Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Color Therapy


Mood color choice helps to predict response to hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Abstract Title: Mood color choice helps to predict response to hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Abstract Source: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:75. Epub 2010 Dec 7. PMID: 21138549 Abstract Author(s): [No authors listed] Article Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Approximately two thirds of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) respond well to hypnotherapy. However, it is time consuming as well as expensive to provide and therefore a way of predicting outcome would be extremely useful. The use of imagery and color form an integral part of the hypnotherapeutic process and we have hypothesised that investigating color and how it relates to mood might help to predict response to treatment. In order to undertake this study we have previously developed and validated a method of presenting colors to individuals for research purposes called the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). Using this instrument we have been able to classify colors into positive, neutral and negative shades and this study aimed to assess their predictive role in hypnotherapy. METHODS: 156 consecutive IBS patients (aged 14-74, mean 42.0 years, 127 (81%) females, 29 (19%) males) were studied. Before treatment, each patient was asked to relate their mood to a color on the MCW as well as completing the IBS Symptom Severity Score, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, the Non-colonic Symptom Scale, the Quality of Life Scale and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) which is a measure of hypnotisability. Following hypnotherapy all these measures were repeated with the exception of the TAS. RESULTS: For patients with a positive mood color the odds of responding to hypnotherapy were nine times higher than that of those choosing either a neutral or negative color or no color at all (odds ratio: 8.889; p = 0.042). Furthermore, a high TAS score and the presence of HAD anxiety also had good predictive value (odds ratio: 4.024; p = 0.092, 3.917; p<0.001 respectively) with these markers and a positive mood color being independent of each other. In addition, these factors could be combined to give an even stronger prediction of outcome. Twice as many responders (63, 77.8%) had a positive mood color or were anxious or had a high TAS score compared with 32 (42.7%) without these factors (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: A positive mood color, especially when combined with HAD anxiety and a high TAS score, predict a good response to hypnotherapy. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
Therapeutic Actions Color Therapy

NCBI pubmed

Technical note: electronic chart checks in a paperless radiation therapy clinic.

Related Articles Technical note: electronic chart checks in a paperless radiation therapy clinic. Med Phys. 2012 Aug;39(8):4726-32 Authors: Yang D, Wu Y, Brame RS, Yaddanapudi S, Rangaraj D, Li HH, Goddu SM, Mutic S Abstract PURPOSE: EcCk, which stands for Electronic Chart ChecK, is a computer software and database system. It was developed to improve quality and efficiency of patient chart checking in radiation oncology departments. The core concept is to automatically collect and analyze patient treatment data, and to report discrepancies and potential concerns. METHODS: EcCk consists of several different computer technologies, including relational database, DICOM, dynamic HTML, and image processing. Implemented in MATLAB and C#, EcCk processes patient data in DICOM, PDF, Microsoft Word, database, and Pinnacle native formats. Generated reports are stored on the storage server and indexed in the database. A standalone report-browser program is implemented to allow users to view reports on any computer in the department. Checks are performed according to predefined logical rules, and results are presented through color-coded reports in which discrepancies are summarized and highlighted. Users examine the reports and take appropriate actions. The core design is intended to automate human task and to improve the reliability of the performed tasks. The software is not intended to replace human audits but rather to aid as a decision support tool. RESULTS: The software was successfully implemented in the clinical environment and has demonstrated the feasibility of automation of this common task with modern clinical tools. The software integrates multiple disconnected systems and successfully supports analysis of data in diverse formats. CONCLUSIONS: While the human is the ultimate expert, EcCk has a significant potential to improve quality and efficiency of patient treatment record audits, and to allow verification of tasks that are not easily performed by humans. EcCk can potentially relieve human experts from simple and repetitive tasks, and allow them to work on other important tasks, and in the end to improve the quality and safety of radiation therapy treatments. PMID: 22894397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phase I study of enzastaurin and bevacizumab in patients with advanced cancer: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics.

