Therapeutic Melodic Intonation Therapy

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Melodic Intonation Therapy in Chronic Aphasia: Evidence from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Related Articles Melodic Intonation Therapy in Chronic Aphasia: Evidence from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Hum Neurosci. 2016;10:533 Authors: Van Der Meulen I, Van De Sandt-Koenderman MW, Heijenbrok MH, Visch-Brink E, Ribbers GM Abstract Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a language production therapy for severely non-fluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT) examining the efficacy of MIT are rare. In an earlier publication, we presented the results of an RCT on MIT in subacute aphasia and found that MIT was effective on trained and untrained items. Further, we observed a clear trend in improved functional language use after MIT: subacute aphasic patients receiving MIT improved considerably on language tasks measuring connected speech and daily life verbal communication. Here, we present the results of a pilot RCT on MIT in chronic aphasia and compare these to the results observed in subacute aphasia. We used a multicenter waiting-list RCT design. Patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia were randomly allocated to the experimental group (6 weeks MIT) or to the control group (6 weeks no intervention followed by 6 weeks MIT). Assessments were done at baseline (T1), after 6 weeks (T2), and 6 weeks later (T3). Efficacy was evaluated at T2 using univariable linear regression analyses. Outcome measures were chosen to examine several levels of therapy success: improvement on trained items, generalization to untrained items, and generalization to verbal communication. Of 17 included patients, 10 were allocated to the experimental condition and 7 to the control condition. MIT significantly improved repetition of trained items (β = 13.32, p = 0.02). This effect did not remain stable at follow-up assessment. In contrast to earlier studies, we found only a limited and temporary effect of MIT, without generalization to untrained material or to functional communication. The results further suggest that the effect of MIT in chronic aphasia is more restricted than its effect in earlier stages post stroke. This is in line with studies showing larger effects of aphasia therapy in earlier compared to later stages post stroke. The study was designed as an RCT, but was underpowered. The results therefore have to be interpreted cautiously and future larger studies are needed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NTR 1961. PMID: 27847473 [PubMed - in process]

Improved Neural Processing Efficiency in a Chronic Aphasia Patient Following Melodic Intonation Therapy: A Neuropsychological and Functional MRI Study.

Related Articles Improved Neural Processing Efficiency in a Chronic Aphasia Patient Following Melodic Intonation Therapy: A Neuropsychological and Functional MRI Study. Front Neurol. 2016;7:148 Authors: Tabei KI, Satoh M, Nakano C, Ito A, Shimoji Y, Kida H, Sakuma H, Tomimoto H Abstract Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a treatment program for the rehabilitation of aphasic patients with speech production disorders. We report a case of severe chronic non-fluent aphasia unresponsive to several years of conventional therapy that showed a marked improvement following intensive 9-day training on the Japanese version of MIT (MIT-J). The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of MIT-J by functional assessment and examine associated changes in neural processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging. MIT improved language output and auditory comprehension, and decreased the response time for picture naming. Following MIT-J, an area of the right hemisphere was less activated on correct naming trials than compared with before training but similarly activated on incorrect trials. These results suggest that the aphasic symptoms of our patient were improved by increased neural processing efficiency and a concomitant decrease in cognitive load. PMID: 27698650 [PubMed - in process]

Tapping into neural resources of communication: formulaic language in aphasia therapy.

Related Articles Tapping into neural resources of communication: formulaic language in aphasia therapy. Front Psychol. 2015;6:1526 Authors: Stahl B, Van Lancker Sidtis D PMID: 26539131 [PubMed]

Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language.

Related Articles Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:520 Authors: Cortese MD, Riganello F, Arcuri F, Pignataro LM, Buglione I Abstract Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout's adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID: 26441615 [PubMed]

Apollo's gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy.

Related Articles Apollo's gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy. Prog Brain Res. 2015;217:237-52 Authors: Altenmüller E, Schlaug G Abstract Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music's ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms. PMID: 25725918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity.

Related Articles Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity. Prog Brain Res. 2015;217:37-55 Authors: Schlaug G Abstract Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) as well as multimodal integration regions. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. Furthermore, the plasticity of this system as a result of long term and intense interventions suggest the potential for music making activities (e.g., forms of singing) as an intervention for neurological and developmental disorders to learn and relearn associations between auditory and motor functions such as vocal motor functions. PMID: 25725909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Insight into the neurophysiological processes of melodically intoned language with functional MRI.

