Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low Fat Diet


Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice.

Abstract Title: Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Abstract Source: Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 4 ;7(40):65669-65675. PMID: 27582541 Abstract Author(s): Sneha Sundaram, Lin Yan Article Affiliation: Sneha Sundaram Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine whether a reduction in energy intake ameliorated the high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet with a 5% restriction of the intake. Energy restriction reduced body adiposity and body weight, but maintained growth similar to mice fed the AIN93G diet. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of metastases formed in lungs. Restricted feeding reduced the number of metastases by 23%, metastatic cross-sectional area by 32% and volume by 45% compared to the high-fat diet. The high-fat diet elevated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin), angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and insulin. Restricted feeding significantly reduced the high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin. These results demonstrated that a reduction in diet intake by 5% reduced high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis, which may be associated with the mitigation of adiposity and down-regulation of cancer-promoting proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors. Article Published Date : Oct 03, 2016

Effect of diet and exercise intervention on the growth of prostate epithelial cells.

Abstract Title: Effect of diet and exercise intervention on the growth of prostate epithelial cells. Abstract Source: 1: Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11(4):362-6. Epub 2008 Feb 19. PMID: 18283296 Abstract Author(s): R J Barnard, N Kobayashi, W J Aronson Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between nutrient intake, hyperinsulinemia and risk of Benign prostatic hyperplasis (BPH). This study tests the hypothesis that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise would lower serum insulin and reduce the growth of serum-stimulated primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Serum samples were obtained from eight overweight men before and after the Pritikin residential, 2-week diet and exercise intervention and from seven men who were long-term followers of the low-fat, high-fiber diet and regular exercise lifestyle. The serum was used to stimulate primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Growth was measured after 48 and 96 h and apoptosis after 96 h. At 48 h there was no significant difference in growth within the Pre, 2-week or Long-Term groups. At 96 h growth was significantly reduced in the 2-week (13%) and in the Long-Term (14%) groups compared to the Pre data. At 96 h, apoptosis was not significantly different among the three groups. Fasting insulin was reduced by 30% in the 2-week group and by 52% in the Long-Term group compared to the Pre data. Testosterone was unchanged in the 2-week group. The results of this study indicate that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise lowers insulin and reduces growth of prostate primary epithelial cells and suggests that lifestyle may be an important factor in the development or progression of BPH. Future prospective trials should address the effects of this lifestyle modification on BPH symptomatology and progression. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2008

Dietary fat and meat intake and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case-control study in Japan.

Abstract Title: Dietary fat and meat intake and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case-control study in Japan. Abstract Source: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Mar;10(3):333-9. PMID: 16562716 Abstract Author(s): Y Miyake, S Sasaki, T Yokoyama, K Chida, A Azuma, T Suda, S Kudoh, N Sakamoto, K Okamoto, G Kobashi, M Washio, Y Inaba, H Tanaka, Abstract: SETTING: There is sparse epidemiologic information regarding the role of dietary factors in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between specific types of fatty acids and selected foods high in fat and IPF in Japan. DESIGN: Included were 104 cases aged>or = 40 years who had been diagnosed in the last 2 years in accordance with the most recent criteria. Controls aged>or = 40 years consisted of 56 hospitalised patients diagnosed as having acute bacterial pneumonia and four out-patients with common cold. RESULTS: Intake of saturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and meat was independently associated with an increased risk of IPF. Specifically, the multivariate OR for comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of intake of saturated fatty acids was 6.26 (95%CI 1.79-24.96, P for trend = 0.01) and for meat it was 7.19 (95%CI 2.15-27.07, P for trend = 0.02). Intake of cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish, eggs and dairy products was not related to the risk. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that consumption of saturated fatty acids and meat may increase the risk of IPF. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2006

A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro.

Abstract Title: A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro. Abstract Source: Prostate. 2003 Aug 1;56(3):201-6. PMID: 12772189 Abstract Author(s): R James Barnard, Tung H Ngo, Pak-Shan Leung, William J Aronson, Lawrence A Golding Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common solid-tumor cancer in US males but is rare in Asian males. When Asian men adopt the US lifestyle, clinical prostate cancer increases greatly. Epidemiological data from men in the US indicate that regular activity may reduce the risk for prostate cancer. METHODS: Serum was obtained from three groups of similar-aged men, Control, Diet and Exercise, and Exercise alone were used to stimulate LNCaP cells in culture. Growth and apoptosis of tumor cells were measured. Serum samples were also used to measure insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-1. RESULTS: The Diet and Exercise and the Exercise alone groups had lower serum insulin and IGF-1 but higher IGFBP-1 compared to Controls. LNCaP cell growth was reduced in both groups compared to Control and there was a major increase in apoptosis of tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: A low-fat diet and/or intensive exercise results in change in serum hormones and growth factors in vivo that can reduce growth and induce apoptosis of LNCaP prostate tumor cells in vitro. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2003

Effects of a very low fat, high fiber diet on serum hormones and menstrual function. Implications for breast cancer prevention.