Related Articles Phase I study of enzastaurin and bevacizumab in patients with advanced cancer: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Invest New Drugs. 2013 Jun;31(3):653-60 Authors: Nwankwo N, Zhang Z, Wang T, Collins C, Resta L, Ermisch S, Day J, Decker R, Kornberg L, Nicol S, Thornton D, Armstrong DK, Carducci MA Abstract PURPOSE: Given distinct mechanism of actions of enzastaurin and bevacizumab, preclinical studies suggest enhanced antitumor activity in combination. This phase I study assessed the combination's safety and efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six advanced cancer patients could be enrolled in each of 11 cohorts. Patients received an enzastaurin loading dose. Oral enzastaurin (500 mg once daily [QD], 250 mg twice daily [BID], 375 mg BID, 500 mg BID, and 750 mg BID) was escalated in each cohort in combination with bevacizumab dosed at 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks, 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks, or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks until a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) occurred in 2 of 6 patients in any cohort. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (31, ovarian cancer [ovcar]) were evaluable for safety and efficacy. Six treatment-related DLTs occurred: grade 3 fatigue (n=4), grade 4 cerebral hemorrhage, and grade 3 elevated aspartate transaminase. Common drug-related toxicities included change in color of urine and stool, fatigue, pain, diarrhea, and nausea. The maximum tolerated dose of enzastaurin was 750 mg BID in combination with any tested bevacizumab dose/schedule. Overall response rate was 19.4 % (32.3 % ovcar). Median time to progression was 3.7 months (95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.7-5.5), with 8.3 months (95 % CI, 3.7-11.1) in ovcar. Overall, 35.9 % (50.4 % ovcar) of patients remained without disease progression after 6 months. CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II doses of enzastaurin were 500 mg QD up to 500 mg BID with any tested dose/schedule of bevacizumab. This combination demonstrated encouraging clinical activity, particularly in ovcar. PMID: 22766773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differential regulation of FGF-2 in neurons and reactive astrocytes of axotomized rat hypoglossal nucleus. A possible therapeutic target for neuroprotection in peripheral nerve pathology.