Related Articles Insight into the neurophysiological processes of melodically intoned language with functional MRI. Brain Behav. 2014 Sep;4(5):615-25 Authors: Méndez Orellana CP, van de Sandt-Koenderman ME, Saliasi E, van der Meulen I, Klip S, van der Lugt A, Smits M Abstract BACKGROUND: Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) uses the melodic elements of speech to improve language production in severe nonfluent aphasia. A crucial element of MIT is the melodically intoned auditory input: the patient listens to the therapist singing a target utterance. Such input of melodically intoned language facilitates production, whereas auditory input of spoken language does not. METHODS: Using a sparse sampling fMRI sequence, we examined the differential auditory processing of spoken and melodically intoned language. Nineteen right-handed healthy volunteers performed an auditory lexical decision task in an event related design consisting of spoken and melodically intoned meaningful and meaningless items. The control conditions consisted of neutral utterances, either melodically intoned or spoken. RESULTS: Irrespective of whether the items were normally spoken or melodically intoned, meaningful items showed greater activation in the supramarginal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, predominantly in the left hemisphere. Melodically intoned language activated both temporal lobes rather symmetrically, as well as the right frontal lobe cortices, indicating that these regions are engaged in the acoustic complexity of melodically intoned stimuli. Compared to spoken language, melodically intoned language activated sensory motor regions and articulatory language networks in the left hemisphere, but only when meaningful language was used. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the facilitatory effect of MIT may - in part - depend on an auditory input which combines melody and meaning. CONCLUSION: Combined melody and meaning provide a sound basis for the further investigation of melodic language processing in aphasic patients, and eventually the neurophysiological processes underlying MIT. PMID: 25328839 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Facing the music: three issues in current research on singing and aphasia.

Related Articles Facing the music: three issues in current research on singing and aphasia. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1033 Authors: Stahl B, Kotz SA PMID: 25295017 [PubMed]

The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca's Aphasia.

Related Articles The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca's Aphasia. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:592 Authors: Zumbansen A, Peretz I, Hébert S Abstract Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a structured protocol for language rehabilitation in people with Broca's aphasia. The main particularity of MIT is the use of intoned speech, a technique in which the clinician stylizes the prosody of short sentences using simple pitch and rhythm patterns. In the original MIT protocol, patients must repeat diverse sentences in order to espouse this way of speaking, with the goal of improving their natural, connected speech. MIT has long been regarded as a promising treatment but its mechanisms are still debated. Recent work showed that rhythm plays a key role in variations of MIT, leading to consider the use of pitch as relatively unnecessary in MIT. Our study primarily aimed to assess the relative contribution of rhythm and pitch in MIT's generalization effect to non-trained stimuli and to connected speech. We compared a melodic therapy (with pitch and rhythm) to a rhythmic therapy (with rhythm only) and to a normally spoken therapy (without melodic elements). Three participants with chronic post-stroke Broca's aphasia underwent the treatments in hourly sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, in a cross-over design. The informativeness of connected speech, speech accuracy of trained and non-trained sentences, motor-speech agility, and mood was assessed before and after the treatments. The results show that the three treatments improved speech accuracy in trained sentences, but that the combination of rhythm and pitch elicited the strongest generalization effect both to non-trained stimuli and connected speech. No significant change was measured in motor-speech agility or mood measures with either treatment. The results emphasize the beneficial effect of both rhythm and pitch in the efficacy of original MIT on connected speech, an outcome of primary clinical importance in aphasia therapy. PMID: 25157222 [PubMed]

Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca's aphasia.

Related Articles Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca's aphasia. Brain Lang. 2014 Sep;136:1-7 Authors: Wan CY, Zheng X, Marchina S, Norton A, Schlaug G Abstract Using a pre-post design, eleven chronic stroke patients with large left hemisphere lesions and nonfluent aphasia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and language testing before and after receiving 15 weeks of an intensive intonation-based speech therapy. This treated patient group was compared to an untreated patient group (n=9) scanned twice over a similar time period. Our results showed that the treated group, but not the untreated group, had reductions in fractional anisotropy in the white matter underlying the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, pars opercularis and pars triangularis), the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the right posterior cingulum. Furthermore, we found that greater improvements in speech production were associated with greater reductions in FA in the right IFG (pars opercularis). Thus, our findings showed that an intensive rehabilitation program for patients with nonfluent aphasia led to structural changes in the right hemisphere, which correlated with improvements in speech production. PMID: 25041868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional mechanisms in melodic intonation therapy.

Related Articles Neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional mechanisms in melodic intonation therapy. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:401 Authors: Merrett DL, Peretz I, Wilson SJ Abstract Singing has been used in language rehabilitation for decades, yet controversy remains over its effectiveness and mechanisms of action. Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is the most well-known singing-based therapy; however, speculation surrounds when and how it might improve outcomes in aphasia and other language disorders. While positive treatment effects have been variously attributed to different MIT components, including melody, rhythm, hand-tapping, and the choral nature of the singing, there is uncertainty about the components that are truly necessary and beneficial. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the components operate are not well understood. Within the literature to date, proposed mechanisms can be broadly grouped into four categories: (1) neuroplastic reorganization of language function, (2) activation of the mirror neuron system and multimodal integration, (3) utilization of shared or specific features of music and language, and (4) motivation and mood. In this paper, we review available evidence for each mechanism and propose that these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, but rather represent different levels of explanation, reflecting the neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional effects of MIT. Thus, instead of competing, each of these mechanisms may contribute to language rehabilitation, with a better understanding of their relative roles and interactions allowing the design of protocols that maximize the effectiveness of singing therapy for aphasia. PMID: 24917811 [PubMed]

Augmenting melodic intonation therapy with non-invasive brain stimulation to treat impaired left-hemisphere function: two case studies.

