Climate and foraging mode explain interspecific variation in snake metabolic rates.
Proc Biol Sci. 2017 Nov 29;284(1867):
Authors: Dupoué A, Brischoux F, Lourdais O
The energy cost of self-maintenance is a critical facet of life-history strategies. Clarifying the determinant of interspecific variation in metabolic rate (MR) at rest is important to understand and predict ecological patterns such as species distributions or responses to climatic changes. We examined variation of MR in snakes, a group characterized by a remarkable diversity of activity rates and a wide distribution. We collated previously published MR data (n = 491 observations) measured in 90 snake species at different trial temperatures. We tested for the effects of metabolic state (standard MR (SMR) versus resting MR (RMR)), foraging mode (active versus ambush foragers) and climate (temperature and precipitation) while accounting for non-independence owing to phylogeny, body mass and thermal dependence. We found that RMR was 40% higher than SMR, and that active foragers have higher MR than species that ambush their prey. We found that MR was higher in cold environments, supporting the metabolic cold adaptation hypothesis. We also found an additive and positive effect of precipitation on MR suggesting that lower MR in arid environments may decrease dehydration and energetic costs. Altogether, our findings underline the complex influences of climate and foraging mode on MR and emphasize the relevance of these facets to understand the physiological impact of climate change.
PMID: 29142118 [PubMed - in process]
Integrative Whole-Person Oncology Care in the UK.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2017 Nov 01;2017(52):
Authors: Zollman C, Walther A, Seers HE, Jolliffe RC, Polley MJ
The term "whole-person cancer care"-an approach that addresses the needs of the person as well as treating the disease-is more widely understood in the United Kingdom than its synonym "integrative oncology." The National Health Service (NHS) provides free access to care for all, which makes it harder to prioritize NHS funding of whole-person medicine, where interventions may be multimodal and lacking in cost-effectiveness data. Despite this, around 30% of cancer patients are known to use some form of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). This is virtually never medically led, and usually without the support or even the knowledge of their oncology teams, with the exception of one or two large cancer centers. UK oncology services are, however, starting to be influenced from three sides; first, by well-developed and more holistic palliative care services; second, by directives from central government via the sustainable health care agenda; and third, by increasing pressure from patient-led groups and cancer charities. CAM remains unlikely to be provided through the NHS, but nutrition, physical activity, mindfulness, and stress management are already becoming a core part of the NHS "Living With and Beyond Cancer" agenda. This supports cancer survivors into stratified pathways of care, based on individual, self-reported holistic needs and risk assessments, which are shared between health care professionals and patients. Health and well-being events are being built into cancer care pathways, designed to activate patients into self-management and support positive lifestyle change. Those with greater needs can be directed toward appropriate external providers, where many examples of innovative practice exist. These changes in policy and vision for the NHS present an opportunity for integrative oncology to develop further and to reach populations who would, in many other countries, remain underserved or hard to reach by whole-person approaches.
PMID: 29140483 [PubMed - in process]
Secular change in adult stature of modern Greeks.
Am J Hum Biol. 2017 Nov 15;:
Authors: Bertsatos A, Chovalopoulou ME
OBJECTIVES: In Greece, during the late 19th and early 20th century, the rural population adopted a more or less urban lifestyle. Furthermore, the first half of the 20th century finds Greece involved in five major wars, including a civil war, and consequent financial deprivation. This study investigates how the socioeconomic changes in Greece, during this period of time, have affected the stature of its population.
METHODS: The Athens collection constitutes our sample with 189 adult individuals (104 males and 85 females). Stature was estimated with regression equations and secular change was evaluated by linear regression of stature with respect to the year of birth. Further analysis of our population sample was based on three time periods to explore the correlation between secular change and historical events.
RESULTS: From 1879 to 1965, stature increased for both males and females. The subsequent analysis among different periods revealed that the male group exhibited a small although non-significant decline in stature during the years 1912 to 1950, which coincides with the long inter-war period. However, females appear less affected by the consequent deprivation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with earlier studies based on a much smaller time span. The negative effect of the economic and nutritional deprivation on stature as a result of warfare is apparent in our sample, at least for males. Furthermore, the positive effect of economic growth on stature is prominent for the entire population in the postwar period.
PMID: 29139165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Another Chance at Life: Jordanian Patients' Experience of Going Through a Myocardial Infarction.
Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2017 Nov 01;31(4):334-348
Authors: Ammouri AA, Kamanyire JK, Abu Raddaha AH, Achora S, Obeidat AA
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening health condition that has physical, spiritual, emotional, and social changes. Understanding feelings and thoughts of patients who suffered MI attacks is essential to recovery. Among Jordanian patients who suffered an acute attack of MI, the aim of the study was to describe the experiences and the varied meanings that they assign to their experiences.
METHODS: A qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological research design was used. Five participants were engaged in in-depth semistructured interviews. The participants were identified using a purposeful sampling technique, after being admitted at a coronary care unit in a university hospital located in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The hospital provides a full range of cardiovascular medical and surgical care for patients admitted from different socioeconomic levels. Transcribed data were analyzed following inductive qualitative content analysis method.
RESULTS: The experience of MI was a traumatizing event characterized by life-threatening symptoms, and participants feared they would not come back home. However, cultural values and religiosity among the Jordanian patients played a major role in facilitating their positive coping during and after the MI attack. The participants' recount of their experience was summed-up into 5 major themes: frightening experience, needed support, religiosity, experiencing changes, and lifestyle modifications. After the MI attack, most of the participants felt that they had given another chance to live, showing a pressing need to make healthier lifestyle modifications to avoid another MI attack.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Health care workers should need not only pay attention on physical and physiological caring aspects but should also consider other patients' needs, while supporting the patients and their family members.
PMID: 29137693 [PubMed - in process]