Related Articles Differential regulation of FGF-2 in neurons and reactive astrocytes of axotomized rat hypoglossal nucleus. A possible therapeutic target for neuroprotection in peripheral nerve pathology. Acta Histochem. 2010 Nov;112(6):604-17 Authors: de Oliveira GP, Duobles T, Castelucci P, Chadi G Abstract Despite the favorable treatment of cranial nerve neuropathology in adulthood, some cases are resistant to therapy leading to permanent functional impairments. In many cases, suitable treatment is problematic as the therapeutic target remains unknown. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) is involved in neuronal maintenance and wound repair following nervous system lesions. It is one of few neurotrophic molecules acting in autocrine, paracrine and intracrine fashions depending upon specific circumstances. Peripheral cranial somatic motor neurons, i.e. hypoglossal (XII) neurons, may offer a unique opportunity to study cellular FGF-2 mechanisms as the molecule is present in the cytoplasm of neurons and in the nuclei of astrocytes of the central nervous system. FGF-2 may trigger differential actions during development, maintenance and lesion of XII neurons because axotomy of those cells leads to cell death during neonatal ages, but not in adult life. Moreover, the modulatory effects of astroglial FGF-2 and the Ca+2-binding protein S100β have been postulated in paracrine mechanisms after neuronal lesions. In our study, adult Wistar rats received a unilateral crush or transection (with amputation of stumps) of XII nerve, and were sacrificed after 72h or 11 days. Brains were processed for immunohistochemical localization of neurofilaments (NF), with or without counterstaining for Nissl substance, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, as a marker of astrocytes), S100β and FGF-2. The number of Nissl-positive neurons of axotomized XII nucleus did not differ from controls. The NF immunoreactivity increased in the perikarya and decreased in the neuropil of axotomized XII neurons 11 days after nerve crush or transection. An astrocytic reaction was seen in the ipsilateral XII nucleus of the crushed or transected animals 72h and 11 days after the surgery. The nerve lesions did not change the number of FGF-2 neurons in the ipsilateral XII nucleus; however, the nerve transection increased the number of FGF-2 glial profiles by 72h and 11 days. Microdensitometric image analysis revealed a short lasting decrease in the intensity of FGF-2 immunoreactivity in axotomized XII neurons by 72h after nerve crush or transection and also an elevation of FGF-2 in the ipsilateral of glial nuclei by 72h and 11 days after the two lesions. S100β decreased in astrocytes of 11-day-transected XII nucleus. The two-color immunoperoxidase for the simultaneous detection of the GFAP/FGF-2 indicated FGF-2 upregulation in the nuclei of reactive astrocytes of the lesioned XII nucleus. Astroglial FGF-2 may exert paracrine trophic actions in mature axotomized XII neurons and might represent a therapeutic target for neuroprotection in peripheral nerve pathology. PMID: 19665173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Curcumin has bright prospects for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Related Articles Curcumin has bright prospects for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15(18):2087-94 Authors: Hanai H, Sugimoto K Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing-remitting condition that afflicts millions of people throughout the world and impairs their daily functions and quality of life. While the aetiology of IBD is not understood well, it appears to be driven by inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Hence, there is a strong interest in agents that can block the generation or actions of inflammatory cytokines. Curcumin is a bioactive substance present in the rhizomes of the herb "Curcuma longa" which has been used for centuries in Asia, both in traditional medicine and in cooking as turmeric which gives food an exotic natural yellow color. Further, in recent years, a large number of research papers have reported intriguing pharmacologic effects associated with curcumin. These include inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenases 1, 2 (COX-1, COX-2), lipoxygenase (LOX), TNF-alpha, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the transcriptional nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), in addition to a strong anti-oxidant effect. NF-kappaB is a key factor in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines that have a high profile in inflammatory diseases, suggesting that curcumin could be a novel therapeutic agent for patients with IBD. Therefore, in recent years, the efficacy of curcumin has been investigated in several experimental models of IBD. The results indicate striking suppression of induced IBD colitis and changes in cytokine profiles, from the pro-inflammatory Th1 to the anti-inflammatory Th2 type. In human IBD, up to now, only one open study has achieved encouraging results. In this study, patients were given curcumin (360 mg/dose) 3 or 4 times/day for three months. Further, curcumin significantly reduced clinical relapse in patients with quiescent IBD. The inhibitory effects of curcumin on major inflammatory mechanisms like COX-2, LOX, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, NF-kappaB and its unrivalled safety profile suggest that it has bright prospects in the treatment of IBD. However, randomized controlled clinical investigations in large cohorts of patients are needed to fully evaluate the clinical potential of curcumin. PMID: 19519446 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Energy absorption is reduced with oleic acid supplements in human short bowel syndrome.

Related Articles Energy absorption is reduced with oleic acid supplements in human short bowel syndrome. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Jan-Feb;33(1):102-8 Authors: Compher CW, Kinosian BP, Rubesin SE, Ratcliffe SJ, Metz DC Abstract BACKGROUND: Oleic acid premeal supplements have been described as a method to trigger the ileal brake and thus lengthen transit time and the opportunity for nutrient absorption. The aims of this study were to determine whether oleic acid supplements would lengthen transit time and improve absorption of nutrients in study participants with short bowel syndrome as well as affect diarrhea or patient weight. METHODS: A double-blind, controlled, random-order crossover trial was conducted in 8 study participants with longstanding and severe short bowel syndrome, employing blue food color appearance, breath hydrogen testing, and radio-opaque markers as measures of transit time. Absorption of energy, protein, fat, and fluid was conducted by classic nutrient balance methods. Diarrhea was estimated by daily stool weight and number of bowel actions. Although 8 patients were enrolled, only 7 completed the study. RESULTS: Transit time was not significantly different between oleic acid and placebo treatment, although peptide YY levels trended higher with the oleic acid treatment. Energy absorption was reduced 14% by oleic acid, significantly more than the 3% reduction by placebo. Fat, protein, and fluid absorption was not changed significantly. Neither diarrhea nor patient body weight was changed by oleic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Energy absorption is reduced by oleic acid supplements in severe short bowel syndrome. The study may have lacked power to determine whether oleic acid affects diarrhea or body weight. PMID: 19028932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The disruption of murine tumor neovasculature by low-intensity ultrasound-comparison between 1- and 3-MHz sonication frequencies.