Related Articles Augmenting melodic intonation therapy with non-invasive brain stimulation to treat impaired left-hemisphere function: two case studies. Front Psychol. 2014;5:37 Authors: Al-Janabi S, Nickels LA, Sowman PF, Burianová H, Merrett DL, Thompson WF Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the right hemisphere can be engaged using Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve language function in people with aphasia. The two participants in this study (GOE and AMC) have chronic non-fluent aphasia. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was used to localize the right Broca's homolog area in the inferior frontal gyrus for rTMS coil placement. The treatment protocol included an rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used an excitatory stimulation method known as intermittent theta burst stimulation, and a sham-rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used a sham coil. Each treatment session was followed by 40 min of MIT. A linguistic battery was administered after each session. Our findings show that one participant, GOE, improved in verbal fluency and the repetition of phrases when treated with MIT in combination with TMS. However, AMC showed no evidence of behavioral benefit from this brief treatment trial. Post-treatment neural activity changes were observed for both participants in the left Broca's area and right Broca's homolog. These case studies indicate that a combination of MIT and rTMS applied to the right Broca's homolog has the potential to improve speech and language outcomes for at least some people with post-stroke aphasia. PMID: 24550864 [PubMed]

Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.

Related Articles Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research. Front Neurol. 2014;5:7 Authors: Zumbansen A, Peretz I, Hébert S Abstract We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID: 24478754 [PubMed]

The Efficacy and Timing of Melodic Intonation Therapy in Subacute Aphasia.

Related Articles The Efficacy and Timing of Melodic Intonation Therapy in Subacute Aphasia. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014 Jul;28(6):536-44 Authors: van der Meulen I, van de Sandt-Koenderman WM, Heijenbrok-Kal MH, Visch-Brink EG, Ribbers GM Abstract Background Little is known about the efficacy of language production treatment in subacute severe nonfluent aphasia. Although Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a language production treatment for this disorder, until now MIT effect studies have focused on chronic aphasia. Purpose This study examines whether language production treatment with MIT is effective in subacute severe nonfluent aphasia. Methods A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a waiting-list control design: patients were randomly allocated to the experimental group (MIT) or the control group (control intervention followed by delayed MIT). In both groups, therapy started at 2 to 3 months poststroke and was given intensively (5 h/wk) during 6 weeks. In a second therapy period, the control group received 6 weeks of intensive MIT. The experimental group resumed their regular treatment. Assessment was done at baseline (T1), after the first intervention period (T2), and after the second intervention period (T3). Efficacy was evaluated at T2. The impact of delaying MIT on therapy outcome was also examined. Results A total of 27 participants were included: n = 16 in the experimental group and n = 11 in the control group. A significant effect in favor of MIT on language repetition was observed for trained items, with mixed results for untrained items. After MIT there was a significant improvement in verbal communication but not after the control intervention. Finally, delaying MIT was related to less improvement in the repetition of trained material. Conclusions In these patients with subacute severe nonfluent aphasia, language production treatment with MIT was effective. Earlier treatment may lead to greater improvement. PMID: 24449708 [PubMed]

The therapeutic effect of neurologic music therapy and speech language therapy in post-stroke aphasic patients.

Related Articles The therapeutic effect of neurologic music therapy and speech language therapy in post-stroke aphasic patients. Ann Rehabil Med. 2013 Aug;37(4):556-62 Authors: Lim KB, Kim YK, Lee HJ, Yoo J, Hwang JY, Kim JA, Kim SK Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of neurologic music therapy (NMT) and speech language therapy (SLT) through improvement of the aphasia quotient (AQ) in post-stroke aphasic patients. METHODS: Twenty-one post-stroke, nonfluent aphasia patients who had ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke on radiologic evaluation were divided into the NMT and SLT groups. They received NMT and SLT for 1 month. Language function was assessed by Korean version-Western Aphasia Battery before and after therapy. NMT consisted of therapeutic singing and melodic intonation therapy, and SLT consisted of language-oriented therapy. RESULTS: Significant improvements were revealed in AQ, repetition, and naming after therapy in the NMT group and improvements in repetition in the SLT group of chronic stroke patients (p<0.05). There were significant improvements in language ability in the NMT group of subacute stroke patients. However, there was no significant improvement in the SLT group of subacute stroke patients. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the two therapies are effective treatments in the chronic stage of stroke and NMT is effective in subacute post-stroke aphasic patients. PMID: 24020037 [PubMed]

How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery.

