), on RPE and endurance performance.
METHODS: In a randomized between-group pretest-posttest design, 24 participants (mean ± SD age = 24.6 ± 7.5 yr, VO2max = 52.3 ± 8.7 mL·kg·min) performed two constant-load (80% peak power output) cycling time-to-exhaustion (TTE) tests, punctuated by a 2-wk ST intervention or a control phase.
RESULTS: A group (ST vs Control) × test (pretest vs posttest) mixed-model ANOVA revealed that ST significantly enhanced TTE test from pretest to posttest (637 ± 210 vs 750 ± 295 s, P < 0.05) with no change in the control group (486 ± 157 vs 474 ± 169 s). Moreover, a group × test × isotime (0%, 50%, and 100%) mixed-model ANOVA revealed a significant interaction for RPE, with follow-up tests showing that motivational self-talk significantly reduced RPE at 50% isotime (7.3 ± 0.6 vs 6.4 ± 0.8, P < 0.05), with no significant difference in the control group (6.9 ± 1.9 vs 7.0 ± 1.7).
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to demonstrate that ST significantly reduces RPE and enhances endurance performance. The findings support the psychobiological model of endurance performance and illustrate that psychobiological interventions designed to specifically target favorable changes in the perception of effort are beneficial to endurance performance. Consequently, this psychobiological model offers an important and novel perspective for future research investigations.
PMID: 24121242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of self-talk: a systematic review.
J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2011 Oct;33(5):666-87
Authors: Tod D, Hardy J, Oliver E
This article presents a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between self-talk and performance. "Second-generation questions" regarding potential mediators and moderators of the self-talk-performance relationship were also examined. A total of 47 studies were analyzed. Results indicated beneficial effects of positive, instructional, and motivational self-talk for performance. Somewhat surprisingly, two evidence-based challenges to popular current viewpoints on self-talk emerged. First, negative self-talk did not impede performance. Second, there was inconsistent evidence for the differential effects of instructional and motivational self-talk based on task characteristics. Results from the mediation-based analysis indicate that cognitive and behavioral factors had the most consistent relationships with self-talk. The findings are discussed in the context of recent theoretical advances, and the article includes recommendations for future research (e.g., the use of designs allowing the testing of meditational hypotheses) and for current applied practice (e.g., avoiding the use of thought-stopping techniques).
PMID: 21984641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Maternal obesity support services: a qualitative study of the perspectives of women and midwives.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011 Oct 08;11:69
Authors: Furness PJ, McSeveny K, Arden MA, Garland C, Dearden AM, Soltani H
BACKGROUND: Twenty percent of pregnant women in the UK are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), reflecting the growing public health challenge of obesity in the 21st century. Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and birth and has significant cost implications for maternity services. Gestational weight management strategies are a high priority; however the evidence for effective, feasible and acceptable weight control interventions is limited and inconclusive. This qualitative study explored the experiences and perceptions of pregnant women and midwives regarding existing support for weight management in pregnancy and their ideas for service development.
METHODS: A purposive sample of 6 women and 7 midwives from Doncaster, UK, participated in two separate focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically.
RESULTS: Two overarching themes were identified, 'Explanations for obesity and weight management' and 'Best care for pregnant women'. 'Explanations' included a lack of knowledge about weight, diet and exercise during pregnancy; self-talk messages which excused overeating; difficulties maintaining motivation for a healthy lifestyle; the importance of social support; stigmatisation; and sensitivity surrounding communication about obesity between midwives and their clients. 'Best care' suggested that weight management required care which was consistent and continuous, supportive and non-judgemental, and which created opportunities for interaction and mutual support between obese pregnant women.
CONCLUSIONS: Women need unambiguous advice regarding healthy lifestyles, diet and exercise in pregnancy to address a lack of knowledge and a tendency towards unhelpful self-talk messages. Midwives expressed difficulties in communicating with their clients about their weight, given awareness that obesity is a sensitive and potentially stigmatising issue. This indicates more could be done to educate and support them in their work with obese pregnant women. Motivation and social support were strong explanatory themes for obesity and weight management, suggesting that interventions should focus on motivational strategies and social support facilitation.
PMID: 21982306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Self-Talk and Sports Performance: A Meta-Analysis.
Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011 Jul;6(4):348-56
Authors: Hatzigeorgiadis A, Zourbanos N, Galanis E, Theodorakis Y
Based on the premise that what people think influences their actions, self-talk strategies have been developed to direct and facilitate human performance. In this article, we present a meta-analytic review of the effects of self-talk interventions on task performance in sport and possible factors that may moderate the effectiveness of self-talk. A total of 32 studies yielding 62 effect sizes were included in the final meta-analytic pool. The analysis revealed a positive moderate effect size (ES = .48). The moderator analyses showed that self-talk interventions were more effective for tasks involving relatively fine, compared with relatively gross, motor demands, and for novel, compared with well-learned, tasks. Instructional self-talk was more effective for fine tasks than was motivational self-talk; moreover, instructional self-talk was more effective for fine tasks rather than gross tasks. Finally, interventions including self-talk training were more effective than those not including self-talk training. The results of this study establish the effectiveness of self-talk in sport, encourage the use of self-talk as a strategy to facilitate learning and enhance performance, and provide new research directions.
PMID: 26167788 [PubMed]
Physical activity and individuals with spinal cord injury: accuracy and quality of information on the Internet.
Disabil Health J. 2011 Apr;4(2):112-20
Authors: Jetha A, Faulkner G, Gorczynski P, Arbour-Nicitopoulos K, Martin Ginis KA
BACKGROUND: A number of websites on the Internet promote health-enhancing behaviors among people with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the information available is of unknown accuracy and quality.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy, quality, and targeting strategies used in online physical activity (PA) information aimed at people with SCI.
METHODS: A purposive sample of 30 frequently accessed websites for individuals with SCI that included PA information was examined. Websites were evaluated based on their descriptive characteristics, level of accuracy in relation to newly defined PA recommendations for people with SCI, technical and theoretical quality (i.e., use of behavioral theories) characteristics, and targeting strategies to promote PA among people with SCI. Descriptive statistics were utilized to illustrate the results of the evaluation.
RESULTS: PA information was easily accessible, as rated by the number of clicks required to access information. Only 6 websites (20%) provided specific PA recommendations and these websites exhibited low accuracy. Technically, websites were of high quality with a mean score of 4.1 of a possible 6 points. In contrast, websites had a low level of theoretical quality, with 23 of the 30 websites (77%) scoring below 9 of a possible 14 points (i.e., 64% of a perfect score) for theoretical content. A majority of websites evaluated did not use cognitive (e.g., self-efficacy, self-talk, and perceived social norms) and behavioral (e.g., self-monitoring, motivational readiness, and realistic goal-setting) strategies in their messages. A majority (80%) of the evaluated websites customized information for persons with different injury levels and completeness. Less than half of the websites evaluated tailored PA information toward people at different stages of their injury rehabilitation (37%) or for their caregivers (30%).
CONCLUSION: Accuracy and theoretical quality of PA information presented to people with SCI on the Internet may not be optimal. Websites should be improved to incorporate accepted PA recommendations and behavioral theory to better deliver health messages about PA.
PMID: 21419374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on the vertical jump.
J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):196-202
Authors: Tod DA, Thatcher R, McGuigan M, Thatcher J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on performance and the kinematics of the vertical jump. After completing a 10-minute warm-up on a stationary bike, 12 men (mean +/- SD; 20.8+/- 3.0 years, 77.8 +/- 13.5 kg, 1.78 +/- 0.07 m) and 12 women (22.1 +/- 5.8 years, 62.6 +/- 6.7 kg, 1.65 +/- 0.05 m) performed 4 vertical jumps, 3 minutes apart, on a force plate set at a 1000-Hz sampling frequency. Before each trial, participants engaged in 1 of 4 counterbalanced interventions, verbalized out loud, which included motivational self-talk, instructional self-talk, neutral self-talk, or no instruction. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment, were used to analyze data. Both instructional (0.415 m) and motivational (0.414 m) self-talk led to greater center-of-mass displacement than neutral self-talk (0.403 m, p = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively, alpha set at 0.008). Both instructional (263.9 N x s) and motivational self-talk (261.2 N x s) led to greater impulse than neutral self-talk (254.1 N x s, p = 0.005 and 0.004, respectively, alpha set at 0.025). Both instructional self-talk (582.6 degrees x s-1) and motivational self-talk (592.3 degrees x s-1) led to quicker angular rotation about the knee than neutral self-talk (565.8 degrees x s-1, p = 0.001 and 0.018, respectively, alpha set at 0.025). These results may indicate that self-talk leads to greater angular velocity about the knee, thus generating greater impulse and increased jump height-a conjecture that needs empirical testing. Self-talk may contribute to improved performance in sports requiring power-based skills.
PMID: 19130644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Self-talk influences vertical jump performance and kinematics in male rugby union players.