Related Articles The disruption of murine tumor neovasculature by low-intensity ultrasound-comparison between 1- and 3-MHz sonication frequencies. Acad Radiol. 2008 Sep;15(9):1133-41 Authors: Wood AK, Bunte RM, Price HE, Deitz MS, Tsai JH, Lee WM, Sehgal CM Abstract RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The goal was to determine whether the tumor vascular disrupting actions of low-intensity ultrasound were frequency dependent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of the frequency (1 MHz at 2.2 W/cm2 or 3 MHz at 2.4 W/cm2) of low-intensity ultrasound as a neovascular disrupting modality was investigated in 15 murine melanomas (K1735(22)) insonated for 3 minutes after the intravenous injection of a microbubble contrast agent (Definity). In contrast-enhanced power Doppler observations of each tumor (before and after treatment), measurements were made of the size of the area of the tumor that was perfused with blood containing the ultrasound contrast agent (percentage area of flow [PAF]), and the volume of contrast agent flowing through the unit volume of the tumor (color-weighted fractional area [CWFA]). During insonation of the tumor, the temperature was measured with a fine wire thermocouple in an additional eight mice. RESULTS: The antivascular action of low-intensity ultrasound was significantly enhanced (PAF by 64%; CWFA by 106%) when the tumor was treated with 3-MHz ultrasound rather than 1 MHz (analysis of variance: PAF, P=.02; CWFA, P=.04). The average rate of tumor temperature increase was 2.6+/-1.3 degrees C/min for 1 MHz and 5.0+/-1.7 degrees C/min for 3 MHz; these increases were significantly different (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: Insonation of the tumor at a higher frequency amplified the heating of the neoplasm and led to greater disruption of the tumor vasculature; 3-MHz ultrasound was more efficacious than 1 MHz for antivascular cancer therapy. PMID: 18692754 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A novel tetracycline labeling schedule for longitudinal evaluation of the short-term effects of anabolic therapy with a single iliac crest bone biopsy: early actions of teriparatide.

Related Articles A novel tetracycline labeling schedule for longitudinal evaluation of the short-term effects of anabolic therapy with a single iliac crest bone biopsy: early actions of teriparatide. J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Mar;21(3):366-73 Authors: Lindsay R, Cosman F, Zhou H, Bostrom MP, Shen VW, Cruz JD, Nieves JW, Dempster DW Abstract UNLABELLED: We describe a quadruple tetracycline labeling method that allows longitudinal assessment of short-term changes in bone formation in a single biopsy. We show that 1 month of hPTH(1-34) treatment extends the bone-forming surface, increases mineral apposition rate, and initiates modeling-based formation. INTRODUCTION: Iliac crest biopsy, with histomorphometric evaluation, provides important information about cellular activity in bone. However, to obtain longitudinal information, repeat biopsies must be performed. In this study, we show the capability to obtain short-term longitudinal information on bone formation in a single biopsy using a novel, quadruple labeling technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two tetracycline labels were administered using a standard 3 days on, 12 days off, 3 days on format. Four weeks later, the tetracycline labeling was repeated using the same schedule but with a different tetracycline that can be distinguished from the first by its color under fluorescent light. Iliac crest biopsies were performed 1 week later and prepared undecalcified for histomorphometry. Indices of bone formation 1 month apart were measured and calculated using the two sets of labels. We used this method to investigate the early effects of teriparatide [hPTH(1-34)] treatment on bone formation. The results were compared with those from a group of control subjects who were quadruple-labeled, but did not receive hPTH(1-34). RESULTS: Treatment with hPTH(1-34) dramatically stimulated bone formation on cancellous and endocortical surfaces. This was achieved by both an increase in the linear rate of matrix apposition and extension of the bone-forming surface. New bone was deposited on previously quiescent surfaces (i.e., modeling-based formation), but a proportion of this could occur by encroachment from adjacent resorption cavities. CONCLUSIONS: A single transiliac crest bone biopsy, after sequential administration of two sets of tetracycline labels is a useful approach to study the short-term effects of anabolic agents on human bone. One month of hPTH(1-34) treatment extends the bone-forming surface, increases mineral apposition rate, and initiates modeling-based formation. PMID: 16491283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Longitudinal analysis of T-helper cell phenotypes in renal-transplant recipients undergoing growth hormone therapy.

