Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low Glycemic Diet


Mediterranean diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular mechanisms of protection.

Abstract Title: Mediterranean diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular mechanisms of protection. Abstract Source: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Aug 2:1-10. Epub 2016 Aug 2. PMID: 27484357 Abstract Author(s): Justyna Godos, Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Francesca Scazzina Article Affiliation: Justyna Godos Abstract: Nutritional habits modifications have shown an important impact in preventing and ameliorating metabolic alterations, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among several dietary approaches that exert positive effects in NAFLD patients, the Mediterranean dietary pattern has shown notable benefits. This review explores the molecular mechanisms through which the Mediterranean diet would improve risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. The main features of the Mediterranean diet acting on metabolism are represented by its whole-grain and low glycemic index cereal-based items, its fatty acid profile, and its content in phytochemical compounds. Carbohydrate-rich foods high in dietary fiber inducing low glycemic response are able to interact with glucose and insulin metabolism. Unsaturated fatty acids are associated with better hepatic lipid metabolism. Finally, phytochemical compounds, such as dietary polyphenols, are thought to ameliorate inflammation, which is considered one of the mechanisms through which NALFD may evolve into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2016

Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer.

Abstract Title: Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer. Abstract Source: Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jun ;111(6):891-6. Epub 2016 Mar 29. PMID: 27021191 Abstract Author(s): Susanna C Larsson, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk Article Affiliation: Susanna C Larsson Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. METHODS: We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997. Incident cancer cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years (1,010,777 person-years), we identified 140 extrahepatic BTC cases (including 77 gallbladder cancers) and 23 intrahepatic BTC cases. A high dietary GL was associated with an increased risk of BTC. The multivariable relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of dietary GL were 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-2.63) for extrahepatic BTC, 2.14 (95% CI, 1.06-4.33) for gallbladder cancer, and 3.46 (95% CI, 1.22-9.84) for intrahepatic BTC. Dietary GI was statistically significantly positively associated with risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between carbohydrate intake and BTC risk, although all associations were positive. CONCLUSION: Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that high-GL and high-GI diets are associated with an increased risk of BTC. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016

Effect of a low glycemic load on body composition and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) in overweight and obese subjects.

Abstract Title: Effect of a low glycemic load on body composition and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) in overweight and obese subjects. Abstract Source: Nutr Hosp. 2011 Feb;26(1):170-175. PMID: 21519744 Abstract Author(s): A L Armendáriz-Anguiano, A Jiménez-Cruz, M Bacardí-Gascón, L Hurtado-Ayala Article Affiliation: Medicine and Psychology School, Universidad Auntónoma de Baja California, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different glycemic load diets on biochemical data and body composition, in overweight and obese subjects, during a 6-month period. Research design and methods: This study was an experimental, randomized, parallel design. Anthropo-metric measurements and biochemical data were measured at baseline at 3 and at 6 months. All subjects completed 3-day dietary intake diaries at the baseline period and during the third and the sixth months. At the sixth month, LGL group had a mean intake of 1,360± 300 kcal/day and the high glycemic load group (HGL) had a mean intake of 1,544 ± 595 kcal/day. Results: LGL group obtained a weight reduction of 4.5% (p = 0.006) and the HGL group of 3.0% (p = 0.18). Significant reductions in waist circumference (5%, p = 0.001) of the LGL group were observed, 10% of body fat percentage (p = 0.001), 4.3 kg (13%) of body fat (p = 0.001), 14% of total cholesterol (p=0.007), 35% of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (p = 0.001), and 10% of HOMA (p = 0.009). In the HGL group, reductions of 4.5% of waist circumference (p = 0.02), 37% of HDL (p = 0.002), and an increase of 8 % of LDL (p = 0.04) were observed. Conclusions: These results suggest that long term LGL diets are more effective for reducing body mass index, body fat, waist circumference and HOMA and, therefore, may contribute in the prevention of diabetes. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2011

Improvement of dietary quality with the aid of a low glycemic index diet in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract Title: Improvement of dietary quality with the aid of a low glycemic index diet in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Abstract Source: J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3):161-70. PMID: 20833988 Abstract Author(s): Mohd Yusof Barakatun Nisak, Abd Talib Ruzita, A Karim Norimah, Heather Gilbertson, Kamaruddin Nor Azmi Article Affiliation: Department of Nutrition&Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine&Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of low glycemic index (GI) dietary advice on eating patterns and dietary quality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Asian patients with T2DM (N =  104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietaryintake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record. RESULTS: At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.1 ± 0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM. Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2010

Effect of two carbohydrate-modified tube-feeding formulas on metabolic responses in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Abstract Title: Effect of two carbohydrate-modified tube-feeding formulas on metabolic responses in patients with type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Nutrition. 2008 Oct;24(10):990-7. Epub 2008 Aug 21. PMID: 18718737 Abstract Author(s): Anne Coble Voss, Kevin C Maki, W Timothy Garvey, Deborah S Hustead, Carolyn Alish, Brenda Fix, Vikkie A Mustad Article Affiliation: Abbott Nutrition, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the glycemic, insulinemic, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus to consumption of two diabetes-specific tube-feeding formulas (slowly digested carbohydrate formula [SDC] and diabetes-specific formula [DSF]) and one formula intended for individuals without diabetes (standard formula [STND]). METHODS: Forty-eight subjects controlled with diet and/or oral antihyperglycemic medications received the SDC, DSF, and STND. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 were measured on three occasions after an overnight fast in a double-blinded, randomized, three-treatment, crossover design. RESULTS: The positive area under the curve for glucose and insulin with the STND was higher (P<0.001) compared with the SDC and DSF. The adjusted GLP-1 concentration at 60 min was higher for the SDC compared with the DSF and STND (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Both lower-carbohydrate diabetes-specific formulas resulted in a lower postprandial blood glucose response compared with the STND. The formula also rich in slowly digested carbohydrate and monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids (SDC) produced significantly lower blood glucose and insulin responses and higher levels of GLP-1 in the presence of significantly lower insulin concentrations. These results support the view that the quantity and quality of carbohydrate and fat may play important roles in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and could result in improved beta-cell function over the long term. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2008
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Glycemic Diet

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Effects of Exercise and Diet in Nonobese Asthma Patients-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Related Articles Effects of Exercise and Diet in Nonobese Asthma Patients-A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Nov 10;: Authors: Toennesen LL, Meteran H, Hostrup M, Wium Geiker NR, Jensen CB, Porsbjerg C, Astrup A, Bangsbo J, Parker D, Backer V Abstract BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma. METHODS: Nonobese adult patients with asthma (n = 149) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: an exercise group, a diet group, an exercise + diet group, or a control group. Outcomes included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score, asthma-related quality-of-life (Asthma-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [AQLQ]) score, inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum, FEV1, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). RESULTS: A total of 125 patients completed the study and were included in the data analysis. Patients in the exercise + diet group improved the ACQ score from 1.9 ± 0.7 to 1.0 ± 0.7 and the AQLQ score from 5.2 ± 0.8 to 6.2 ± 0.7, which was statistically significant when compared with changes in the control group (P < .05 and <.01, respectively). The exercise group and the diet group did not improve either the ACQ score or the AQLQ score significantly compared with the control group and there were no significant changes in sputum cell counts, FEV1, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, or AHR within any groups following the intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of exercise and diet improves asthma control in nonobese patients, but does not affect AHR or airway inflammation. PMID: 29133220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]