J Sports Sci. 2008 Nov;26(13):1459-65
Authors: Edwards C, Tod D, McGuigan M
We examined the effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on centre of mass displacement and hip kinematics during the vertical jump. Twenty-four male rugby union players (age 21.1 years, s = 3.5; body mass 81.0 kg, s = 8.9; height 1.80 m, s = 0.06) performed three vertical jump tests, with a 2 min rest between jumps. Before each jump, participants engaged in one of three counterbalanced interventions (motivational self-talk, instructional self-talk or no-intervention). Motivational self-talk led to greater centre of mass displacement (0.602 m, s = 0.076; P = 0.012) than the no-intervention control (0.583 m, s = 0.085). Centre of mass displacement did not differ between instructional self-talk and the control condition or between motivational and instructional self-talk. Motivational (100.75 degrees , s = 16.05; P = 0.001) and instructional self-talk (106.14 degrees , s = 17.04; P = 0.001) led to greater hip displacement than the no-intervention control (94.11 degrees , s = 17.14). There was also a significant difference in hip displacement between motivational and instructional self-talk (P = 0.014), although there was no difference between instructional self-talk and the control condition. Motivational (451.69 degrees /s, s = 74.34; P = 0.008) and instructional self-talk (462.01 degrees /s, s = 74.37; P = 0.001) led to greater hip rotation velocity than the no-intervention control (434.37 degrees /s, s = 75.37), although there was no difference between the two self-talk interventions. These results indicate that self-talk may influence performance and technique during the vertical jump in male rugby players.
PMID: 18923954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The role of self-talk in the awareness of physiological state and physical performance.
Sports Med. 2007;37(12):1029-44
Authors: St Clair Gibson A, Foster C
Different studies have suggested that the majority of self-talk during exercise is either positive or neutral in character. The majority of 'thoughts' during low-intensity exercise have been described as being dissociative conversational chatter. However, with increasing exercise intensity, there is a greater percentage of associative and motivational thoughts, which includes thoughts about feeling and affect, body monitoring, command, instruction and pace monitoring. It has been suggested that self-talk is necessary for creating a time 'wedge' between the activity described by the self-talk, and the self-talk itself. The information redundancy created by this time-wedge allows the capacity for reflection about what is occurring, and self-awareness of the part played by the individual themselves in the activity being performed. Self-talk may be a discussion between a singular 'I' and a singular 'me', or may be a multi-party dialogue. There are anatomical correlates to self-talk, with neural activity in a number of brain areas related to the occurrence of both overt and subvocal self-talk, particularly in Broca's region in the left frontal cortex, and Wernicke's region in the left posterior superior temporal cortex. Whether specific training of self-talk can improve performance is controversial, although recent studies have suggested that task-specific self-talk appears to have a beneficial effect on physical performance. Further studies are required to assess the ability of physical or mental training to modify self-talk in a beneficial and permanent manner, and whether these changes affect an individual's exercise performance and sense of self.
PMID: 18027992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Coaching behaviors associated with changes in fear of failure: changes in self-talk and need satisfaction as potential mechanisms.
J Pers. 2007 Apr;75(2):383-419
Authors: Conroy DE, Coatsworth JD
Cognitive-interpersonal and motivational mechanisms may regulate relations between youth perceptions of interpersonal aspects of the social ecology and their fear-of-failure (FF) levels. Youth (N=165) registered for a summer swim league rated their fear of failure at the beginning, middle, and end of the season. Extensive model comparisons indicated that youths' end-of-season ratings of coach behaviors could be reduced to three factors (affiliation, control, blame). Perceived control and blame from coaches predicted residualized change in corresponding aspects of youths' self-talk, but only changes in self-blame positively predicted changes in FF levels during the season. Perceived affiliation from coaches predicted autonomy need satisfaction which, in turn, negatively predicted the rate of change in FF levels during the season. These findings indicate that (a) youth perceptions of coaches were directly and indirectly related to acute socialization of FF and (b) both cognitive-interpersonal and motivational mechanisms contributed to this socialization process. Further research is needed to test for developmental differences in these mechanisms to determine whether findings generalize to more heterogeneous and at-risk populations and to investigate other potential social-ecological influences on socialization.
PMID: 17359243 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Exploring self-talk and affective states in sport.
J Sports Sci. 2001 Jul;19(7):469-75
Authors: Hardy J, Hall CR, Alexander MR
In this study, we examined (1) the relationship between self-talk and affect and (2) the nature of motivating self-talk. Ninety high-school athletes completed the Affect Grid and the Self-Talk Grid before practice and competition. Significant positive second-order partial correlations of low to moderate strength offered support for a relationship between self-talk and affect. In addition, significant positive second-order partial correlations of moderate strength were found for a relationship between negative-positive self-talk and demotivating-motivating self-talk. An examination of scatter plots indicated that some athletes rated their self-talk as negative as well as being motivational. These findings lend support to the suggestion that negative self-talk may motivate some athletes.
PMID: 11461050 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]