Related Articles Longitudinal analysis of T-helper cell phenotypes in renal-transplant recipients undergoing growth hormone therapy. Transplantation. 2004 Dec 27;78(12):1792-801 Authors: Melk A, Daniel V, Mehls O, Opelz G, Tönshoff B Abstract BACKGROUND: Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in growth-retarded children after renal transplantation is effective, but there have been concerns regarding the safety of rhGH because of its possible immunomodulatory actions. We therefore evaluated the immune phenotypes of pediatric renal-transplant recipients and controls in response to rhGH with regard to a possible shift toward a T-helper (TH)1-type response. METHODS: Intracellular cytokines, activation markers, costimulatory, and adhesion molecules were studied in 13 children after renal transplantation (Tx+GH). Children with chronic renal failure (CRF+GH, n=11) before and under rhGH therapy and pediatric renal-transplant recipients without rhGH therapy (Tx, n=33) served as controls. Measurements were performed by four-color flow cytometry before and 4, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after initiation of rhGH therapy. RESULTS: Under baseline conditions, Tx+GH patients did not differ from Tx patients. During rhGH therapy in children with transplants, interleukin (IL)-2 production increased threefold at 4 weeks, and IL-4 and IL-13 increased by 70% at 12 weeks. All three cytokines returned to baseline after 18 weeks. No patient experienced rejection. In CRF+GH patients, baseline values for all investigated cytokines were higher than in patients with transplants but did not change in response to rhGH therapy. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that rhGH therapy in stable, pediatric renal-transplant recipients has a mild and transient immunostimulatory effect in vivo. Immunosuppression and graft function in patients with transplants undergoing rhGH treatment should therefore carefully be monitored. PMID: 15614153 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anti-arthritic effect and subacute toxicological evaluation of Baccharis genistelloides aqueous extract.

Related Articles Anti-arthritic effect and subacute toxicological evaluation of Baccharis genistelloides aqueous extract. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Dec 01;154(1-2):69-80 Authors: Coelho MG, Reis PA, Gava VB, Marques PR, Gayer CR, Laranja GA, Felzenswalb I, Sabino KC Abstract This work studies the potential subacute toxicological effects of the aqueous extract of Baccharis genistelloides (AEBg) and demonstrates a new anti-arthritic therapeutic effect. The treatment of the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) group with 4.2 mg/kg AEBg induced an important decrease (75%) in CIA severity in all animals, while the 42 mg/kg dose treated only 50% of animals. After AEBg treatment, no significant differences were observed in body weight, aspect, color and relative weight of liver, kidneys, thymus or lungs between CIA groups. CIA and healthy AEBg groups treated with both doses did not show genotoxic effects to liver and kidney cells by the Comet assay, compared to its own control group. The augmented AST in the CIA group, compared to healthy control one was regularized by the AEBg treatment with 4.2 mg/kg but not with 42 mg/kg. No other significant difference was found on serum biochemical parameters, as well as on spontaneous or stimulated lymphocyte proliferation between CIA groups. The treatment of healthy animals with AEBg 4.2 mg/kg did not change the aspect, color or relative weight of kidneys, liver or lungs but reduced the body weight, the thymus and popliteal lymph node (PLN) relative weight and serum glucose and triglyceride levels. Concluding, our results indicate an anti-arthritic effects of AEBg without liver and kidney subacute toxicity and hypoglycemic and hypotriglyceridemic actions on healthy animals. PMID: 15475180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of moxonidine and metoprolol in penile circulation in hypertensive men with erectile dysfunction: results of a pilot study.