Related Articles How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:35 Authors: Stahl B, Henseler I, Turner R, Geyer S, Kotz SA Abstract There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard speech therapy. The experiment controlled for phonatory quality, vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other influences, such as the acoustic setting and learning effects induced by the testing itself. The results provide the first evidence that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia. This finding may challenge the view that singing causes a transfer of language function from the left to the right hemisphere. Instead, both singing and rhythmic therapy patients made good progress in the production of common, formulaic phrases-known to be supported by right corticostriatal brain areas. This progress occurred at an early stage of both therapies and was stable over time. Conversely, patients receiving standard therapy made less progress in the production of formulaic phrases. They did, however, improve their production of non-formulaic speech, in contrast to singing and rhythmic therapy patients, who did not. In light of these results, it may be worth considering the combined use of standard therapy and the training of formulaic phrases, whether sung or rhythmically spoken. Standard therapy may engage, in particular, left perilesional brain regions, while training of formulaic phrases may open new ways of tapping into right-hemisphere language resources-even without singing. PMID: 23450277 [PubMed]

When right is all that is left: plasticity of right-hemisphere tracts in a young aphasic patient.

Related Articles When right is all that is left: plasticity of right-hemisphere tracts in a young aphasic patient. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 Apr;1252:237-45 Authors: Zipse L, Norton A, Marchina S, Schlaug G Abstract Using an adapted version of Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT), we treated an adolescent girl with a very large left-hemisphere lesion and severe nonfluent aphasia secondary to an ischemic stroke. At the time of her initial assessment 15 months after her stroke, she had reached a plateau in her recovery despite intense and long-term traditional speech-language therapy (approximately five times per week for more than one year). Following an intensive course of treatment with our adapted form of MIT, her performance improved on both trained and untrained phrases, as well as on speech and language tasks. These behavioral improvements were accompanied by functional MRI changes in the right frontal lobe as well as by an increased volume of white matter pathways in the right hemisphere. No increase in white matter volume was seen in her healthy twin sister, who was scanned twice over the same time period. This case study not only provides further evidence for MIT's effectiveness, but also indicates that intensive treatment can induce functional and structural changes in a right-hemisphere fronto-temporal network. PMID: 22524365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The effects of modified melodic intonation therapy on nonfluent aphasia: a pilot study.

Related Articles The effects of modified melodic intonation therapy on nonfluent aphasia: a pilot study. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2012 Oct;55(5):1463-71 Authors: Conklyn D, Novak E, Boissy A, Bethoux F, Chemali K Abstract OBJECTIVE: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy (MMIT), a modification of MIT, as an early intervention in stroke patients presenting with Broca's aphasia. METHOD: After a randomized controlled single-blind design, 30 acute stroke survivors with nonfluent aphasia were randomly assigned to receive MIT treatment or no treatment. A pre/post test, based on the responsive and repetition subsections of the Western Aphasia Battery, was developed for this study. RESULTS: After 1 session, a significant within-subject change was observed for the treatment group's adjusted total score ( p = .02), and a significant difference between groups was found for adjusted total score ( p = .02) favoring the treatment group. The treatment group also showed a significant change in their responsive subsection scores ( p = .01) when their pre-tests from Visit 1 to Visit 2 were compared, whereas the control group showed no change, suggesting a possible carry-over effect of MIT treatment. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary data supporting the possible benefits of utilizing MMIT treatment early in the recovery of nonfluent aphasia patients. PMID: 22411278 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Melodic Intonation Therapy: present controversies and future opportunities.

Related Articles Melodic Intonation Therapy: present controversies and future opportunities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Jan;93(1 Suppl):S46-52 Authors: van der Meulen I, van de Sandt-Koenderman ME, Ribbers GM Abstract This article describes the state of the art of Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT), a structured aphasia therapy program using the melodic aspects of language (intonation, rhythm, and stress) to improve language production. MIT was developed in the 1970s and is still used worldwide. Nevertheless, we argue that many questions crucial for the clinical application of MIT are still unanswered. First, a review of MIT effect studies is presented showing that evidence from well-designed group studies is still lacking. It is also unclear which aspects of MIT contribute most to its therapeutic effect and which underlying neural mechanisms are involved. Two cases are presented illustrating unsolved questions concerning MIT in clinical practice, such as candidacy and the best timing of this therapy. PMID: 22202191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].

Related Articles [Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review]. Brain Nerve. 2011 Dec;63(12):1370-7 Authors: Satoh M Abstract Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. PMID: 22147456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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