Abstract Title: Effects of a very low fat, high fiber diet on serum hormones and menstrual function. Implications for breast cancer prevention. Abstract Source: Cancer. 1995 Dec 15;76(12):2491-6. PMID: 8625075 Abstract Author(s): D Bagga, J M Ashley, S P Geffrey, H J Wang, R J Barnard, S Korenman, D Heber Abstract: BACKGROUND. Low fat, high fiber dietary interventions that decrease blood estrogen levels may reduce breast cancer risk. Asian women consuming their traditional low fat, high fiber diets have lower blood estrogen levels before and after menopause and lower rates of breast cancer compared with Western women. The current controlled feeding study of premenopausal women was designed to determine the effects of a very low fat (10% of calories) and high fiber (35-45 g/day) diet on blood estrogen levels and menstrual function. METHOD. Twelve healthy premenopausal women with regular ovulatory cycles were followed for 3 months. Subjects consumed a diet providing 30% of their energy from fat and 15-25 g of dietary fiber per day for 1 month, and they consumed a very low fat, high fiber and libitum diet providing 10% of their energy from fat and 25-35 g of dietary fiber per day for 2 months. RESULTS. At the end of the second month of the very low fat, high fiber diet, there was a significant reduction in serum estrone and estradiol levels during the early follicular and late luteal phases. There were no significant changes observed in serum estrone sulfate, sex hormone binding globulin, or progesterone. Despite a significant decrease in serum estradiol and estrone levels after 2 months of a very low fat, high fiber diet, there was no interference with ovulation or the magnitude of the mid-cycle leuteinizing hormone surge. Small changes in menstrual cycle length of up to 3 days were not ruled out due to the small sample size of the study. CONCLUSIONS. A very low fat, high fiber diet in healthy premenopausal women can reduce estradiol and estrone levels without affecting ovulation, thereby providing a rationale for the prevention of breast cancer through a very low fat, high fiber diet. Article Published Date : Dec 15, 1995
Prev12Next
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Fat Diet

NCBI pubmed

Cardioprotection of dapagliflozin and vildagliptin in cardiac reperfusion injury rats.

Cardioprotection of dapagliflozin and vildagliptin in cardiac reperfusion injury rats. J Endocrinol. 2017 Nov 15;: Authors: Tanajak P, Sa-Nguanmoo P, Sivasinprasan S, Thummasorn S, Siri-Angkul N, Chattipakorn S, Chattipakorn N Abstract Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-i) effects on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are unclear. Unlike SGLT2-i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4-i) have shown effective cardioprotection in cardiac I/R injury. We aimed to investigate whether SGLT2-i reduces myocardial dysfunction and myocardial injury to a greater extent than DPP4-i in obese-insulin resistant rats with/without cardiac I/R injury. The high fat (HF) diet induced obese-insulin resistant rats were divided into 4 groups and received the following treatments for 28 days: vehicle (HFV); vildagliptin at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/day (HFVil); dapagliflozin at a dosage of 1 mg/kg/day (HFDa); and combination drugs (HFDaVil). At the end, I/R injury was induced by a 30-minute left anterior descending coronary occlusion and 120-minute reperfusion. Dapagliflozin showed a greater efficacy than vildagliptin in improving the metabolic impairments, low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, systolic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) function in comparison to HFV rats. In cardiac I/R injury, Dapagliflozin had a greater efficacy than vildagiptin in decreasing mitochondrial DRP1, cleaved caspase 3, LV dysfunction and infarct size in comparison to HFV rats. However, the combined therapy showed the greatest efficacy in attenuating LV dysfunction, mitochondrial DRP1 and infarct size in comparison to HFV rats. In conclusion, dapagliflozin has a more pronounced effect than vildagliptin in obese-insulin resistant rats for the improvement of LV function. In rats with cardiac I/R injury, although dapagliflozin had a greater efficacy on cardioprotection than vildagliptin, the combined therapy exerted the highest cardioprotective effects potentially through reducing mitochondrial fission. PMID: 29142025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lomitapide: Benefit Assessment According to §35a Social Code Book V

Lomitapide: Benefit Assessment According to §35a Social Code Book V Book. 2015 09 10Authors: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care Abstract Background In accordance with §35a Social Code Book (SGB) V, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) to assess the benefit of the drug lomitapide. The assessment was based on a dossier compiled by the pharmaceutical company (hereinafter referred to as “the company”). The dossier was sent to IQWiG on 15 June 2015. The company submitted a first dossier of the drug to be evaluated on 13 December 2013 for the early benefit assessment. In this procedure, by decision of 5 June 2014, the G-BA limited its decision until 15 June 2015. Research question The aim of the present report was to assess the added benefit of lomitapide as an adjunct to a low-fat diet and other lipid-lowering medicinal products with or without low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis in comparison with the appropriate comparator therapy (ACT) in adult patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH). Genetic confirmation of HoFH should be obtained whenever possible. Other forms of primary hyperlipoproteinaemia and secondary causes of hypercholesterolaemia (e.g., nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism) must be excluded. Two research questions resulted from the ACT specified by the G-BA. Research question 1 included patients in whom drug and dietary options to reduce lipid levels have been exhausted; research question 2 included patients in whom these options have not been exhausted. Research question 1 was subdivided into patients who have not yet received LDL apheresis (1A) and patients who have already received LDL apheresis (1B). The research questions deviate from the research question of the company. The company did not subdivide research question 1, and did not investigate research question 2. The assessment was conducted based on patient-relevant outcomes and on the data provided by the company in the dossier. Minimum study duration for all research questions was defined as 12 months. PMID: 29144674