Related Articles Effects of moxonidine and metoprolol in penile circulation in hypertensive men with erectile dysfunction: results of a pilot study. Int J Impot Res. 2003 Aug;15(4):287-9 Authors: Piha J, Kaaja R Abstract Centrally acting (moxonidine) and peripherally acting (metoprolol) sympatholytic agents might have different actions upon penile circulation in hypertensive men with erectile dysfunction. A total of 11 nonsmoking, hypertensive but otherwise healthy men with erectile dysfunction were studied after 8 weeks on moxonidine monotherapy (0.4 mg per day, increased to 0.6 mg if needed) and then after 8 weeks of metoprolol monotherapy (100 mg per day, increased to 200 mg if needed) in a crossover design. At the end of each treatment phase, the subjects were asked about their subjective erectile capacity (nocturnal and coital erections), and resting and stimulated (after intracavernosal injection of a mixture of alprostadil and phentolamine) penile deep artery diameters and systolic peak velocities were measured by color Doppler ultrasonography. There were no significant differences in blood pressure after either therapy. The change from earlier antihypertensive therapy, moxonidine produced significant subjective amelioration of sexual dysfunction in 9/11 of the men (< or = 0.001), whereas 9/11 returned to impaired dysfunction after crossover to metoprolol treatment. Resting and stimulated deep penile diameters and peak systolic velocities were higher after moxonidine treatment compared with metoprolol (diameters: < or = 0.004, < or = 0.0001; velocities: < or = 0.008, < or = 0.038). The centrally acting sympatholytic agent moxonidine seems to improve erectile function both subjectively and objectively and has a better effect on penile circulation compared with the peripherally acting sympatholytic agent metoprolol. PMID: 12934058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Limits of fetal viability and its enhancement.

Related Articles Limits of fetal viability and its enhancement. Early Pregnancy. 2001 Jan;5(1):49-50 Authors: Breborowicz GH Abstract According to Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, viable of a fetus it means having reached such a stage of development as to be capable of living, under normal conditions, outside the uterus. Viability exists as a function of biomedical and technological capacities, which are different in different parts of the world. As a consequence, there is, at the present time, no worldwide, uniform gestational age that defines viability. Viability is not an intrinsic property of the fetus because viability should be understood in terms of both biological and technological factors. It is only in virtue of both factors that a viable fetus can exist ex utero and thus later achieve independent moral status. Moreover, these two factors do not exist as a function of the autonomy of the pregnant woman. When a fetus is viable, that is, when it is of sufficient maturity so that it can survive into the neonatal period and later achieve independent moral status given the availability of the requisite technological support, and when it is presented to the physician, the fetus is a patient. In the United States viability presently occurs at approximately 24 weeks of gestational age (Chervenak, L.B. McCullough; Textbook of Perinatal Medicine, 1998). In Portugal, the mortality increase significantly with GA<25 weeks. At 25 weeks mortality was 44.4% and at 26 weeks was 24.4% (I. Macedo et al. Matemidade Dr. Alfredo da Costa, Lisbon, 2000). In Poland during last years we observe also a very significant decrease of perinatal mortality. There are several aspects of fetal viability: ethical, social, psychological and medical. Ethical aspects There is a compelling conceptual and clinical reason to reject Primum non nocere as the primary principle of perinatal ethics; virtually all medical interventions involve unavoidable risks of harm, for example, amniocentesis. If Primum non nocere were to be made the primary principle of perinatal ethics, virtually all of perinatal medicine would be unethical. Social aspects Greatly increased advances in perinatal medicine lead on one hand to a high quality of care expected and demanded by both the health care professionals and patients, but on the other hand the resources available for responding to the expectations and demands are becoming increasingly stretched. Even in the high-income countries, the available resources are scarce in relation to these demands a high quality of care expected and demanded by both the health care professionals and patients, but on the other hand the resources available for responding to the expectations and demands are becoming increasingly stretched. Medical aspects During the preconceptional period the most important actions are: family planning, education, analysis of previous obstetrical miscarriages and prevention of congenital malformations (folic acid). Pregnancy presents several problems, which can significantly influence fetal viability. Proper management of these problems can improve perinatal outcome. Among others prevention of prematurity is the most important goal of contemporary perinatal medicine. Enhancement of fetal viability There are several possibilities to enhance fetal viability. The most important are: organization of perinatal care, introduction of new technologies to perinatal medicine, intensive fetal therapy and early detection of fetal distress. Three levels system of perinatal care, transport in utero, introduction and promotion of new methods, continues education of staff are characteristic for the modern organization of perinatal medicine. Echocardiography, Color Doppler Energy, 3D sonography, prenatal diagnosis (cordocentesis, analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood,.), fetal pulse oximetry, mathematical analysis of the signal are the methods which should be used at the highest level of perinatal care. Today, the prospect of survival is only about 1 in 10 at 23 weeks, and if the child lives it is more likely to be handicapped that not. At 24 weeks the chance of a normal survivor is about 50%, and after this the odds are in favor of a normal survivor. Considering this data, intensive care should be an optional choice for fetuses at 23 and 24 weeks of gestation and should be offered to every fetus at 25 weeks or more. PMID: 11753511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Laboratory studies on the chemical whitening effects of a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice.

Related Articles Laboratory studies on the chemical whitening effects of a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice. J Clin Dent. 2002;13(1):19-24 Authors: Baig A, Kozak K, Cox ER, Zoladz J, Mahony L, White D Abstract Laboratory studies were developed to permit the evaluation of chemical actions of toothpaste components in the non-abrasive prevention and removal of tea stains. Powdered hydroxyapatites were used as substrates for adsorption of tea chromogens. Pre-treatment with a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice (Crest Dual Action Whitening) reduced tea adsorption to powdered apatite, while post-treatments of pre-stained powder resulted in desorption of tea components. These results exemplified the chemical actions of condensed calcium phosphate surface active builders toward dental stain removal and prevention. A cycling synamel chip model permitted the study of stain prevention, including salivary pellicle formation and chlorhexidine enhancement of dental staining by tea chromogens. Staining was evaluated by image analysis of color development. Under these conditions, condensed phosphate dentifrices were observed to produce superior prevention of stain accumulations, with Crest Dual Action Whitening dentifrice providing stain prevention superior to a variety of commercial dentifrices, including Colgate Total, Aquafresh Whitening, Colgate Tartar Control Whitening, Mentadent Baking Soda and Peroxide Whitening, Close-Up Whitening, Crest Tartar Control and Crest Regular Cavity Protection. PMID: 11507927 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Needs of chronic degenerative diseases among adults in a basic health unit in Sao Carlos--SP].

Related Articles [Needs of chronic degenerative diseases among adults in a basic health unit in Sao Carlos--SP]. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 1999 Jul;7(3):41-7 Authors: Feliciano AB, de Moraes SA Abstract The purpose of this study was to find out the profile of the larger clientele more than 12 years old of a Basic Health Unit (BHU), according to socio-demographic variables such as sex,, age group, color, marital status, origin and to characterize the diseases profile according to the chapters of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD X-Revision) and group specific diagnoses standing out the group of the chronic-degenerative diseases, searching for its its characterization in the context of the demographic-epidemiology transition. The study was of the transversal type and the population was constituted by the clientele registered in the BHU until August 31, 1996. Individuals in situation of abandonment, the ones transferred to another units and those who died were excluded. The population studied was formed by 1013 individuals. Data were processed in the software FOXPRO vs 2.0 and the analysis developed in EPIINFO vs 6.04. Authors verified that the studied population was basically formed by women (87.1%). Regarding age, 69.6% were between 12 and 40 years old, 95.6% were of white color, 57.2% were married and 97% coming from the urban zone. The classification according to ICD chapters showed disturbances of the urinary tract and of the genital system (35.5%), breathing system (11.5%) and symptoms and signs (9.9%). The classification according to specific groups of causes showed similar proportions among the infect-parasitic diseases (24.8%) and the chronic-degenerative diseases (24.5%). In the group of chronic-degenerative diseases 50% of ICD chapters were formed by the groups: circulatory, endocrine causes and mental-behaviour. Authors observed that the profile of diseases at the BHU resembles the polarized model of transition where the chronic-degenerative diseases coexist with the infect-parasitic ones. The traditional model of care of the unit that focuses the maternal infant health seems not to adapt to the population progressive aging when prioritizing a clientele that although still young need collective actions for primary and secondary prevention of the chronic-degenerative diseases. PMID: 10578929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The degrees of UVB-induced erythema and pigmentation correlate linearly and are reduced in a parallel manner by topical anti-inflammatory agents.

Related Articles The degrees of UVB-induced erythema and pigmentation correlate linearly and are reduced in a parallel manner by topical anti-inflammatory agents. J Invest Dermatol. 1994 Nov;103(5):642-6 Authors: Takiwaki H, Shirai S, Kohno H, Soh H, Arase S Abstract To examine whether it is possible to evaluate the degree of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced inflammation by measuring the degree of hyperpigmentation, we investigated the relationship between UVB-induced erythema and the subsequent pigmentation quantitatively. At 24 h and 7 d after irradiation with erythemogenic doses of UVB to the backs of 16 Japanese subjects, the degree of induced erythema (delta erythema index) and that of pigmentation (delta melanin index) were examined by an image analytic method using a videomicroscope interfaced with a computer. The relationship between two indices was linear in each subject, and the correlation coefficient was 0.83 when evaluated using whole data. The slope of the regression line for the delta melanin index against delta erythema index tended to become steeper as non-irradiated skin color became darker (r = 0.63), suggesting that more efficient melanogenesis takes place after the same level of inflammation in the subject with darker skin. Both erythema and hyperpigmentation were suppressed significantly and in a parallel manner by corticosteroids and indomethacin applied topically immediately after UVB irradiation. These results imply that the post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation correlates closely with the severity of the prior inflammation and that chemical mediators released in the inflammatory process have considerable influence on the melanogenesis. We conclude that the measurement of UVB-induced hyperpigmentation can be utilized for the assessment of topical anti-inflammatory agents, unless these have direct actions on the tyrosinase activity of melanocytes. PMID: 7963648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind versus placebo study].

Related Articles [The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind versus placebo study]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1988;11(10):671-4 Authors: Lanthony P, Cosson JP Abstract The therapeutic efficiency of the Ginkgo biloba extract was estimated in a double-blind trial, during a 6 months period, in 29 diabetic subjects with an early diabetic retinopathy evidenced by angiography, and associated with a blue-yellow dyschromatopsia. The functional criterion was the color vision evolution, studied by the Desaturated Panel D-15 and the 100-Hue Farnsworth test at the beginning of the trial and 6 months later. An improvement tendency was evidenced in subjects treated by Ginkgo biloba extract, and an aggravation in subjects with placebo, this improvement being statistically significative with the Desaturated Panel D-15 among subjects without retinal ischemia. These clinical results on visual function corroborate the pharmacological actions of Ginkgo biloba extract on diabetic retina. PMID: 3072365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]